Related Topics
Maria Ortisch
Babylonia and Assyria
Buy Assyrian Grammar by Friedrich Delitzsch
The Secret Rituals
Medial begabte Damen
by Friedrich Delitzsch














All rights reserved. -


The present work is intended to be of use not
only to Assyriologists but to Semitic scholars generally,
by presenting them, in as brief compass as possible,
with a summary of the latest results of research in
the department of Assyrian grammar. In return, it
appeals not merely or chiefly to Assyriologists but to
every Semitic scholar for their co-operation in the
solution of numerous unsolved problems, some of
which, at least, are of the utmost importance for com-
parative Semitic philology. Its aim is thus the same
as that of my "Assyrisches Handworterbuch" (Leipzig,
Hiiirichs 1889) the compilation of which has become
possible by the appearance of this grammar. My
larger dictionary, which is also of the nature of a con-
cordance, will be continued without interruption and
with renewed energy.
The brevity of the Chrestomathy may appear
strange. But even had I extended it to many times
the size, it would still have been practically useless.
For acquiring familiarity with Assyrian literature,
even as represented by the so-called historical texts,
and with the monuments of the Old and New Baby-
lonian empires, not to speak of the so-called Sumerian
texts, it is indispensable to have a much more com-
prehensive table of characters on the one hand, and
on the other, a more extended cbrestomathy such
as my "Assyrische Lesestiicke". By-and-by it will be

possible to recommend simply the first or fifth vol-
ume of Rawlinson's "Inscriptions of Western Asia",
supposing, that is, that one or other of these volumes
will again be obtainable. I have accordingly selected
only a couple of historical texts, an easier and a more
difficult one, furnishing these, however, with footnotes
and a glossary in such a way that they will, I trust,
afford the student his first lesson in the reading and
interpretation of Assyrian, and introduce him to the
use of this grammar.
I am well aware of the many defects incidental to
this first essay but I intend to continue with un-
wearied diligence the investigation of such problems as
have not yet been satisfactorily solved among which
I partially include the discussion in 12 14. It
shall be my earnest endeavour to bring this manual
abreast of the newest results of Semitic philology in
general and of Assyriology in particular, and to main-
tain it thenceforth in that position.
Leipzig, Easter 1889.
Fricdrich Delilzsch.

Note by Translator.
It was the intention of the publishers that this English edition
should appear almost simultaneously with the original. The delay
has "been caused by the demands of my own work during the winter.
I shall consider myself amply rewarded for my labour of love
in translating and editing Professor Delitzsch's book, if in its English
dress, it should prove a boon to the aspiring student in this country
and America to whom the German original is a sealed volume.
Aberdeen, 12th j une> 1889.
A. B. S. K.


Introduction ( 15).
1. Remarks on Assyrian 1
2. Short history of the excavations 1
3. Short history of the decipherment 4
4. Short history of the grammatical investigations.. 6
5. Brief summary of the contents of cuneiform literature 8
The Written Character ( 6-25).
6. The wedge 11
7. Origin of the Assyro-Babylonian wedge- writing.. 12
8. Development of syllabic wedge-writing 14
9. Table of characters 17
10. Long vowels how written 41
11. Doubled consonants 43
12 14. The signs ia, a-a, a-ia, ia-a...... 44
15. The vowel e 47
16. The vowel u 49
17. The syllable 50
1822..The consonants how written 51
23. Reading-signs 56
24. Practical hints 59
25. Invention of Wedge- writing (the 'Sumerian' question) 61

Phonology f 26-52).
A. Vowels.
26 31. Vowels sounds 72
29. e in Assyrian 74
30. Fusion of e and i 77
31. Diphthongs 79
32 39. Phonetic changes affecting the vowels... 81
32. Change of a to e 81
33. Change of a to e 84
34. Change of a to e 85
35. Transition of unaccented short a to i... 88
36. Transition of i to e before r and h. 89
37. Syncope of short (and long) vowels.... 90
38. Contraction of two vowels 92
39. Complete loss of vowels 94

B. Consonants.
40 46. Consonantal sounds 96
41. The semi-vowels ^ and i 96
42. The aspirate or hreath 100
43. Explosives (the JriBaTiC in Assyrian).... 101
44. The labial nasal m 103
45. The liquids 105
46. The sibilants 106
47 52. Phonetic changes affecting the consonants.. 110
47. The breath (Hauchlaut) 110
48. b, d and t 112
49. Nasals 113
50. Liquids 118
51. Sibilants. 118
52. Compensation for doubling 121
53. Place of the tone 122

Morphology ( 54-118).
A. Pronoun.
54. Preliminary remark 129
55. Independent personal pronouns 129
56. Suffixed personal pronouns 133
57. Demonstrative pronouns 138
58. Relative pronouns 140
59. Interrogative pronouns 142
60. Indefinite pronouns 142
61. Significant roots 144
B. Noun.
62. Primitive nouns 147
63. Nominal stems from verbs med. geminatse... 151
64. Nominal stems from verbs mediae 1 and ">. 153
65. Summary of nominal stems in Assyrian.... 158
66. Inflexion for case 181
67. Plural of nouns (except those with feminine ending) 183
68. Formation of the feminine 187
69. Plural of feminines in atu 189
70. Mixed plural formations.. 190
71. Gender 192
72. Status constructus 193
73. Composition of words 195
74. Union of the substantive with the pronominal suffixes.
Appendix to the pronoun and noun: Numerals and Particles. 205
7577. Numerals 205
75. Cardinals 205
76. Ordinals 207
77. Other numerals 208
7882. Particles.. 211
7880. Adverbs 211

81. Prepositions 224
82. Conjunctions 229
C. Verb.
83. Principal verbal stems 231
84. Signification of the principal verbal stems... 233
85. Shafel and Ishtafal formed from the Piel.... 236
86, 87. Permansive and present-preterite themes of the Qal 237
88. Permansive and pres.-pret. themes of the augmented
stems 242
89. Signification of the perniansive 247
90. Conjugation of the pres. -preterite theme.... 252
91. Conjugation of the permansive theme 255
92. The modus relativus 256
93. Precative 258
94. Imperative 261
95. Participles. Infinitives 263
96 98. Strong verbs including verbs mediae geminatse 264
99101. Verbs primse 5 275
102104. Verbs primse gutturalis 281
105 107. Verbs mediae gutturalis 292
108110. Verbs tertise infirmse 297
111113. Verbs primse 1 and 1 308
114116. Verbs medise 1 and ^ 314
117. Quadriliteral verbs 319
118. Union of the verb with the pronominal suffixes. 323
Syntax ( 119152).
A. The individual Parts of Speech.
119127. The Substantive 325
119 120. Subst. with, pronominal suffixes... 325
121 122. do. with adjectives 326
123. do. with another subst. in subordina-
tion (constr. state) 328

124 126. Subst. with another subst. in apposition.. 330
127. do. with another subst. in co-ordination. 333
128129. Numerals 334
130. The adverb 337
131133. Verbal nouns 337
131. Participle 337
132133. Infinitive 339
134139. The finite verb 340
134. Meaning and employment of the tenses and
moods 340
135 136. The pronoun governed by the verb.. 342
137139. The substantive governed by the verb. 345
B. The Sentence.
140149. The simple sentence 348
140142. Declaratory sentences 348
143. Negative declaratory sentences 351
144. Prohibitive sentences 352
145. Optative and cohortative sentences.... 353
146. Interrogative sentences 355
147. Attributive relative clauses 355
148. Relative clauses introduced by a conjunction 357
149. Conditional clauses 360
150152. Union of several Sentences.... 362
150 151. Sentences joined together by a conjunction 362
152. Circumstantial clauses 364

Paradigmata 1*
A. Pronomen 3*
B. Verbum trilitterum 8*
C. Verbum cum pronominibus suffixis 32*
Chrestomathia. 33*

Glossarium 33*
Litteratura 41*
A. De inventione atque effossione monumentorum
cuneatorum 53*
B. De initiis ac progressibus explicationis.... 60*
C. Editiones textuum 64*
D. Libri grammatici et commentationes grammaticae 67*
E. Translatlones et interpretationes textuum... 70*
F. Lexicographia 73*
G. Scriptiones periodicae et collectanea.... 74*
Appendix 76*

Corrigenda 78*
Addenda 79*


ABK vicl Litteratura 134. - AL.3 v. Litt. 127. ASKT v.
Litt. 110. Assurb. Sm. v. Litt. 169. Assurb. S. A. Sm. II
v. Litt. 123. Assurn.: Large Alabaster Inscription of Assur-
nasirpal I E 1726. Assurn. Balaw.: do. Slab Inscription
from Balawat V E 69. 70. Assiirn. Hlon.: do. Monolith In-
scription III B 6. Assurn. Stand.: do. so-called Standard In-
scription, Layard 1 (with variants 211). Bell., NR and the
other Achaemenian inscriptions, D, K, etc. are cited in the usual
way: for Beh. v. HIE 39. 40, for the rest Bezold's "Achaeme-
nideninschriften" (v. Litt. 113). C a, C b : Assyrian Eponym Canon.
]>ublished in the second edition of my "Lesestiicke" (AL 2 ). -
Desct. : Legends of Ishtar's Descent to Hades IV E 31. Diet.
r. Litt. 211. E. M.U v. Litt. 84. Esarh.: Six-sided Prism of
Esarhaddon I E 45 47. Hanim. Louvre: Inscription of Ham-
murabi, v. Men ant's "Manuel etc." (Litt. 143), pp. 306312. K.:
Tablets of the Kuyunjik collection in the British Museum ; for the
books etc. in which they have so far been published, as also for
the tablets indicated by S. (Sm.) or M, see Bezold, Kurzgefasster
Uberblick iiber die babylonisch-assyrische Literatur nebst einem
chronologischen Excurs, zwei Eegistern und einem Index zu 1700
Thontafeln des British-Museums. Leipzig 1886. (XV, 395 pp. 8).
From the third edition of my "Lesestiicke" (AL 3 ) are quoted:
K. 3437 (p. 97 ff.). K. 4378 (p. 86 ff.); also Fragra. 18 (p. 95 f.)
and Sm. 954 (p. 134 ff.); from ASKT: K. 56 (= II E 14. 15, p. 71 ff.).
K. 101 (p. 113 f.). K. 133 (p. 79 ff.). K. 246 (= II E 17 f.,
(p. 82 ff.). K. 3927 (p. 75). K. 4350 (= HE 11, p. 45 ff.); -
from Pinches' Texts: K. 196. K. 823. K. 831; from Assurb.
S. A. Sm. II: K. 95. K. 359. K. 509. K. 538. K. 562. K. 2867.
Note also : K. 64 = II E 62 No. 3. K. 245 = II E 8. 9. K. 4341
= II E 36 No. 3. K, 4386 = II E 48. Khors. v. Litt. 106.
Lay. v. Litt. 104. 1 Mich.: Caillou de Michaux I E 70.
Nabon.: Cylinder inscription of Nabonidus I E 69. Neb.: Slab

Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar I B 5358 (50 64). Neb. Bab.
or Bors. or Scnk. : do. Cylinder Inscriptions from Babylon (I B
52 No. 3), Borsippa (51 No. 1), and Senkereh (51 No. 2). Neb.
Grot. : do. Cylinder Inscription, first published by Grotefend, I B,
65 66. Nerigl. : Cylinder Inscription of Neriglissar I B 67.
Nimr. Ep.: v. Lift. 116 (Nimr. Ep. XL XII. denotes the eleventh
and twelfth tablets of this epos as copied by me; for the former
see AL3 p. 99 ff. Tablet XII is now edited by P. Haupt in
Delitzsch-Haupt's "Beitrage zur Assyriologie und vergleichenden
semitischen Sprachwissenschaft", I, 1889, 4879). NR V. Bell.
Pinches, Texts v. Litt. 112. Proll. v. Litt. 210. IB, II B,
etc. v. Litt. 105; the numerals after R denote the page and the
line, the letters the columns. S. or SHI. (tablets of the Smith
collection of the British Museum) v. K. S a, S b, S c, syllabaries
published in AL 3 pp. 4179. Sarg. Cyl. or Bull Iliscr., cited
asinLyon's "Sargontexte", v. Litt. 115. Sarg. Cyp.: Inscription
of Sargon on the monolith found in Cyprus III B 11, cf. Schrader's
new edition of the text mentioned in Litt. 111.- Senhb. : Six-sided
prism of Sennacherib IB 3742. Senhb. Bav.: do. Bock in-
scription of Bavian III B 14. Senhb. Bell.: Lay. 6364 (my
numbering of the lines omits the heading and consequently differs by
one line from Layard's). Senhb. Const. : do. Slab inscription, now
in Constantinople I B 43. 44. Senhb. Kuy : do.: Inscription
on the Kuyunjik bulls III B 12 43. Senhb. Bass.: Sennacherib
Cylinder in Bassam's collection. Senhb. Sm. : v. Litt. 175.
Shalm. Balaw. : Inscription of Shalmaneser II on the bronze
gates of Balawat, v. Litt. 109. Shalni. Co.: do. Two inscrip-
tions on colossal bulls, published Lay. 12 16, 46 47, cited
according to my own arrangement. Shalm. Mo.: do. Monolith
inscription III B 78. -- Shalm. Obv.: do. Obelisk inscription
Lay. 8798. -- Shalm. Throne Inscr.: v. Litt. 121, 191. -
Shams.: Obelisk inscription of Shamshi-Bamman I B 2931
(3234). -- Slrassm. v. Litt. 208. - - Str. I. II. v. Litt. 118.
125. -- Tig.: Eight-sided prism of the elder Tiglathpileser I B
916. -- Tig. jun.: Tablet inscription of the younger Tiglath-
pileser II B 67. Zurich. Voc. v. AL3 p. 84 f.
Familiar abbrevations such as cf. = compare (confer), V. or
Vld. = see, etc. call for no further notice.


Assyro- Babylonian or simply Assyrian is the *
name given to the language of the Semitic literary
monuments in Babylonian or Assyrian wedge-writing.
Though known to us for only a few decades, in a
literature of surpassing richness, Assyro-Babylonian
was the tongue of Semitic empires on the Euphrates
and the Tigris, which reach back into the fourth
millenium B. C. the Old Babylonian, the Assyrian,
and the Neo -Babylonian. After the destruction of
Nineveh (c. 608) and the fall of Babylon (c. 538),
it continued to be spoken in Babylonia during the
period of the Achsemenian kings (cf. the Persian cunei-
form inscriptions of the so-called third species), till at
last, in the second century B. C., it had gradually to
give way before the Aramaic dialect, leaving behind
it its last important monuments from the times of
the Seleucidse.
It is almost exclusively to excavations that we 2
owe our possession of an Assyro-Babylonian litera-
ture. The following are the principal dates:
Assyria. Final identification of Nineveh with
the two mounds Kuyunjik and Nebi Yunus by Rich
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 1

in 1820. Excavation of Dur-Sarruken, the city of
Sargon, in the mound of Khorsabad by the French-
men Emil Botta (18421845) and Victor Place
(1852). Excavations in Nimrud (Kelach) and Nineveh
by the Englishmen Austen Henry Layard (1845
1847; 18491851), Hormuzd Rassajn (18521854),
George Smith (1873; 1874; 1876, f 19. Aug. 1876),
Hormuzd Rassam and those under his direction (Nov.
1877 July 1882) : discovery of the palaces of Assur-
nazirpal, Shalmaneser, Esarhaddon and others in
Nimrud, the South-West Palace of Sennacherib and
the North Palace of Assurbanipal (Sardanapalus) in
Kuyunjik; discovery, among the ruins of the latter, of
the library of clay tablets belonging to Assurbanipal
by Rassam 1854 (several thousand literary works,
partly of Assyrian origin, partly copies of Babylonian
originals; hitherto only a part recovered c. 30000 (?)
fragments, hidden away in the British Museum). Be-
ginning of the excavations in Kileh Shergat (Assur)
by Layard and Rassam 1853. Rassam's discovery of
'The Bronze Gates of Shalmaneser IP' in the mound
of Balawat 1878.
Babylonia. Exploration of the extensive ruins,
Babil (Babylon), Birs Nimrud (Borsippa), Niffer
(Nippur), Warka (Erech), Senkereh (Larsam), Ur
(Mugheir, al-Mukayyar), Abu Sharein (Eridu), by the
Englishmen Loftus and Taylor under Sir Henry
Rawlinson's superintendence (1849 1855) and by the
French expedition (sent out under the leadership of
Fulgence Fresnel and Jules Oppert 1851

1854 ; loss of the collection in the Tigris May 23, 1855).
Discovery by Arabs in the mound of Jumjuma (Baby-
lon) 1874 of more than 3000 tablets (!" 1' square)
containing records of private business transactions ;
the collection was secured by George Smith in 1876
for the British Museum, and is being added to from
year to year. Rassam's Babylonian expeditions
(1879 July 1882), which resulted in the discovery of
Sepharvaim in the extensive ruins of AbuHabba 1881;
the excavation of the temple of the Sun, and the find-
ing of the temple archives, consisting of clay cylinders
and (ace. to Rassam's calculation) c. 50,000 unfortu-
nately very badly burnt, clay tablets; exploration of the
two largest mounds of Babylon, Babil and Kasr, and
of Tel Ibrahim, the site of Kutha; discovery of the
palace of Nabonidus in Borsippa. E. de Sarzec's
excavations of the ruins of Tello or Tel Loh (1875 to
1880; 1882 purchase of the collection for the Louvre).
North American (Wolfe's) expedition 18841885.
Systematic excavations are at present being continued
only in Tello ; in stead of which there has been for years
an active trade in Babylonian antiquities, especially
in clay tablets and cylinders, often of the highest
scientific value, which have been dug up by the Arabs
in situ, and purchased in the East or in Europe, for the
museums in London, Paris, Berlin and elsewhere.
Of rock inscriptions apart from those of Darius on the rock-
hewn graves of Naksh-i-Rustam (near Persepolis) and on the face
of the rock at Behistun (Media) the following are the most
notable: Inscriptions and sculptures of Tiglath-pileser I and of

three of his successors at the entrance to the fountain grotto of
the Sebeneh-Su, the left parent stream of the Tigris ; Sennacherib's
Bavian inscription (Assyria) of 60 lines; two inscriptions of Nebu-
chadnezzar in the Wady Brissa (Lebanon), together comprising
19 columns. Details as to excavation and editions of the text
v. Litteratura A, b. and C. Museums with Assyro-Babyl. anti-
quities: British Museum, London; Louvre, Musee de Clerqc and
Bibliotheque nationale, Paris ; Museums in Berlin, Constantinople,
New York, Liverpool, the Hague, St. Petersburg, Zurich (Vatican
in Rome, Leyden, Brussels, Graz and others).
3. The decipherment of the Assyro-Babylonian wedge-
writing, i. e. of the wedge-writing in the third column
of the Achsemenian inscriptions, is based on the
deciphering of the Old Persian wedge-writing in the
first column, a work of genius on the part of Georg
Friedrich Grotefend (who made out the names
Darius, Xerxes, Hystaspes; 14. Sept. 1802, translation
of the first two Achsemenian inscriptions), Eugene
Burnouf, Christian Lassen (both 1836; first
employment of the Darius inscription J with its list
of satraps) and Henry Rawlinson, who copied
(1835 1837) and (in 1846) explained the Behistun in-
scription. After the Old Persian alphabet of 40 signs
had been fully deciphered, Hi neks and Jules Op-
pert, Ben fey and Spiegel carried on and com-
pleted the thorough investigation of the Old Persian
The observation made by Botta and others, that
the characters on certain monuments excavated in
Assyria and deposited in the Louvre, notwith-
standing manifest differences, were identical with

those of the third column of the trilingual inscrip-
tions, was the starting-point for the decipherment of
this third species. The Old Persian monuments with
their phonetically written proper names, especially
since the number of those clearly made out had
been raised from ten to ninety by Sir Henry Raw-
linson's publication of the Babylonian part of the
Behistun inscription, were, in this connexion, what the
Rosetta stone with its Greek text was to the de-
cipherers of the hieroglyphics.
Moreover it was soon remarked that, in the Baby-
Ionian translations of the Old Persian texts, all the
names of countries, cities, deities and persons were
indicated by a particular sign (the so-called deter-
minative) placed immediately before them, a discovery
which resulted in fixing, without much difficulty, a
considerable number of signs with their approximate
values. While, however, the proper names above
referred to would have been tolerably sufficient
for the decipherment of inscriptions in alphabetic
characters, it soon became apparent that the Baby-
lonian wedge-writing was not alphabetic. One dif-
ficulty surmounted, the decipherer found himself face
to face with another. Sir Henry Rawlinson, who
arranged the signs occurring in the Babylonian Text
of the Behistun inscription, to the number of 246, was
the first to detect the polyphony of the Babylonian
signs (Sept. 1851), while Hincks, with equal acuteness,
first detected the syllabic character of the Babylonian
writing (1849 1852), and thereby put an end to the

grand mistake of supposing that the Babylonian
writing was alphabetic, with several signs for each
individual letter (de Saulcy, and, for a considerable
period, Rawlinson). The work of decipherment was
brought to a close by Jules Oppert (1859) with the
aid of Assyrian sign-lists or "syllabaries", which had
meanwhile been discovered. These lists, inter alia,
explained the signs representing so-called compound
syllables, that is, syllables containing two consonants
with a vowel between, by the signs for the correspond-
ing simple syllables, e. g. No. 162 of the table of signs
by da-an, ka-al, ri-ib, No. 206 by ha-db, ki-ir, rl-im\
and alongside the signs representing whole words, the
so-called ideograms, they gave a phonetic reproduc-
tion of their meanings, e. g. No. 165: = a-liu and na-
sa-ru. All Assyriologists of note (Menant, Norris,
Talbot, George Smith, Sayce, Schrader and others)
have been, and still are, active gleaners in this rich
and fruitful field, removing old and false, and discover-
ing new syllabic and ideographic values. A new task
perhaps the last was undertaken in the increas-
ingly successful deciphering of the archaic signs on
the oldest bricks, clay cones, and cylindrical seals,
and especially on the monuments discovered by,
de Sarzec at Tello, a task which, thanks to the labours
of Amiaud and others, is, like its predecessors, grad-
ually approaching completion.
For details see Litteratura B, a and b.
4. The beginnings si grammatical investigation coincide
with the early attempts at decipherment, notably

those of de Saulcy, who was the first to read the
personal and possessive pronouns, and to recognise
the relative and a few verbal forms. The same scholar
made a number of observations regarding gender and
number which still hold good, and led the way (1849)
in the analysis and explanation, as Semitic texts, of
such Achsemenian inscriptions as were then accessible.
Sir Henry Eawlinson, thereafter, in his translation
of the Babylonian Behistun text, succeeded in referring
words and phrases to Semitic forms. The first to
elaborate on a firm basis a system of the pronoun and
verb, and consequently of the elements of the grammar
was Hincks (1854 1856); he even thus early com-
pared the Assyrian verbal inflexions with those of
Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic and Ethiopic, and sought in
this way to determine more precisely the position of
Assyrian in the group of the Semitic tongues. It is,
however, to Jules Oppert (1860), that we owe the
first connected presentation of Assyrian grammar; he
it was who, aided by the results obtained by other
Assyrian scholars, noted the various parts of speech,
and discovered the mimation, the pronominal inflexion,
the formation of the derived verbal stems, the femi-
nine forms in the inflexion of the verb, and the general
features of the syntax and composition of words.
Oppert and Hincks continued their grammatical in-
vestigations, while Schrader tested the reliability of
the decipherment, and the results it had yielded for
the Assyrian grammar and lexicon. Among younger
Assyriologists Pognon substituted the only admis-

sible reading ma for the false reading and supposed
copula va. It is, however, Paul Haupt in particular
who, in a series of papers distinguished by observations
of great acutensss, has not only freed the grammar
of Assyrian from numerous errors, more especially in
the department of phonology and morphology, but
has roused grammatical research to new life by his
breadth of view, and the originality of his suggestions.
Details in Litteratura D. For the foundation of Assyrian
Lexicography and the carrying on of the work v. ibid. E and F.
5. The literature preserved in the Assyrian tongue
occupies on the score of age the first place among
the literatures of the Semitic peoples. The oldest of
the longer, phonetically written, Semitic texts known
up to the present time are, in Babylonia, those of
Hammurabi (c. 2200), in Assyria the large stone in-
scription of Rammannirari I (c. 1350) containing
eighty lines. These are followed by the inscriptions
on the octagonal clay prisms of Tiglathpileser I
(1110 B.C.), each containing eight hundred lines, and
by the bulk of the Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian
literature, from Assurnazirpal to Assurbanipal, from
Nebuchadnezzar to Nabonidus, and later from Cyrus
to Artaxerxes and even to Antiochus I. Soter
comprising, therefore, a period of more than two
thousand years. Engraved on bricks, prisms and cylin-
ders of clay (the latter usually built into the corners
of palaces and temples), on slabs of marble and
alabaster, on statues, obelisks and colossal bulls, and,

above all, on clay tablets of every shape, a literature
lias been recovered which already far exceeds in
compass the whole of the 0. T. scriptures, and which,
as now from year to year, will doubtless continue to
increase for an indefinite period, till at length the
wealth of material shall become inexhaustible. Texts
of many hundred lines record the wars of Assyrian
and Babylonian kings, their buildings, their deeds at
the chase and elsewhere, and unfold a lifelike
picture of the politics, culture and geography not
only of Babylonia and Assyria, but also of all the
neighbouring peoples of Western Asia. In addition
to these, chronological lists and records of every sort
(eponym-lists, chronicles, synchronous histories, Ifibles v '
of kings) render it possible to fix the dates of individual
dynasties and monarchs, and afford unimpeachable
chronological data reaching back into the fourth
millenium B. C. Prayers and psalms, legends of the
gods, stories of the creation, lists of the gods and
exorcisms of varied content, a great epic in twelve
books, along with a great number of astrological
tablets, curious lists of secret remedies, oracular
deliverances and calendars afford a profound insight
into the religion, mythology and superstition of those
nations. As companions to the tablets of purely
scientific, astronomical, and mathematical contents,
we may place long lists of words from the same
or a similar stem or having the same or a similar
ideogram, lists of synonyms, of the names of occupa-
tions, persons, stars, animals, plants, clothes, wooden

instruments and utensils, paradigms, collections of
signs, all well adapted to lead us, as they led the
pupils in the priestly schools of Babylonia and Assyria,
to a more and more thorough understanding of the
Assyrian language as it was written and spoken.
Numberless letters and contract tablets, finally,
reports of generals and astronomers, proclamations
and petitions, deeds of purchase and sale of every
description, marriage certificates, bequests, wills,
house inventories, receipts and so on reveal the social
life of the Assyrians and Babylonians even to its most
secret recesses.


The characters in which the literary monuments
of Assyria and Babylonia are written have the form
of wedges the writing running from left to right.
Under the name of wedge-writing are comprised all
the species of writing in which the fundamental ele-
ment is a so-called wedge (Latin cuneus, whence the
now usual name cuneiform). This wedge may be
described as a stroke proceeding in a straight line from
a hollow three-sided pyramid, or, as it appears when
graphically reproduced on paper, from a triangular
head, the stroke being attached to the apex of the
triangle, opposite the initial base. In addition to
the horizontal (]> ), perpendicular (Y) and sloping
^A, ^ ) wedges, there is the double wedge
, or arrowhead with the opening always to the
right. The latter has arisen either from a single
triangle by lengthening the sides, or from the union
of two sloping wedges (or lines) with their heads
joined so as to form an angle (, <).

The sloping wedges f* and >4v occur in only a few
F.abylonian signs, e. g. ki, di, libbu.
7. The Assyro-Babylonian wedge-writiag was origin-
ally a straight-line picture-writing. The original
pictures, giving, mostly by means of straight lines,
a rough outline of the objects to be represented, are,
it must be confessed, only with difficulty recognizable
even in the oldest (the so-called archaic) literary
monuments. In these the characters when unabbrev-
iated approach the oldest forms and, if not exclusively
at least in the main, still employ the straight line.
The same remark applies to the early Babylonian and
Assyrian texts, in which lines and wedges occur side
by side. Finally, in the later Babylonian and Assyrian
the straight line has almost entirely given place to
the wedge, and the characters have undergone
systematic simplification owing to the ever increasing
popularisation of writing and the tendency to adopt
shorter ^forms, the result being that the original
pictures have become entirely unrecognizable. Never-
theless 'some of the characters, more particularly in
the form in which they appear on the monuments of
Tello, present the original picture with sufficient
clearness to remove all doubt as to the pictorial origin
of the oldest Babylonian writing (see one or two
illustrations in No. 3 of addenda to the table of

characters). To this we must add that the native
scholars themselves testify to this origin of the cunei-
form writing, and have even given a pictorial repre-
sentation of it in their tablets. The union of two or
more of these simple pictorial signs or ideograms,
either to a single new sign the one being inserted
in or placed above the other or to a group of signs,
rendered it possible to represent in writing a further
series of objects and ideas. Thus, for example, the
union of 'mouth' (table of characters, No. 39) and
'food' (No. 84 has also this meaning) produced 'eat'
(224); 'fence' (206) and 'ox' (250), written twice, gave
'cattle-pen', 'herd' (271); 'water' (1) and 'heaven' (60),
'rain' (1);, 'water' and 'eye' (86), 'tear' (1). To under-
stand the compound ideograms, we must, of course,
go back, in most cases, to the oldest forms of the
component signs: thus the formation of the ideogram
for 'month' out of 'day' (26) and 'thirty', and of that
for 'wild ox' by means of 'ox' and 'mountain' (176), is
no longer recognizable in the later Assyrian form of
these signs (227, 53), but easily enough in the early
Babylonian (v. 9 addendum 3).
Each of the simple or compound ideograms could,
as a matter of course, be employed to express several
words having the same or a cognate signification;
improperly, however, to denote words having the

same or a similar sound but an entirely different signi-
fication : thus 'star' (60, v. 9 Add. 3) could also
symbolize 'heaven' (amii) and 'the god of heaven'
(Ann, W), then 'god' in general (ilu)\ and since the
idea of 'high' was associated with heaven in the
Semitic mind, it might be employed, over and above,
to express 'to be high' (elu). The picture of a drop
of water (1) could also serve to represent a drop of
the seminal fluid and thereby express 'beget' 'beget-
ter' (father), 'begotten' (son, aplu) and so on. We can
easily understand, further, how the symbol for 'eye'
should comprise all the meanings given under No. 86,
'see' (amdru) 'glance' (dagdlu), and other synonyms.
Equally intelligible is the fact that the sun's disk (26)
might denote not only the 'sun', but also 'day', 'be
bright', 'shine', 'light' and similar ideas. The groups
of signs could be treated in the same way, and 'tear'
(the water of the eye, No. 1), for example, employed
to express the ideas of weeping, sighing etc.
According to the above, the wedge is not, at bottom, an essen-
tial characteristic of the Assyro-Babylonian writing. There exist
many ancient texts in which the writing is still more or less line-
writing. It Avas only with the increasing employment of soft clay
as writing-material and the use of a wooden stylus, that the head of
the former simple line assumed the shape of a hollow three-sided
pyramid the writing gaining thereby in firmness and clearness.
Notwithstanding its more than four hundred
ideograms, and its almost numberless sign-groups,

a mode of writing so exclusively confined to ideo-
grams could not accomplish its object ; not only
was it ambiguons, but it was either entirely unable
to exhibit the component parts of words, or could do
so only in an extremely unsatisfactory way. This
necessitated a further step in advance : ideograms for
phonetic combinations consisting of a consonant and
vowel (mu\ or of a vowel and consonant (an), or even
of the form: consonant, vowel, consonant (nab, tim,
muT), were set apart as signs for the syllables in
question. Out of the ideographic writing there was
gradually developed, in this way, a syllabic writing,
ideograms and sign-groups (the latter almost ex-
clusively employed to denote nouns) being, however,
retained. It is to be expected that anterior to and con-
temporaneous with this system, there were other at-
tempts to improve the method of writing; the system
just described, however, was the only one that came
into general use. This it did in spite of obvious imper-
fections: the ideograms, for example, that had been
employed as syllabic signs were still retained as
ideograms, and even two or more syllabic values were
derived from a single ideogram, in cases where the
latter was rendered by a number of short words.
Thus from the symbol for 'head, chief, beginning etc.'
(131) were taken ris (cf. resu 'head') and sak (cf. saM

'be high', sakii 'officer'); from the sign (101) uniting
'skin' (67) with 'water, liquid' (1) were taken sun (cf.
sujinu 'wash') and ruk (cf. rukku 'anoint'); from the
ideogram for 'wild ox' (190) rim (cf. rimy) 'wild ox' and
it (cf. Utu 'wild cow'). The further step to give up
altogether the signs for the compound syllables, and
(even with the retention of ideograms) to be content
with the signs for the simple ones was never taken.
It was not till the Neo-Babylonian period that a
growing preference was shown for the signs repre-
senting the simple syllables (consonant and vowel, or
vowel and consonant), but even then they were not
exclusively employed, and in any case the preference
came too late.*) The Assyro-Babylonian writing,
then, is a script capable of expressing both words
and syllables, the individual characters of which can
express not only a single word and a single syllable,
but even several words and syllables. Details may
be gathered from the follg. table of characters.**)

*) The representation given in the foregoing section of the
development of the Assyrian writing is in great part dependent
on one's attitude towards the "Sumerian" question. The latter is
treated at length in 25.
**) I transcribe t z, n h (), -j t, G s, S s, p k, ^ s.


and. jd

. W






nufo a dvut m&n, JIMW axf&.

L dwiv.





5& n. tfutfajkt and 3dfjoqmjJu T^hes. _ ViouM of %in.
a J o ' t i o v
ru. \iMi fivumn, tfiwTV. _ n^T t$3 afifti


] mods mi G&nsik a^iuood* ->


.MlCtW, TV&l-
wJu&vttrwoL tj






JJWL TrwutL. jfunyui, towti, m fiMftc


oho Jot ML. duji* tu^/^J^^
* * ji rfv **7








and JdeaqmtJut. touies.^.
ff /
& tlu* rvfft as


UL n&ntJk fxqwt ntantfatso









^4-4^ Amman fin
fidiLu.= -TirrJyj.d&j
dax,, JQjtaJl.&otti nvjUtn in tame.
]? n




arid moan).


tfffiLkc- W Jc/eaavyi,(ic TvLtf... ^TOU



f.Jio.6o. g$ ^^(T AtetoJL tul&i OCL dfy.
7t2sa M0f/e t nation, M. ntscfi

- masfui jftin. wiwa








ti'jiL cwi.





/ r




anl fy&a
Jbxt^t&ldy. Jarutu. tctnzfy.
tka. tones).

l^inai ai. Cntiwcfan.
. fit names

give and apuL Aon.

en cainim o. @zn tw&n ^TTT


wititti, cfov&.


^bt tfa


a. lid. Jii&MtMlnLc IjJjUutS
_&: ^-CL


c and

tame. i rn&ntiift

M.I.u/fi __ tiMata tcut.






k. tisL __ Z&L



ir atul Jdtajiapicc &ar. '

Mt,. A& ML __ M&UJi

ojtroo MUM, two Mufo?

dutai /ftiHuM muula,.


di. - qutfu, yWL^arwi ^cwte.


jjf J&& ef &vuLcte*fl$.
' OJuL


K) mtff; (jat).-.miuitLi nunita.
*3l Anfd Mtit.

. ^TTT


rrwc ^.a awn


xz^2 mourifoiii.Sfet&tm. Jk.
cotcni/uss and mawrfaiM.m&ddjUL at/i









K&, as.


JcLujMfJuic SW._

tti, ti. am to*

mttu tumi.

rwitet ruw } t..

, Juxtui woman,





^f naxta&u.



Mrici Jfin&x,
mu Jtinj,.
VUM, tdLw /ilal^ML. TWW&I
* / * Q ) u Q
Vujt$^'Aov ' g ) 01 (}
MArij mm.

c a

wi/inLsmi d&tdi.







u, jtt wfc, tafia wkjwyL. uwuw

rn Ifiuzri.HaJjtc vajiut,

Lsty mcoutitJVL
fiMOMCti vwstAofa


. fMl of CkoMt


'fyn,. jattoyiafiLlt. falutf.

(j^Lnd vtfia.


u, ditto } ji

-At rfct.

tn). @ftcti written, ajfot ukdyiAm
Jo. zJis.

fl.^/fc|^ i -H^.m.^^

How the Vowels are written. In Assyrian the 10,
vowel of a syllabic sign may, per se, be regarded as
long or as short. Even the breaking up of shut
syllables like kar^ kir, kur into ka-ar, ki-ir, ku-ur does
not necessarily imply that the vowel is long. When
it is intended to indicate expressly that a vowel is
long, this is done, in the case of open syllables in the
middle and end of words (Wortln- und -auslaut),
by adding the sign for the vowel in question (#, i, e
or u): thus we find either U-sa-nu or li-m-a-nu 'tongue',
ni-ru or ni-i-ru 'yoke', be-tu or be-e-lu 'lord', nu-nu or
nu-u-nu 'fish'; so la and la-a 'not', ma-ha-za 'cities'
and se-la-sa-a 'thirty', ki-i 'like, as', mal-ke 'princes'
and mu-ii'-di-e 'multitudes'. The verbal endings i (2 f.
sg.), w, a, of the present, preterite, permansive and
imperative, when standing at the end of a word, and
therefore to all appearance unaccented, are never
written plene: we may write ik-su-du-u-ni but never
anything but ik-su-du^ ik-ka-lu, sit-ku-nu. On the
other hand the long vowels discussed in 38 a, which
are the result of contraction, are but rarely found
written defectively at the end of a word, as in kus-si
for ku-us-si*c 'of the throne' ; ka-bi for ka-bi-e 'speak'
(Nimr. Ep. 48, 178). In shut syllables in the middle
and end of words, i, e, u are practically never ex-
pressly indicated (si-im-tu 'fate', i-Sim 'he appointed' ;
3 b

be-cl-tu 'lady, mistress', i-be-el 'he ruled'; pu-ur-tu
'wild cow', i-du-uk 'he killed'); with a alone do we
find side by side e. g. tam-iu and ta-a-am-tu 'sea', da-
cm and da-a-an perm, 'he is judge', etc. In both open
and shut syllables in the beginning of a word (Wort-
unhmt), the length of the vowel may be indicated in the
same way if the breath (Hauchlaut) is expressed: cf.
'a-a-ru 'go out' = '#rw, 'u-u-ru 'send' = 'wrw (= urni)
cf. also iu- a-a-mu=tu-d-mu 'twin'. This method
was, however, seldom employed. In general the in-
dication of the breath was dispensed with at the
beginning of a word (v. 20), consequently all indi-
cation of the length of the vowel had also to be dis-
pensed with: thus a-si-pu 'conjurer', i-nu, e-nu 'eye',
ii-ru 'nakedness'. It is worth noting, in particular,
that the prefixing of the simple vowel sign, which
takes place not unfrequently with shut syllables in the
beginning of a word, does not necessarily imply that
the vowel of the initial syllable is long. It is their
etymology, not their orthography, that tells us that
the vowel of the construct forms a-ar (from inf. dru
st. T) ft-ftl 'city', i-in 'eye' is long, = r, /, m\ for in
spite of such orthographical forms as i-i$-ta-lal 'he
plundered' (VE 55, 43), a-a i-in-nen-na-a 'let not be
oppressed', c-en-tu 'lady', u-us-ziz 'I set up', u-ul 'the
highest', also 'not', and in spite of the fact that

Nebuchadnezzar and his successors were extremely
fond of writing e-es-si-is 'anew' (adv.), e-ek-du 'strong',
e-ep-ti-ik 'I built', the initial vowel of all these words
is short. Also in ki-a-am 'thus', ti-a-am-tu 'sea', the
vowel sign a seems to be inserted far more for the
purpose of emphasizing the breath or the hiatus,
than of indicating the length of the vowel. Strangely
enough, a is the only long vowel for whose expression
there is special provision in the Assyrian system of
writing; for details see 13 and 14.
Very frequently a vowel may be recognised as 11.
long from the fact of the following consonant being
doubled. In spoken language the length of a vowel
is often compensated for by such a sharpening of the
immediately following consonant (cf. Hebr. Article
Tf = 05 "$. = &*; E h *? pl ur - f "pS); syllabic writing,
moreover, was specially adapted to the reproduction
of words according to their actual pronunciation.
Hence ru-uk-ku 'far' = ruku, ur-ru 'light' = uru, Si-
du-un-nu = 'jY'PS, Lu-ud-du = Tib, kurbannu "JSnjJ, ba-
ba-at-te 'the gates' = bdbdli, pa-nu-us-su 'his face',
ta-ba-ah-hu Inf. 'sacrifice' (IV R 68, 33 a), i-na-ar-ru
'they subjugate'=mrw, mu-ni-ih-ha Shams. Ill 29 and
mu-ni-ha ibid. IV 23. Instances like issanundu =
issanudu ( 52) show that we have not to do here with
a mere orthographical freak.

Considerable caution is necessary in dealing with the doubling
of a consonant, in so far as such doubling is not demanded by the
grammatical form, inasmuch as it may have its raison d'etre not
only in the length of the preceding vowel, but also in the accen-
tuation of the latter ( 53); or it may be due simply to inaccuracy
of the orthography, or to a desire to reproduce more exactly the
ordinary pronunciation ( 22).
12. When the two vowels i and a come together, which
happens most frequently when a genitive sing, takes
the pron. suff. of 1. pers. sing. (-), they are generally
expressed by a single sign ia (v. 9 No. 38): cf.: ahi
ta-lim-ia 'of my full brother' (VR 62 No. 1, 22. 26).
When ia is joined to an ideogram, the i may at the
same time do duty as a phonetic complement ( 23) :
zer-ia 'of my family' (Beh. 3) = zcri-a. If, however,
the t vowel is already expressed in writing, as, for
example, in li-ti-ia 'of my house', then the i of ia is
purely pleonastic; in other words, the sign ia repre-
sents the simple a vowel. Perhaps this method of
writing the pronominal suffix of the 1. pers. sing, is
the cause of what,^ at first sight, appears sufficiently
striking, namely that the sign ia is in many other
cases employed to express the vowel a, notwith-
standing the fact that at least in the first of the
forms given in 9, No. 38 it may easily be recog-
nised as made up of i + a. Thus always after plural
forms in e: ume-ia = ume'a 'my days'; cf. also ir-
ba-a-ia, var. ir-ba--a, certainly irbda (erbad) 'forty';

re'-ia 'shepherd' == re -a (Tig. I 34); ka-ia-an (IV R
45, 42), perm, from 'pD, certainly kan, like da-a-ri
perm, from YH; ia-u and ia-nu 'where?' the latter =
dnu, Hebr. ]tf, ia-um-ma 'any one' = aumma. See also
14 and cf. 41.
An exceptional position in the representation of 13.
the long vowels is that of a (v. end of 10), inasmuch
as for this vowel a special sign, a double a (v. 9
No. 6), is usually employed, without, however, super-
seding the methods discussed in 10. Examples of
initial a: ^a-a-u=d-u name of the sign a\ ^a-a-si=dsi
'for my part', pron.; a-a-nu = dnu 'where?' (v. end of
12). Medial and final: ^ta-a-a-ra (V R 33, 11)
'compassion' (pronounce tar a) alongside of ta-a-ru
(V R 21, 54a); ^ta-a-a-ar-tu 'return' (pron. tdrtu)
alongside of ta-a-ar-tu, ta-ia-ar-tu, all = tdrtu st. cstr.
ta-rat; ^na-a-a-lu and na-a-lu i. e. ndlu name of an
animal ; ^ka-a-a-nu 'firm', ^ka-a-a-ma-nu 'everlasting',
^da-a-a-nu 'judge' alongside of ka-ia-nu, ka-ia-ma-nu y
da-ia-nu (pron. kanu, kdmdnu, ddnu)\ ^sa-a-a-i-du
'hunting', also sa-i-du, both = sd'idu, showing that da-a-
a-i-ku 'killing', fern, da-a-a-ik-tu and similar forms are
to be read daiku^ daiktu\ ^ba-a-a-ar-tum part. Qal
(same form as rdmtu, IV R 57, 46 a); ^ka-a-a-an perm,
of pD, also ka-ia-an (12); ^u-ka-a-a-an alongside of
u-ka-a-an, u-ka-an all = ukdn 'he established';

za-ki-a-a-u, 'Hezekiah' (Lay. 61, 11); country of tflfo-
h,t-a-a-ti=Na'b(t > dti (ni^D) and ilien Nabdti', the tribe-
name Ha-a-a-ap-pa-a also Ha-ia-pa-a = Ha'dpd (Hebr.
n&^), Hdpd', ^u-kd-a-a = ukd 'he waits' (u-ka-a-a-ki
= ukdki 'he waits for thee', u-ka-a-a-u = ukau 'they
wait'); camels scftsu-na-a-a, i. e. sund (sunnd) se-re-si-
na 'with double back' (Lay. 98, I. Ill) ; the river U-la-
a-a and U-la-a = Uld (^b^) ; goddess Na-na-a-a and
Na-na-a (even Na-na) = TV'dwa (Navaia) ; hence it would
seem that Ma-da-a-a and Man~na-a-a, which are the
names of two countries and their inhabitants, should
notwithstanding the Hebr. i-na, ^ft be read Madd
(Mddd) and Manna (= original Maddi, Manndtf).
Further, having regard to such orthographical forms
as Za-za-a cf. also al-sa-a-(a) Assurb. Sm. 130, 1
uomina relationis ending originally in j, like Si-du-
un-na-a-a, Za-za-a-a, should be pronounced simply
Sidiind, Zdzd. In the same way, perhaps, the plural
forms in d with pron. suffix of the 1. pers. sing. e. g.:
se-pa-a-a 'my feet' simply sepd', at all events sepai is
a monstrosity, and uncontracted forms like sepd'a
are at variance with the elsewhere usual fusion of
two contiguous vowels (cf. 38 and 47). Proper
names like ^Apla-a-a 'my son', ^Su~ma-a-a c my name'
were certainly pronounced Apia, Sumd, as is proved
by the fact that they are often written Ap-la-a, Su-ma-a.

In all the words and forms denoted by f, it seems to me im-
possible to regard a-a as equivalent to ai, as is done by so man} 1
Assyriologists ; it appears to me, further, that even elsewhere
there is not a single instance where it is necessary to read a-a as
ai (?\ especially 31). Some of the words written with a-a far
rather suggest a'a (aa t a'a), though even in these cases contrac-
tion to a must very soon have taken place.
Since, according to 12, the sign ia has very 14.
frequently the syllabic value #, we find not only a-a
but also a-ia and ia-a (even a-la-d) written for #,
apparently at hap-hazard. Examples of the anlaut:
ia-a-lm (e. g. Assurn. I 28), even a-ia-a-bu (I]R 27 No. 2,
68), alongside of a-a-lu st. cstr. a-a-al) (pronounce ab
Esarh. II 43), all = dbu 'enemy'; a-la-ru and a-ru,
both = dru 'child, offspring'; a-ia-si (Assurn. II 26)
and ia-a-si alongside of a-a-si, all = dsi 'as for me';
a-ia-um-ma (Shalm. Bal. V 3), a-a-um-ma and ia-um-ma
all = aumma 'any one'; ia-a-nu 'it is, or was, not' =
dnu perm. ; ia-a-ri, also a-ar = dru, dr(i) 'forest'
("I? 1 ?); inlaul\ ta-ia-a-ru 'merciful' (I R 35 No. 2, 7)
alongside of ta-a-a-ru (IV R 66, 42 a), == idru\ hence
za-ia-a-ru must = zdru (if); auslaut: Ar-ma-a-ia
(Tig. V 47), also Ar-ma-a-a, both doubtless to be read
simply Armd (v. end of 13).
The fact that the vowel is included with the con- 15.
sonant in the Assyrian characters is to the advantage
of the otherwise complicated Assyro- Babylonian
wedge-writing. This advantage is not impaired by

the fact that about twelve signs admit two different
vowels (a and f Nos. 26 &fc, 108. 141. 159. 162. 182;
// and M Nos. 102. 143; u and t Nos. 10. 101. 174. 193;
cf. 199), and that four signs may be pronounced with
as many as three different vowels (0, i and u Nos. 7.
36. 161. 188), inasmuch as the grammatical form and
variants scarcely ever leave us in doubt as to the
proper selection. Still the provision made for distin-
guishing graphically the e and f vowels is, we must
admit, very unsatisfactory. There are, it is true,
twelve signs (viz. those for e, be, te, me, ne, se, se, te ;
el, en, er, es), which were specially intended to repre-
sent the e vowel, but in practice the same sign was
used indiscriminately for syllables containing e and i.
We advise the beginner to remember that all the
syllabic signs given in the table with i, such as ki,
pis, may also be pronounced with e (ke, pes) y and that
some of them, in fact, must be so pronounced (e. g. res
No. 131). This lack of precision is less felt with long
e, since the sign specially coined for e is pretty
frequently added (v. 10): the manifold variations
bi-lu, l>i-e-lu, bc-e-lu 'lord', or orthographical forms like
ri-e-su 'head', ri-e-mu 'grace', si-e-nu flock (sheep and
goats), point assuredly to belu, resu, remu, senu. It is
quite otherwise, we regret to say, with short e, in-
asmuch as the forms with this vowel, which almost

always arises by modification from an original a,
completely coincide in their graphic representation
with those forms, of which i is the characteristic
vowel. For this reason it is extremely difficult, or
even impossible, to pronounce with certainty regarding
a number of complex problems presented by Assyrian
morphology, especially as regards the formation of the
noun. For the transliteration of Assyrian we may
lay it down as a rule, that the above twelve e signs
should in all cases be transcribed with e, the cor-
responding twelve i signs (/, &/, ti and so on), on the
other hand, with i; with the other signs, e. g. //, r,
we may make the choice of the vowel (e or i) depend
on the form of the word in each individual instance.
For the reason of this misplaced parsimony as regards tht
indication of the vowel e, see the appendix to the orthograpl
( 25), which we have devoted to the Sumerian problem.

Of the two signs for u ( 9 Nos. 4 and 5) the iirst
is practically never used for the copula u (u), /while
the second practically never serves as a syllabic sign
in the beginning of a word (an exception is found in
Esarh. VI 24). The third sign for u (u No. 267) was
originally ideographic. The accents (mostly acute)
over the vowels of certain signs, w, tu etc. are not
meant to indicate the position of the tone or the
quantity of the respective vowels; they merely serve,
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar.

in the transcription of Assyrian words, to distinguish
a sign for a simple syllable from another and more fre-
quently occurring sign for the same syllable. Besides
w, of. bu, pu Nos. 11. 70; da 21. 152; da 24. 103; la
42. 205; ma 49. 222; pa 68. 264; ar 79. 14; ur 82. 83;
su 84. 85; su 88. 89; as 90. 91; tu 98. 26. In the case
of certain so-called composite syllables, represented by
two or even three different signs, a similar distinction
would be of use only if universally adopted; it is
better, meanwhile, to help ourselves by the addition
of another value of the sign in question, or by some
other device.
17. In general it is a law that every consonant with
its accompanying vowel shall form a single syllabic
sign. Thus we find a-sib, 'dwelling', fern, a-si-bat or a-
si-ba-at, but not a-sib-at. There are, however, a large
number of exceptions to this rule; e. g. i-sa-ka-an-u-
>>/ -they make it', u-sat-lim-u-ni ''they gave up 1, is-bat-
u-nlm-ma 'they siezed and', ad-is 'I trod down', (=
adis), ir-a-mu 'they love' (= irdmu), Tab-a-la 'country
of Tabal', kur-us-su 'his bravery'; dsibat itself is written
a-sib-at in II R 66 No. 1, 9. An important exception,
further, is the verbal suffix of the 1. pers. sing.: we
find, it is true, ub-bi-ra-an-ni 'he banished me', but in
most cases the orthography is suzib-an-ni 'deliver me',
ulid-an-ni 'she bare me'.

How the Consonants are written. We are 18.
still uncertain as to the reason why each of the
pairs da and ta, di and /, za and sa should be repre-
sented by only a single sign; also as to why bu should
be systematically used for pu, when a special sign
for the latter already existed. Otherwise the par-
simony manifested in the elaboration of the signs,
especially the orthographical assimilation of syllables
distinguished from each other only by the varying
degrees of hardness possessed by their initial and final
consonants, must be signalised as an altogether wise,
and, in fact, necessary step on the part of the inven-
tors of the written characters. On the contrary we
can only regard as an unnecessary luxury however
agreeable they may be to us the creation and preser-
vation of double signs for ar and separate signs for each
member of such pairs as bat and pat, gam and kam,
gur and kur, and so on. Although this orthographical
fusion, so to speak, of the syllables ag, ak, ak; mad,
mat, mat; kib, kip, gib, gip may have for us temporary
inconveniences, yet there is never any permanent
uncertainty, inasmuch as our doubts are removed
either by the immediately following sign, or by other
forms of the same stem (e. g. ab(ap)-ti, but pi-tu-u;
ad(at, ai)-bu-uk, but tu-bu-uk). Still less were the
Assyrians ever in any doubt or difficulty on that

account. The beginner should note that the syllabic
values given in table B, so far as regards labials,
gutturals, and dentals, are not the only possible values.
As regards the sibilants, we find that a clear
distinction was made between s on the one hand, and
z s s on the other, in the auslaut of simple syllables,
but not in that of compound syllables. In the laut of compound syllables we have, in most cases,
two distinct sets of signs, one when the first letter is
z or 5, another when it is s or s: cf. zab, sab (No.
182); zag (166); zal, sal (57); zar, sar (207); zib, sib
(183); zig (145); ziz (10); zil, 7(119); zum (72); zun
(186); zur, sur (195); but sab, sab (155); sag, sag
(131); sal, sal (212); sar, sar (141); sib (156); sig, sik
(219); sis, sis (165); sil, sil (105); sum, sum (135); sun,
sun (192); sur, sur (124). Exceptions are: zin, sin (93);
zuk, suk (209) on the one hand, and sin (101), suk
(202) on the other. Add to these the series of syllables
zir, sir etc. with six signs in all: zir (113), sir (178),
sir (177 and 11), sir (112 and 141); finally sah (159)
and sah (108). For the signs containing m note 44
of the phonology.
19. The fact that ki, ku are frequently written ki, ku
(e. g. ki-ni, 'nests' alongside of ki-in-ni, is-ku-lu 'they
numbered' and, without exception, kirbu 'interior') is
doubtless owing to the circumstance already referred

to in 11, that the syllabic, as opposed to the con-
sonantal, method of writing readily tempted a scribe
to adapt his orthography more to the every-day
pronunciation of the consonants or words in question.
Nevertheless the orthography required by the history
and etymology of the words continued in regular use.
The employment of ka for ka is far more rare: ka-
lu-u, ka-mu-u, ka-ra-bu is much more frequently
written than, say, sa-ka-su (tDpttJ). On the other hand,
the frequent rendering of ka by ga is certainly due to
a' peculiarity of the Babylonian pronunciation, and
accordingly falls to be treated of under phonology
(v. 43); for analogous phenomena in Assyrian see
the same section. In cases like e-bi-e-su 'make',
written instead and alongside of e-pi-e-su (and that in
texts where the special sign for pit, is employed by
preference), bi 'mouth' (Neb. Grot. Ill 46), and vice
versa ru-ku-pi 'carriage, vehicle' for and alongside of
ru-ku-U, ip-pa-ds-si 'it is' (st. ntJSl) and others, as also
in cases like zu-ba-tu 'dress', a-zu-u 'going up', zi-i-ru
'exalted', er-zi-tu 'earth' written for and alongside of
subdtu, asu, siru, ersitu, we may be uncertain as to
whether it was the orthography or the pronunciation
of the respective scribes this at least, in the first
place -that was inexact, careless and bad; but
forms like tu-um-ku for dumku, tu-ub for tu-ub, ah-tu-u


for ah-tu-u (tftsn) are simply to be regarded as ortho-
graphical mistakes, of which, in any case, there are
many and varied specimens in the Assyro-Babylonian
cuneiform texts.
20. The spiritus lenis or tf in the beginning, middle,
or end of a word may be expressed by a special sign
(v. 9 No. 7). In the beginning (anlaut), however,
orthographical forms like 'a-a-ru 'go out', '-ab-tu 'he
perished', 'i-il-tu 'curse' are extremely rare (see above,
10); the usual way was to write a-hu 'brother', i-nu
'eye', e-mu 'father-in-law', u-nu 'utensil', ab-du 'ser-
vant', ir-tu 'breast', etc. In the inlaut we find sa-
'a-al (i. e. sa'dl) 'request, ask', la-a-bu 'flame', ri-a-a-
su 'creeping thing', Ha-za-'i-ilu bTn, Sir-i-la-a-a
''bsnto 1 ?, u-ma-i-ir 'he, I sent', na-'i-id 'he is exalted',
re-u-u 'shepherd', mu-u-ur 'present', ir-u-ub 'he, she
was enraged', but also without the breath: is-al 'he
asked', im-id 'he increased', ra-i-mu 'loving'. For the
auslaut cf. i-ba-ef 'he comes' (1l), us-bi-f (from same
stem); see also 47.
Orthographical forms like u-ma-'a-ru, u-ma-a-ru on the one
hand, u-ma-'-a-ru on the other (Prs. II 1 from "IXE) equally with
is-'-a-lu, li-Sam-'-i-da, bu-'-u-ru 'catch', '-a-bit 'he was destroyed'
and many others point to the fact that the sign for the breath was
employed for the latter per se, without an accompanying vowel;
for if we were to transliterate thus : e. g. u-ma-'a-a-ru, we should
then have to read uma'aru, which would he false, and if we were
to write u-ma-a'-a-ru, we should have an exception to the rule in

17. The breath also serves to indicate a mere hiatus, e. g.
la- -it alongside of ha-a-it (part, from ETi). The sign of the
breath seems to represent the vowel a in ia-'-nu 'where?' (V ft
40), ia--nu 'it was not' (cf. 12 14). Numerous examples of
a breath at the end of words are found in the Achsemenian in-
scriptions, but the origin and purpose of this orthography is as
yet obscure: e. g. it-tal-'ku- 'they went'.
Of the two signs for Su (Nos. 88 and 89), the 2J.
former, apart from the pronouns su-u and su-a-tu, is
practically never used in the beginning of a word;
thus we find e. g. su-zu-ub 'save' only Shalm. Ob. 166,
elsewhere always su-zu-ub.
The doubling or the sharpening of a consonant 22.
is expressed by writing the consonant twice: addin
'I gave', uparrir 'I broke in pieces'. Often enough,
however, this rule was not observed another conse-
quence of the desire to reproduce with greater
exactness the popular, but less accurate, pronun-
ciation: madattu 'tribute', a-din, U-du-u 'let them
throw', li-mir 'let shine', u-lil 'I [purified, cleansed'
(Shalm. Ob. 28), i-kal-la-pu Nif. 'it 'is peeled' (IV R 7,
51 a), and many others. In revenge, simple consonants
are often found written twice: ad-du-ku 'I had killed'
(I R 7 No. IX, A, 2), ez-zi-bu 'they forsook' = ezibu,
u-sat-bu-niS-sum-ma = usatbunisuma, etc; here belong
also abbuti 'fatherhood', ahhu 'brother' (in addition to
the usual abu, ahu).

23. Reading-signs. --In connected texts the
Assyrian writing lias no means of separating either
words or sentences; but instead, the rule is strictly
observed of ending every line with a complete word.
Examples of a word being divided at the end of a line
are extremely rare. When it is intended, in vocabula-
ries or elsewhere, to indicate expressly that two words
or sentences are not connected with each other, the
sign t is put between them. A great help to the
reading and understanding of Assyrian texts consists
of the so-called determinatives, i. e. written signs
which, remaining themselves unpronounced, indicate
to what category the word they accompany belongs.
Most of these determinatives are prefixed to their
words, and this prefixed determinative is, properly
speaking, never wanting before the names of deities
(No. 60), of persons, male and female (204. 212), of
countries and mountains (176), of towns and rivers
(81. 1) and before the names of tribes (253). Ex-
ceptions occur only with names of male persons
written more or less ideographically. Much less
frequent is the determinative before the names of
trees, woods and utensils (31), as also before the
names of stones (148) and occupations (253), when
the latter are written phonetically, e. g. like ni-ru
'yoke', su-um-bu 'cart' and the words with deter-

minatives are, for the present, understood to be
everywhere so written. The same remark holds good
of determinatives with the names of birds (35) and
fishes (33), which take their determinatives after them.
Assyro- Babylonian names of towns and districts
whether written ideographically or phonetically -
are determined by a postfixed ki (40), not excluding,
at the same time, a prefixed mdtu (176) or dlu (81).
All the determinatives just given (with the exception
of 176 and 81), with the addition of a few others, as,
e. g., those before the names of garments (41) and
vessels for holding liquids (158), when they constitute
the first or last member of words written purely
ideographically, render the same service as before
phonetically written words. In this case, however,
they are rarely mere determinatives to assist the
eye, so that they might in certain cases be dispensed
with (as e. g. isu 'wood' before the ideogr. for ellipu
'ship' v. under No. 31), but are in most cases neces-
sary elements in the written representation of the
idea conveyed by the words in question; we might
also say that they are simply the ideographic equi-
valents of the first member of a compound Assyrian
name, as, e. g. aban isdti 'fire-stone', karpat sikari
'wine-pot', and many others. A valuable help in
reading ideographically written words is found in the

so-called phonetic complements. These consist
usually of one, rarely of two syllabic signs, which, by
giving us the final syllable of the word, enable us to
obtain the correct reading of the ideogram, both as
regards the choice of the proper equivalent and its
grammatical form. The ideogram for erebu 'enter'
(98), or, as it is usually transcribed, TU with phon.
compl. lib is erub (eru-ub) 'I entered'; T\J-ab=etdrab.
SA(84)-wrc is=iskun or askun, $&-an=astakan. If
ideograms like sarru 'king' are followed by tu, ti,
or fa, or by ii-tu, ii-ti, or u-ta, this points to the ab-
stract noun sarrutu (or -ft", -to) : ni after an ideogram
provided with the sign of the plural (210) indicates
the plural form in dm: AN* l -nf = ild-ni, ER* l -ni = dld-
ni. There is no law compelling the use of a phon.
complement; there are, however, certain words that
are written with a phon. compl. in the great majority
of the cases where they occur, so especially AN-<?
i. e. same 'heaven', and Kl-tim i. e. ersitim 'of the
earth'; cf. also the ideogram for the 'Euphrates',
No. 1 in the table of characters. These complements
are specially useful when an ideogram may be read
in two different ways. Take, for example, the ideo-
grams KUR (176) and UD (26): KUR-w, KUR-0,
KUR p/ -m, KUR pl -e must be read, Sadu ($adu-if),
sadd (sada-a), saddni, sade but KUR-tf, KUR^-tf

mdti, mdtdti\ UD-ww, UD-mi == umu, umi, but

Forms which look as if a phon. cornpl. had been added to a
syllabic sign, as ak-sud-ud = aksud 'I captured', (Senhb. I 36
and oft.), sa-nin-in sdnin (Assurn. Balaw. 6), ke-nis-es = kenes
'faithfully' (ibid. 39), must be regarded as little other than freaks
of the scribe. Another sort of freak is to write mu-sak-li-lil (V
E 65, 4 a), ab-lu-M (V B 10, 83), li-ir-mu-muk (III B 43 col. IV
18) = musaklil, ablul, lirmuk; still another tab-rat-a-ti (V B 65,
9b), and such like.
Practical Hints. The reading of the 55 selected 24.
signs each, as a rule, with only one ideographic
value ' given under C in 9 presents no difficulty.
Of the 98 signs for simple syllables (A) there are 70
which stand for one syllable only, and of these 70,
there are 30 which are not once used as ideograms;
of the 120 signs for compound syllables (B), there
are more than 70 which represent one syllable only,
and of these, there are about 39 which are not once
used as ideograms. In other words: out of a total of
278 written characters or signs, there are about 125
(55+30+40) as to whose reading there is never any
doubt. In the case of signs with several syllabic
values, the beginner should be guided by the imme-
diately preceding or immediately following sign,
choosing that value which begins with the same vowel
or consonant with which the preceding sign ends, and

vice versa: thus he should read 0/-160 not, let us say,
as al-mis, or al-sit but al-lak\ in the same way al-82
is not al-ur but al-lik\ ma-\k not ma-ub^ but ma-dr;
?'/-174-188 not u-lib-har or ii-pali-mur, but u-paJj-har.
He should also avoid all phonetic combinations and
word-forms which his acquaintance with Hebrew tells
him to be impossible in Semitic. The most valuable
assistance, however, in arriving at the proper value
of signs with numerous syllabic values, is rendered
by the thousandfold variations in the Assyrian texts
themselves (here sign 160, there la-ak; here 162, there
ka-al or ri-ib and so on), and by knowing as many
as possible of the different forms of one and the same
stem (e. g. il-li-ku, al-lik, il-lak). Familiarity with both
of these aids can, of course, only be acquired by con-
tinued and extended reading of the cuneiform, especi-
ally of historical texts. The much rarer difficulty,
as to whether a sign is to be read as a syllable or as
an ideogram, may, in many cases, be overcome by the
beginner, if he will first inform himself from the table
of characters, whether a sign, that does not appear
to him to be syllabic, may not be joined to the
immediately following sign or signs to form a single
ideographic sign-group. As aids to the beginner in
the proper division of the words, the following hints
may prove useful : let him single out the prepositions

a-na and i-na, and set down the simple horizontal
wedge always as the prep. ina\ he should always look
out for the determinatives mentioned in 23; he
should especially make a search for the verbal, or
more precisely the preterite, forms of the 3. and
1. persons, which are easily distinguished by their
vocalic anlaut (I, a, e, ii\ ?7, #/; ib, db etc.) from the
other words of the sentence; the sign mis (210) must
always be taken as the sign of the plural the word
#-/?-w/_excepted - - and consequently the sign
immediately preceding should always be read as an
It is self-evident that all these hints are given with the ut-
most reserve, and without any guarantee that they will hold good
on all occasions.
Who invented the cuneiform writing? The impor- 25.
tant question, whether the Assyro- Babylonian wedge - writing
(which was the parent of the Susian, Armenian and Old Persian
wedge-writing) is an invention of the Semitic Babylonians, or of
a non-Semitic race settled alongside of the latter in Babylonia,
that is, of the so-called Sumerians or Accadians or Sumero-Acca-
dians, will probably be answered more and more in favour
of its invention by a Semitic race. If such is the case, then
Joseph Halevy and his school will have to be acknowledged
as the victors in the scientific warfare which they have been
carrying on for many years with Jules Oppert and his followers.
The Semitic origin of the following syllabic values is admitted by
all: u (5) and u (267), id (25), is (31), el (47), er (81), sa (84); -
mit, also -mut (10), kin (23), hat (68), in(i) (86), kat (89), zir (113),
sim (116), rat (118), $ak and ris (131), rap (140), ram (147), rik,
sim (149), dan (162), bit (163), mat, sad (176), kar (180), sab (182),

lit, rim (190), kis (191), Urn (197), tul (199), lib (259) To the same
category, moreover, belong the following values for simple
syllables, Avhich the Assyrians themselves testify to have been
derived from Semitic: az, as, as (30) from a-su (S b 2, 12), MS (32)
from usu (S b 2, 4), la (42) from MM 'plenty* (S b 2, 10; same root
as lulu), al (45) from allu (S b 226), wJ (48) from ullu 'rejoicing'
(S b 98; from root aldlu), um, (55) from nmmu 'womb, mother'
(S b 118): nothing in the world justifies us in calling such
words as usu or allu "loan-words". In addition to these, the
following assuredly will yet be proved to be good Semitic Baby-
lonian: a) of simple syllabic values, ub, up (14), with the meanings
as ideograms of 'side, quarter of the heavens', from uppu 'side,
enclosure' (cf. S b 257); iff, ik, ik from ikku 'door' (II B 23, 62e);
ud (26 from uddu 'bright, clear'); mu (52) meaning as ideogram
'name', and me (51) as ideogr. 'speak, name' from mu 'name'; an
(60) as ideogr. 'heaven, god', from anu 'heaven, god of heaven,
god in general'; en (62) as ideogr. 'lord' from enu 'lord' (cf. entu
'lady, mistress, enutu 'lordship'); se (87) from se'u 'corn'; ft) of
compound syllabic values, sam (4) from sammu 'plant' ; sar (34)
from sdru 'superabundance'; sip (51) from Siptu 'conspiracy' (C]TZJN);
tal (77) fromtaldlu 'throw' (cf. IV B 30, 24a); sun and ruk (101)
r. p. 16; bal,pal(W2) frompulu; nak (106) from naku 'pour out,
give to drink' (the phonetic value sak had been already taken
from saktl 'be high'); Sah (108) from salm; bar (114) as ideogr.
meaning 'decide' from baru 'decide'; nun (119) cf. Diet. p. 116;
dim, Urn (122) from timmu 'rope'; tap (133) from tappu 'com-
panion', a Semitic word as is shown by the bye-form tapptu; dttp,
tup (137) from tuppu; ser (141) as ideogr. 'vegetation' from ser'u
with the same meaning; gaz, kas (146) from kasdsu 'cut off, tear,
crush to pieces'; kit (159) from ektu 'end'; rit (160) from retu
'superintendence' (stem ^X 4 "V); bur (172) meaning, as ideogr., a
'hollow vessel' from burn (st. ^S); nar (174) from naru (^r:);
sir (178) as ideogr. 'serpent' from sir'u, same meaning (st. K 4 ^S);
fir (179) as ideogr. 'forest' from tirru, same meaning (II B 23, 56 e);
lius and rus (185) from hussu, russu; zun (sun 186) from zunnu
'throng, abundance'; har, hir, hur (188) from st. hardru 'gird

25. THE INVK.NTION OF WEDGE-WRITI \closely round', whence harm, hartu 'ring', harrdnu 'narrow way',
and others; kil (206) as ideogr. 'enclosure, cattle- pen' and such
like, from kalu 'shut in' whence e. g. bit ki-li 'prison'; silk, zuk
(209) from sukku 'defence', also 'hut, tent'; lal (205) as ideogr. 'be
full' from lalu 'fulness'. It belongs to the dictionary to show
more fully the grounds for the Semitic origin of these syllabic
values and of many more, such as uk (20), im (54), nu (59);
bat (10), Itub (23), lali (26), tib (44), kum (58), pu (70), mil (92),
hal (99), gir (103), has (105), mah (109), mas (114), dir (132), kan
(138), tur (139), gal (169), sud (177), for and /a& (182), muh (189),
sw7 and dun (201), Aa6 (206), sa/ (212), nik (215), sii (219) as
ideogr. 'hem in, oppress; hemmed in, pressed down, weak,
small etc.' (cf. p^O 'hem in, oppress'; stku 'hemmed in, oppressed
weak' S C 6). It is not, however, the number of examples that is
the main point even three such syllabic signs as an, mu, sag (scik,
sak) with the meanings as ideograms of 'heaven', 'name', 'head'
suffice to determine one's position for or against the Semitic origin
of the Assyro-Babylonian wedge-writing. Whoever is of opinion
that the Assyr. anu 'heaven', Ann 'god of heaven, god in general'
(fern. An-tu, abstr. noun Anutu 'deity') is a thoroughly Semitic
word,*) that on account of its " in Hebr. 7j^333> J"0", it must
even be regarded as common to all the Semitic tongues and
not an exclusively Babylonian word ; whoever, again, is con-
vinced that mu (mn) 'name' can be only a Semitic word,
if for no other reason than because of its interchanging with
me (me) and ma (md) and, without prejudice, looks fair in the
face the fact that in genuine Assyro-Semitic texts mu, Gen. me
really appears as synon. of sumu (v. my Diet. p. 140 and cf. p. 275);
whoever, finally, cannot bring himself to regard the Assyr. stem
sakii 'be high' (sukku, susku 'raise') as borrowed from the Sumer.
sag 'head', or to consider as purely fortuitous the phonic coin-
*) Cf. the stem nsy 'be opposite', whence also the prep, ana,
related to ^ ; the sky or heaven was so named as being that
opposite the upward glancing eye; cf. de Lagarde's combination
of Vs with the stem r&x, whence the prep. 5s with the same
meanings as Assyr. ana.

cidence of Assyr. Sdkit, 'person of rank, officer' (syn. resu) and
the above sag, Sag 'head, pinnacle, chief, such an one must admit
the Semitic origin of the Assyro-Bahylonian wedge-writing from
beginning to end, for he requires these phonetic values at every
step when reading the so-called Sumerian texts. All other proofs
for the Semitic origin of the Babylonian cuneiform have only a
secondary value, in so far, at least, as it is always possible to
weaken their force by all sorts of sophistical arguments. One fact,
however, deserves to be emphasized, namely that the phonetic
system graphically represented by the Babylonian writing is
practically identical with that of the Semitic Babylonian
tongue. Thus the writing indicates the spiritus lenis (X) after
the characteristically Semitic manner, and is without 3 only
because Semitic Babylonian does not possess this sound. It
has, moreover, h, and special signs for ku, ki, ku, si, su, tu.
And were we to take offence at the fusion of sa with za, of ta
with da, and of ti with di, and, starting from these, to declare
the other signs just given (ka, ki etc.) as only a later Semitic
adaptation of signs with, originally, quite other phonetic values,
then the question involuntarily presents itself, why the Semites
did not carry out the same adaptation for sa, ta, and ti ; three
signs more or less would have been of no consequence. On the
other hand we regard the follg. facts as almost incontrovertible
arguments against the so-called "Sumerian" origin of the Babyl.
wedge-writing: first, the language of the supposed Sumerian
inventors, like that of the Babylonian Semites, has no A, no y, and
no v (w or u); secondly, in complete accord with the language
of the Babyl. Semites, it is ignorant of the diphthongs ai and au,
as well as of the vowel o; and finally, the Sumerian inventors
confused the vowel e with i in pronunciation (hence the
extremely defective distinction between these two vowels in the
written character) in precisely the same way as the Semitic Baby-
lonians are proved to have done.
With the acceptance of a Semitic, therefore of a non-
Sumerian, origin of the Babylonian wedge-writing, a fatal blow is
dealt to the existence of a Sumerian tongue and Sumerian texts.

For not only is it the case that with the syllabic values above set
aside as Semitic there disappear very many of the words
supposed to be most genuinely Sumerian, without which it is
impossible to read a single so-called Sumerian text, but it is also
true that the apparent development in the meaning of such
Sumerian words as an, ana whose supposed original signification
'be high' is certainly due to the fundamental idea implied in
Samu, the synonym of anu bears the unmistakeable stamp of
artificial manufacture, and that by Semitic hands. The same is
true, in a still higher degree, of the delightfully heterogeneous
mass of meaningsT'to often united in many 'Sumerian' words : cf.
bal 'axe' and 'spindle' (pllajcku and pilakku), bar 'wicked, jackal,
side', even 'brother- (owing*to aim and ahu uniting these meanings
in Assyrian), mu 'name' and 'man' (zikru and zikaru) sun 'wash'
and 'quarrel, fight' (sunnu and sandnu) u 'and' and 'or' (u copula,
and u = au "is* 'or') and hundreds of others. The fact just noted
has, for a considerable period, awakened suspicion in regard to
'Sumerian'. In fact, no other alternative will be left us but to
bid farewell for ever to those words in their character of 'Sume-
rian', and to acknowledge them as the conventional readings, based
on Semitic words, of certain ideograms*), no matter whether
the latter serve to express a single word, or a whole bushelful of
*) To establish with increasing accuracy the connexion be-
tween ideograms and their conventional renderings or what often
comes to the same thing their syllabic values, must be one of the
principal lines of future investigation. We would, however, even
here emphasize the fact that the conventional readings or
syllabic values need not necessarily be taken from the proper
signification, so to say, of the ideogram from the object, let us
suppose, represented by the original picture. The picture of a
star, for example, does not signify a star, but is a symbol for
heaven, whence it derives its syllabic value an (60); the picture
of the leg does not signify the leg, but symbolizes the idea of
walking, going bare-foot and hence may have the syllabic value
du (23). In the same way the picture of a reed might serve to
give symbolical expression to the idea of bending, turning ; a
picture of a fish might denote excess, crowd, enormous numbers of
anything, and hence they might receive respectively the syllabic
values ge and ha.
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 5

Babylono-Semitic words, connected with each other by sense or
sound (e. g. eru 'chest' and 'bronze', libittu 'brick' and lipittu 'en-
closure'). The extraordinary number of significations belonging
to many signs and their conventional pronunciation must not be
overlooked. Thus for the sign u with the reading buru, VR 36,
37 gives no fewer than 52 Assyrian equivalents; for the sign te
VR 40 gives more than 18; for the sign a, YR 22 gives more
than 10, among which we find mu 'water', banu 'beget', rutbu
'wet', lubu 'garment', andku T and atta 'thou'. These facts alone
are sufficient proof of the impossibility of recognising in buru, te,
a words of human speech. Equally convincing is the argument
from the fact that these supposed 'Sumerian words' are entirely
innocent of any distinction between the noun and the verb, as
well as between the transitive, intransitive and causative meanings
of the latter: the 'Sumerian word' bur signifies sapdlu, suppulu,
suplu and supalii 'be deep or low'; 'deepen or lower'; 'deepening,
a hollow'; 'deep, low'. The truth will be that the sign u, with its
conventional reading bur, taken from the Assyrian buru 'hole'
(Hebr. ixin), served as graphic symbol for the idea 'to be deep' in
all its concrete embodiments. Such multiplicity of meaning attach-
ing to the individual ideograms, and the extreme uncertainty
and obscurity of long ideographically written texts occasioned
thereby, were bound to lead to this, that texts written entirely
with ideograms were accompanied by a phonetic reproduction of
the pronunciation as handed down by oral tradition. In pro-
ductions of the higher, poetical style, above all, where great im-
portance attaches to the finer shades of meaning, it was simply
indispensable that the pronunciation of the original should be
added in some such clearly intelligible fashion. It is becoming
increasingly evident that the so-called bilingual texts are simply
Semitic texts with a twofold orthography: the one form being
the ancient and sacred ideographic writing of the priests, which,
however skilfully conceived and cleverly elaborated, remained
enigmatical to the last; the other, the ordinary syllabic writing.
We are led to the same conclusion, with almost greater certainty
by a consideration of the groups of ideograms. It is manifest

that combinations of signs like SIGr. DUB. SIG. DUB. BA. i. e.
clothes-rending-clothes-rending' or LU. SAG-. BI. DUL. LA.
i. e. 'man-head-be-cover' cannot possibly be 'Sumerian words' for
'bitter mourning' (ublu malii}, 'mourning of a man' (amelu adir\
but are purely ideographic and ingenious representations of the
idea of mourning. Were these and the hundreds of ideogram-
groups contained in the so-called vocabularies and bilingual texts
real compound words, Sumerian must have been a tongue which
was practically unable to express ideas and objects by a single
word. Supposing, however, that we were to have recourse to the
daring assertion that these groups of ideograms are the equi-
valents of single Sumerian words with which we are still unac-
quainted simply because the necessary glossaries are wanting, we
should, when we came to draw the consequences, land ourselves in
a veritable quagmire of impossibilities. These groups of ideo-
grams can be nothing more than groups of ideograms, more pre-
cisely ideographic equivalents of Semitic words, conceived by
Semites and the offspring of the Semitic mind. The symbolical
reproduction of mourning by 'covering of the head', and of bitter
mourning by 'complete rending of one's raiment' bears on the face
of it its Semitic origin, and so it is with the groups of ideograms,
one and all, they are graphic equivalents of Semitic words,
sometimes ingenious, sometimes clumsy, not unfrequently punning,
but also, at times, with no meaning at all. The vocabularies the
subscriptions to which, by the way, do not breathe a whisper of
any other tongue alongside of the Assyro-Babylonian like the
so-called bilingual texts serve the purposes not of comparative
philology but of comparative orthography and comparative
editing (niclit vergleichend-linguistische, sondern vergleichend-
graphische, vergleichend-redactionelle Zwecke).
The glosses, which in the vocabularies here and there
accompany simple ideograms and groups of ideograms, and lists
of which are found in syllabaries of the species S b, are still in
need of more thorough investigation as regards the manifold ends
they serve; we know, however, that they contain, for the most

part, the conventional readings of the above-mentioned signs and
sign-groups, readings which are either identical with the Assyrian
equivalent of the signs referred to, as given in the column to the
right, or borrowed from one of its synonyms. Certain of these
glosses are still obscure; others, as pisan 'reservoir', in particular,
'water-reservoir', are being proved, with ever increasing certainty,
to be genuinely Semitic words. Moreover when the ideogram for
sumu 'thirst', made up of 'mouth' and 'day. sun etc.', is accom-
panied in VR 31 by the gloss im-ma, we may have been justified
formerly in regarding it as a 'Sumerian' word, but now, when we
read in Babylonian Semitic texts the words emmu 'hot', immu
'heat', and at once recognize them as derivatives of the Semitic
stem dsh, it is clear that the gloss owes its existence to a synonym
of sumu, the genuine Semitic immu. In the same way, as our
acquaintance with the lexicon of Assyrian increases in extent and
depth, the result will be the clearing up of all the other glosses
that as yet remain obscure. Thus even the characteristic 'Sumer-
ian' word dingir 'god' has been shown to be good Assyro-Semitic
by the equation di-gi-ru-u = hi-li-bu-u = ilu, quite recently found
in a vocabular}^ by Bezold!
That the so-called Sumerian connected texts of volumes
II, IV and V, the exorcisms, hymns etc. have, one and all,
passed through Semitic hands, and from beginning to end present
traces of Semitic influence, revision, transposition or whatever one
may choose to call it, is an admission which has likewise been
gaining ground for a considerable period and may at all events
be put down as a support of the anti-Sumerian view. In fact, to
admit the existence of a 'monkish' or 'dog Sumerian' swarming with
compounds, phrases, arrangements of words etc., even transi-
tions of meaning*) either common to all the Semitic dialects or
*) The cases in which whole Semitic words with their ter-
minations have passed over into 'Sumerian', as, e. g. za-ba-lam-a-
ni 'their offering', and the still more repulsive cases in which the
Semite, when writing 'Sumerian'. mixed up two Semitic words
with totally different meanings, asris 'humble' (^ttr) and asris 'in
its place', are intentionally disregarded above. For here there

peculiar to the Semitic of Babylonia, be these the medium of the
speech, poetry and writing of Semites or of Sumerians or of both,
to admit this is, at bottom, the beginning of Anti-Sumerianism.
For, not to speak of other impossibilities, this admission, on the
usual hypothesis of the contemporaneous existence of the two
peoples and tongues, leads to consequences that are absolutely
alarming, for they mean that the Sumerian 'language' must
simply cease and determine. Moreover it will never be possible
for any one to draw a hard and fast line between 'dog Sumerian'
and pure classical Sumerian; for the presumably purest Sumerian,
that of the unilingual texts of the old kings of Ur, Larsam and
Tello (Lagas) is 'dog Sumerian'. Apart altogether from such
plays upon words as, for example, da-er 'lasting, eternal', which
clearly betray their Semitic origin (st. daru, 'last', part, da'ir,
dci'er), we meet at every turn, even in these texts, those Semitic
forms of thought and speech, with which we are all familiar from
the Assyrian monuments and other sources: cf. in the royal titles
such expressions as 'the called one of the true heart, object of the
lifting-up of the eye, etc.' of such and such a deity.
How is it, finally, with the grammatical forms of Sumer-

can be no question of any linguistic principle being at work: they
are simply examples of most regrettable negligence and disregard
of the old rigid ideographic principles, allied, in part, with
thoughtlessness and ignorance. A similar declension from the old
methods of writing appears also in the so-called 'dialectic' texts,
in which the old ideograms are confused (e. g. tug 'be' for dug
'speak') and Semitic words and forms admitted with increasing
recklessness (e. g. se-ib 'enclosure' from Assyr. sibu, syn. of lipittu ;
su-li-li = sulula IV E 20 No. 1, 15/16). As for the 'dia-
lectic' phonetic changes between 'Accadian' and 'Sumerian', the
change of g and d, of n and I, of dug and zib, I regard them
as simply impossible from the point of view of the physiology
of sound; in all probability, we must look for the explanation
rather in Baby Ion o- Semitic synonyms. The change of m and g,
however, which, by the way, must have been present in
Sumerian as early as the time when the Semites 'borrowed'
the cuneiform writing, cf. the syllabic values mi, mir, mal seems
to have its analogy in the Semitic tongue of Babylonia (v. phono-
logy 49, a, note).

ian, which still continue to be put forward, along with the
phonetic syllabic values, as the leading argument for the existence
of a Sumerian language ? These, too, are open to suspicion in
many ways. At the very outset we are struck by the singular
fact that in the midst of the most genuine Semitic Assyrian texts,
where there can be no question of 'Sumerian' originals of any sort,
we find such 'Sumerian word-forms' as dam-na 'his wife', al-tur
'he will be diminished', ni-gal 'it will be' ba-bad 'he will die', na-
an-bal-e 'let no one transgress'. Did the Semitic scribes of Baby-
lonia and Assyria really go so far as to use full-fledged Sumerian
words, with their formative elements, as ideograms to represent
their own proper Semitic word -forms? Did they to use a
simple illustration write: 'the master mourra\ wherein vnourr a
simply represented an ideogram for 'he will die' ? Or is it not in-
finitely simpler to regard orthographical forms like these as wholly
and solely attempts at writing the ideographic equivalents of
Semitic words? More important, however, than the above is the
circumstance that Sumerian grammar reminds us so very often
of Babylonian Semitic. 'Sumerian' employs the characteris-
tically Semitic mechanism of the construct state, distinguishes
precisely the same tenses as Assyrian, and has, in the Verb, a su-
stem and a fa-cm-stem. Its adverbial ending in es e. g. ul-le-es=
elsis (elses), zi-de-es=kenes corresponds exactly to the Assyrian,
e.g. musis 'during the night', samdmes 'heavenwards', dabu'es
'like a bear'. The correspondence is rendered all the more com-
plete by the express statement in VR 37, 57 59 that es or, as it
is customary to say, the 'Sumerian' es is equivalent to i-na as well
as to a-na and ki-ma. It is suspicious that the 'Sumerian' he, like
the Assyrian lu (from Jlfctb 'wish, decide'), is not only the preca-
tive particle, but like the Assyr. lu lu, also signifies 'whether
or' (he-ahe-a), not to mention the use of he for the emphatic
lu with preterite forms (VR 62 No. 2). We have lists (cf. that
published by Bertin in the Journal of the Roy. Asiat. Socy. XVII,
part 1.) in which the elements of so-called Sumerian inflexion are
subjected to a most thorough analysis and set down as preforma-
tlves, informatives or afformatives e. g. ne and bi-i = ana su'ati.

bi-ne and ne-e aita su'ati, bi-in and in=su siCati; i-ni-ni and
mi-ni-ni i-ni-e and mi-ni-e i-ni-in and mi-ni-in=andku
atta sCi sii'ati su'ati; in-na-ni-ni=anaku su'ati su'ati u andku
su'asum; mu=id'um saplis etc. How very strange that the Baby-
lonians should be thus familiar with the structure of the Sume-
rian tongue in its minutest details! Were the Sumerians them-
selves such thorough masters of their language that they could
thus instruct the Semites in its deepest mysteries? Or ti ;.. ihe
Semites themselves discover all those significations by comparative
study of the Sumerian texts? It is infinitely more credible that
lists like these were drawn up solely for the convenience of the
scribes; they were meant to show what meaning was attached to
the multifarious syllables and groups of syllables which were
employed as the ideographic equivalents of the Semitic forms.
Inhere is at present no reason to doubt that what appear above to
be elements in the composition of words will turn out to be
ideograms artificially designed by the Semitic inventors of the
wedge-writing. Here, as elsewhere, we may apply the saying:
dies diem docet. Bertin's list already proves this much, that in
'Sumerian' words such as innanlal, baninlal 'he weighed it'
(iskulsu), nan, nin do not, as is universally assumed, correspond
to the pronominal suff. su, thus giving us, in 'Sumerian', an in-
corporated pronoun, but rather that an-lal, in-lal are equivalent
to is-kul, and that inna and bani symbolize the object, which in
Assyrian, as is well known, precedes the verb (= Assyr. su'ati su
iskul 'it, itself, he weighed'). In this wise another support of the
'Sumerian' theory falls away. I do not deny that, especially as
regards these supposed Sumerian forms, there are enigmas still
awaiting solution, but there is not one among them that can
seriously affect the line of argument which we have hitherto
pursued. The Semitic Babylonians will be found entirely justified
when they ascribed the invention of the art of writing to their
god Nebo, and that besides the Cossseans, they never anywhere
make the slightest mention of a third, a Sumero-Accadian, people
will in the long run be explained by the fact that such a people
was never in existence.


A Vowels.
I. Vowel Sounds.
26. Assyrian has the following vowel sounds: #, $, u,
e\ a, i, u, e. Of diphthongs it has perhaps at.
27. Examples of short and long a, i, u (to which the
beginner may mentally add the corresponding Hebrew
words and forms):
a: amtu 'maid', sarru 'king', kalldtu 'bride', nahlu
and naliallu 'valley, wady', malkatu 'princess', samsu
'sun', daltu 'folding-door', narkdbtu 'waggon, chariot',
astur 'I wrote'; isbatu 'they siezed'; ahu 'brother',
Lanu 'reed'; taSrup 'thou didst burn'.
i: ilu 'god', bintu 'daughter', sittu 'shadow', par-
zillu 'iron'; sipru 'mission'; timdli 'yesterday', libittu
'brick', imeru 'ass'. (For i=ia, e. g. isrup 'he
burned', v. 41; for i from an older a, e. g. selibu
'fox' v. 35).

PHONOLOGY: 2628. 73
u: mutu 'husband', sumu 'name', ummu 'mother';
uznu 'ear', isrup 'he burned'; isrupu 'they burned',
Purdt 'Euphrates', Ululu 'the month Elul'.
ft: sdsu 'moth', attd 'thou'; Id 'not', atdnu 'she-ass',
aldku i gQ,pdkidu 'superintending', bdmdti 'high places'.
(For d=a\ e. g. rddu 'storm'=r#'dfw, v. 47; for
=/-, i-d etc. y. 38, a).
i: si 'she', itti 'with me', mahiru 'purchase price'.
(For tW, e. g. z^w 'wolfWt'&w, v. 47; for i=
, i v. 31 and 30; for i as compensation for i with
ening of the following consonant, e. g. zimu
sptendour'=z/m/w?/, zimiu, v. 41, b).
u: su 'he', atudu 'he-goat', imutu 'they died'. (For
ii=au, au v. 31; for w=w', e. g. Mru 'well'=
&M } rw, v. 47; for w=f(^)-w, i(e)-u, d-u, a-u, e-u etc.
v. 38, a.; for u as compensation for w with sharpen-
ing of the following consonant, e. g. Mnu 'child'=
~bunnu, buniu, v. 41, b).
Assyrian e (a) has in every case, practically, arisen 28.
by phonetic change (umtaut) from an original a
(v. 34); e is sometimes ai or ai reduced to a mono-
phthong, e. g. enu (inu) 'eye' (=m), ter 'make, do'(=
tair, ta'ir), defeat 'she was killed' (=daikat, da'ikat),
biketu (bikitu) 'weeping' (=l>ikaitu), ibrema, 'he looked
and' (^=ibraima)) and sometimes modified, e. g. imeru

(see for the latter 32). Whether these two species
of e were also distinguished in pronunciation, cannot
now be determined.
For an e which has perhaps arisen from an original i
under the influence of a following r or h v. 36.
29. From the law of vowel change discovered by
Haupt and discussed in 32 34, we learn that
Assyrian must be assumed to have had, for a certain
period at least, the vowels e and e: in very many cases
to explain Assyrian i and i, comparative Semitic
phonology and morphology require us to assume an
e and an e as half-way between a and e, a and i. That
the Assyro-Babylonians, further, still pronounced
e and, we know, in the first place from the
Hebrew and Greek reproductions of a number of
Assyro-Babylonian words: note especially Belu b3,
Bf|Xos, Belos (cf. Bel-sar-usur *i2itfTEbSL, Bel-ibus BrjXipoq) ;
Belti 'my mistress' = Bf^\9i? (Hesychius), cf. /nb3 Isa.
10, 4 (Lagarde); Nergal b^S (cf. NnptT^aaopo?) ; isten
^F)W; Tebetu (written Te-U-e-tu) rat); ^mw nb^
Ez. 40. There is much against bs^n being taken
as a loan-word from e-kal-lu, but from Db^ we may
reasonably conclude that in Babylonia and Assyria
Elamtu was pronounced with the vowel e. Compare
also neru 'the number 600' vipos and the gloss of
Hesychius aoOir 6 K6o>io<; BapuXiiwoi, doubtless same.

pronounced safe 'heaven' v. 44). We are taught
the same, in the second place, by the fact that
many words and inflexions are uniformly written with
e. Cf. the substantives ri-e-su 'head', si-e-nu 'small
cattle', si-e-ru 'field' as distinguished from si-i-ru
'exalted', se-e-ru 'morning' as distd. from si-i-ru 'flesh',
ri-e-mu 'mercy' as distd. from ri-i-mu 'wild ox'; also
verbal forms like uUzib 'I saved', usesi 'I brought out'
(cf. Aram, iptt? and WptO), ustesir 'I led aright', the
middle syllables of which are always written se and te,
never si and ti. Not less convincing are the plural
forms in e, where such frequent forms as mu-u'-di-e
'crowds', sa-di-e 'mountains', ni-ki-e 'offerings', ku-ra-
di-e-su 'his warriors', ik-ri-be-su 'his prayers', kul-ta-
ri-e-sa 'her tents', M-e-U-e-a 'my lords', and the fre-
quently occurring addition of the phonetic comple-
ment e to ideographically written plurals like ame-
iu pl -e 'men, people' (Shalm. Mo. rev. 34. 85), aplu pl -e
'sons' (ibid. 38), belu pl -e 'lords' (Assurn. I 19 and oft.)
ilu pl -e-a 'my gods' scarcely leave room for doubt as to
the reading mu'de, bele'a, amele, aple, He* a etc. See
also 32, a, note. And even if it is insisted on that
orthographical forms like ri-i-mu 'womb, mercy' (S b l),
us-si-bi-la 'I caused to bring' (=ustebila] these and
similar forms often in letters), sad-di-i 'mountains'
(in Sennachb.), re-e-si-i-su 'its summit' (V R 62 No. 1,

18), ik-ri-bi-lu 'his prayers' and others prove that the
e's above adduced were pronounced as, still the
illustrations in the first series given above, with their
decidedly persistent orthography, retain their character
and value, like many similar cases in English, as
specimens of historical orthography and testify that
in former times the e, demanded by the laws of
phonology and morphology, was really so pronounced
and was thus distinguished from i The same
holds good of short e: infins. like epesu 'make', erebu
'enter' will scarcely ever be found written ipesu, irebu,
either because they were pronounced with e for a very
long time and may then be regarded as examples
of historical orthography or, as is more probable,
because they were so pronounced down to a late date.
We may, indeed, gather from such favourite modes
of writing as e-ep-se-ti 'deeds', e-es-si-is 'new' (v. 10)
that e was known down even to Neo-Babylonian times.
A third unquestionable proof of the existence of a
vowel e in Assyrian is afforded assuming the purely
ideographic nature of so-called 'Sumerian' by the
lists giving the ideographic equivalents of the Assy-
rian grammatical forms, as mentioned above on p. 70:
they show us that between e on the one hand and i
on the other a clearly marked distinction was drawn,
cf. sets of preformatives like wft,#tt,m, eft ; ub,ab,ib,ebekc.

While accepting the conclusions reached in the 30.
foregoing section, we must, nevertheless, keep two
facts in mind: the first, that even in the earliest
period <?, in particular the e having its origin in ai or
#, must have had a strong leaning towards the pro-
nunciation i (cf. 25 above, p. 64). Thus e. g. Mtu
'house' (extremely seldom betu), Ui, tisi 'I had, thou
hadst' (so written without exception) would seem to
have been never pronounced otherwise than with i,
and in the case of enu and inu 'fountain', the double
pronunciation must go back to a very early period.
Thereafter, in the course of time, the tendency to
pronounce e as i increased in favour, especially, per-
haps, in every day speech, so that aninu 'we', imur
'he saw', inu alongside of enu 'time', amilu alongside
of amelu 'man' must not only have been so written
but so pronounced (note Amel- Marduk^^^Kr^Xi)',
in the inscriptions of Rammannirari I. it is already
quite a common thing to find forms like lu-ti-ir (IV
R 45, 13. 43) cf. Samassum ukin laoabouxtvo^. In
this way is explained the early uncertainty, fatal even
to the historical orthography, in the graphic represen-
tation of the e and i vowels. Even from the very
first these two vowels, as we have just seen, were
confused to a considerable extent in the Assyro-Baby-
lonian writing, and afterwards a further step was


taken and the special sign for e used also for i: thus,
e. g. at-ti-e 'thou' (fern.); se-e-ru 'flesh, blood relation';
su-me 'my name' (V R 62 No. 1, 24. 27); aki-es = #&
I presented' (IRS No. 3,7); genitive singulars like
sul-me (Sams. II 21. Ill 68), ka-te (ibid. IV 43); me-
it-ru 'rain', me-is-ru 'territory' (IV R 44, 8. 21 and
often), mesihtu 'measure, extent'; e-mit-tu fern, of imnu
k to the right'; ba-be-lat 'bringing' (I R 27 No. 2, 6),
ka-e$-se 'presenting' part. (II R 60 No. 2, 32) ; e-me-du
pret. I 1 of "113X4, u-se-bu 'I sat down' (Shalm. Mo.
Obv. 15), ra-am-me-ik 'pour out', the king's name Bel-
du-me-ka-an-ni (V R 44, 46 d) etc. Note especially the
interchange of ne-mi-ku and ni-me-ku 'wisdom' (Neb.
Grot. I 4, Neb. I 7). The necessary remarks as to the
transliteration have been made in 15 (end). It will
be the task of future investigators, putting aside the
occasional varieties of pronunciation, to decide with
increasing accuracy as to each individual form,
whether on grammatical grounds we should set it
down as having been originally pronounced with e or
with 2, always keeping in mind the possibility that
accent and analogy may have also their say in the
matter. I refer here, by way of illustration, to the
genitive sing, of nouns in w, such as sadi and sadde,
saki and sake, nade, pale (always), akkadi (often),
apsi, re$-ti-i (IV R 33, 38 a) from sadu 'mountain',

saku 'high', nadu 'throwing' etc. (of. 66); to the
feminine plurals in cite, ete, as re-se-ti-e 'summits',
(Shalm. Mo. obv. 7), ta-ma-a-te 'seas', Istdrd-te (II R
66 No. 1), mdtdti and mdtdte passim, ep-se-ti-e-su, ep-
se-te-ia 'his, my deeds'; to the cases mentioned in
34, a note and 36, and others. It will be not less
necessary to prepare statistics of all the cases in
which, in spite of the existence of as many as twelve
signs for <?, we find i used, in order to ascertain
whether, and if so to what extent, words and forms
like sii-mi-lu 'left', si-bu-u 'the seventh', is-mi 'he heard',
imur 'he saw', ill 'he came up' were pronounced with /.
We must, however, at the outset give up hopes of
discovering lines of demarcation as regards either
time or place, of the nature, for example, of those
which separate eastern from western Syriac.
Diphthongs. The diphthong au, an is always 31.
in Assyrian reduced to z2, hence e. g. ruku 'far' (=
rauku, raukii), minutu 'number' (=minautu, minautu],
iisib 'I sat down' (=ausib, ausib). For this reason
words like sum 'ox', mutu 'death' become to the eye
identical with nunu 'fish', siimu 'garlic' when
written at least, and most probably also in pronun-
ciation. It is, per se, & possible hypothesis that the
Babylonians and Assyrians had in reality a vowel
o which became identical with u only when written

(as in the case of e and /); cf. for this supposition
avjaao<; = sussu. We must, however, in any case
be the Semites the inventors or the borrowers of the
wedge - writing admit that even in the earliest
period o and u were in most cases interchangeable in
pronunciation. Moreover the confusion of the ideo-
grams for u 'and' and u (o) 'or' is an undoubted proof
that in the historical period o was pronounced as u.
The circumstance that the o of Hebrew proper names
is rendered in Assyrian by u e. g. Wfljtf As-du-du, iaj
Ja-ap-pu-u) cannot be accepted as proof that the latter
was pronounced as o ; the explanation rather is that
u was written as approaching most nearly to o, as may
be gathered from the various renderings of atfi/Q,
sometimes Mu'dla, sometimes M&aba.
It is also probable that ai, like au, was always
reduced to a monophthong (e, ^ A ), cf. U-i-tu 'house',
mdmilu, maskitu, nabmtu, and v. 28 and 30. For
this reason, if for no other, it appears suspicious to
class certain forms like a-a 'not', a-a-u 'which?' as
exceptional forms. Even as regards the written form
it would be very strange both that a and ai should
be so completely identified, and that the diphthong
ai should be graphically rendered by a double a. Just
as it is most probable from the graphical point of
view, that a-a represented long a (v. 13), so, from

the point of view of grammar and lexicon, there is
no consideration which compels us to read ai, aiu,
ainu, ailu instead of a 'not', d'u 'which?', dnu 'where',
dlu 'ram, stag'. For fuller treatment see the relevant
sections in the chapters on the pronoun, noun, and
adverb, viz: for the interrogative stem a 59, for
nouns like abu 'enemy', ddnu 'judge' 64, for the
negative particle d 78.
II. Phonetic Changes affecting the Vowels.
Change of a to e (a).
Change ofa to e (frequently alongside of the 32.
original forms with ).*)
a) With preceding i, e or e: si-ni-ti (i. e. sineti)
alongside of sindti 'they', verbal suffix, plur. fern.;
/werw'ass' (=imdru)', girreti^ ways', mi-is-re-ti 'borders'.
emetu 'mother-in-law' (=emdtu)\ istenu (prop, es-
tenu, ground-form astdn) alongside of istdnu 'sole, one',
erenu 'chest'; epseti 'deeds', esreti 'temples', edleti
'bolted (doors)'; en-di-ku (i. e. endeku = emddku] 'I
stand' perm. remenu 'merciful' (j=remanu)\ beleti
'mistresses', reseti 'summits', teniseti 'human beings'.

*) All the words written by me in continuous transliteration
with e or e are found with the special sign for e. The subdivi-
sions of 32 34 have been suggested, in the first place, by
practical considerations/ thus the emphasizing of a neighbouring
i or e does not necessarily mean that this i or e has occasioned
or favoured the change from a to e. For an undoubted motive
for the change of a to e see 42.
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 6

Alongside of these feminine plural forms, such as
zikreti, limneti, beleti (all written expressly with e; ni-ri-bi-ti forms
an exception) and others, we find quite frequently forms with a:
ffimrdti, ttbnati, niklati, simdati; eldti (u saplati); $ar kendti 'king
of justice' (V B 55, 6). See also under 7.
8) With following i: a-ni-ni, ni-nu 'we' (i. e. aneni,
nenu=andni, ana'ni); tedistu 'renewal*, tebibtu, teliltu
'brilliancy' alongside of tddirtu 'fear'; 1. pers. sing,
pret. Qal of Verbs primse X 19 with i in the second
syllable : esir 'I imprisoned' (but dkul 'I ate') ; parti-
ciples I 1 of verbs primae tf 4> 5 : episu 'making', eribu
'entering'; of verbs med. X 4 : re?u 'shepherd' (=re'i-u)\
of verbs tertise fc* 3 _ 5 : semu 'hearing'. In the same way
ri-bu-u 'fourth', si-bu-u 'seventh', pi-tu-u 'opening', li-
ku-u 'taking' are doubtless to be read rebu, petu etc.
Stray examples are also found with other stems, cf.
especially seUu 'sixth' (=sddu, sddisu)', pret. and
pres. of the Shafel and Ishtafal of verbs primse X 4t5
and primse i: usebir (pres. usebar), userib, usterib and
usesib,usesi,ustesib 'he caused to dwell', alongside of the
rarer usdlis 'I caused to rejoice', and usdsib, uStabil 'he
Y) Not in proximity to i, e or e.
dj in which an ' quiesces: mesiru 'enclosure', medilu
'bolt', metiku 'course, way' (= mesaru, mdsaru etc.);
neribu 'entrance, pass' (= nerabu, ndrabu) ; resu 'head'

(= rusu, ra'su), very rarely rcisu, senu 'flock, small
cattle', seru (si-e-ru) 'back', remu 'womb, mercy', seru
'morning', belu 'lord', but also rddu 'storm'; sumelu
'left', selabu, selibu 'fox'; nap-ti-e-tu (naptetu) 'key'
(= naptdtu, naptdtu), tasmetu 'hearing, granting (of
a request)'; 3. pers. m. sing., m. and f. plur. pret.
Qal of verbs primse tf: ekul 'he ate' (=iekul idkuT),
esir 'he imprisoned', endh 'he sank', epus 'he made',
ezib 'he left', erub 'he entered'; with tf 4 5 also 2. pers.
sing, and plur. and 1. sing.: tepus, epus, tezib, erub
(contrasted with tdkul, dkul, 'thou atest, I ate'; for esir
'I imprisoned' v. j3); forms of the sing. pret. Qal of
verbs tertise tf with ma appended enclitically: abbe-ma,
ipte-ma, time-ma, asme-ma 'I called', 'he opened', 'he, I
heard'; also without ma, but shortened, in pres. as
well as pret. of verbs tertise tf 3 4 : lu-up-te 'I will open',
Us-me-u 'let them hear', i-pe-te-su 'he opens it', i-se-
me, a-sem-me 'he will, I shall hear'; this e is then
further shortened to z, v. 39.
a, in which an ' does not quiesce: surmenu 'cypress'
from an older surmdnu, rdmenu and rdmdnu 'self; ku-
dur-re-ti 'landmark', ruketi 'those at a distance', ma-
di-e-tum 'many' *. e. lands (H. 6), cf. a above; infs. of
verbs primse ^ 4 5 : epesu 'make', erebu 'enter', also in
verbs primse tf 15 such as eresu 'choose, wish', ameru
'be deaf. Examples are found even with strong verbs:

nameru 'shine 1 (Tig. VII 101), pa-ti-ru 'open' (1 Mich.
Ill 14), sa-gi-mu, ra-mi-mu (IV R 28 No. 2) and many
others; these, however, are doubtless = pateru, sage-
mu, ramemu* infs. of verbs mediae 4 ~belu 'rule', (=
be'elu). The same intermediate forms must be assumed
for the infs. of verbs tertiae X 2 _ 5, such as petu 'open',
Zemu 'hear' (=pete'u, seme'u), see further 34, [3. The
change of a to e in the 3. pers. fern. plur. of the pret.
is rare, e. g. uttamme for uttammd (V R 47, 9b). On
the other hand we must place here e 'not', alongside
of a, ekd 'where?' alongside of a-a-ka, i. e. doubtless
dkd cf. ak-ka-a-a^ a-ki-i 'how?' and dnu ]s 'where?'
33. V) Change of a to e the doubled consonant
originally following the a being now written singly.
zeru 'seed' (=zdru, zarru, zaru), ~beru 'glance'
(= ldrU) barru, ~bariu). Pret. of the Piel and Iftaal
(exclusively in Tiglathpileser I and Assurnasirpal?):
u-na(k)-ki-ir 'I changed' and u-ni-ki-ir (I R 28, 9b),
urappis 'I extended' and u-ri-pi-is (Tig. I 61), unappis
and u-ni-pi-is (Assurn. Ill 53), unak(k)is 'I cut off' and
u-ni-ki-is (Tig. Ill 99 and often), u-ki-ni-is 'I subdued'
(Tig. I 54), u-ri-ki-is 'I covered' (I R 28, lib), u-na
(var. ni)-ki-is 'I struck off' (Assurn. I 117), lu-pi-ri-ir
'I broke in pieces' (Tig. V 90), u-ba-an-ni and u-be-
en-ni, 'I caused to shine' (Tig. VII 98), lup-te-hir 'I
collected' (Tig. I 71), us-te-pi-il 'he has bent'. The

second form of each pair just given (cf. also u-te-
im-me-ih 'he took' I R 28, 20 a) favours the reading of
u-ni-ki-is etc. as unekis, (or undkis?), urepis, and so on.
c) Change of a to e. 34,
a.) With i or e following: the syllable sa in the pret.
and part, of the Shafel and Ishtafal of strong verbs
(likewise confined to Tig. and Assurn.?): usaknis 'I
subdued' and u-se-ik-ni-is (Tig. VI 38) i. e. useknis,
as also u-sik-ni-sa (Assurn. I 23), u-sik-lil 'I completed',
mu-sik-ni-su (also musaknisu) 'subduing' (Tig. VII 43)
and others, which must be read with e, u-se-es-kin 'I
caused to make' (Tig. VI 46), u-se-ik (var. sak)-si-du-
su 'he helped him to conquer' (Assurn. I 39); ustashir
and ulteshir. The a of the present of verbs tertise
i: isdsi 'he speaks' and i-sis-si i. e. isesi (IV R 5, 37 b);
of verbs tertise ^ 3 4 : i-ge-te-su 'he opens it', te-lik-ki-e
'thou acceptest' (K. 101), = teleki, i-se-me 'he hears',
i-se-im-ma--in-m 'they obey me', (Beh. 7), isemu 'they
will hear'; more rarely with strong verbs: ta-pi-is-si-
nu 'thou wilt conceal' (Beh. 102), te-kib-lir i. e. teke-
bir 'thou shalt bury'. The a of the pret. of the
Ifteal: akterib 'I advanced', iptekid 'he handed over',
ikterd (=ikUri-d) 'he summoned', iteli 'he went up',
itebir 'he crossed', etetik 'I marched' (but also etdtik),
ilteki 'he took', alteme 'I heard', artedi 'I marched'.
But note also iterub 'he entered', etepus 'I made'

(alongside of etdrub 'I entered', etdpus 'I made').-
For the nominal form J-** v. partly under y, partly
under B. A few 1. perss. sing, of the pret. Qal and
Ifteal: ik-li i. e. certainly ekbi 'I spoke' (I R 49 col.
Ill 19), e-ip-ti-ik i. e. eptik 'I built' (Neb. IV 24 and
oft., Nerigl. I 26), e-ip-ti i. e. epti 'I laid bare' (Nabon.
Ill 31); e-ir-te-it-ti (pronounce erteti) 'I set up' (Neb.
VI 38), e-ir-te-id-di-e-ma (pron. ertede-ma) 'I went'
(Neb. II 23).
From the forms just given, which are few in number and
seemingly confined to later times, with ^ for 5< in the preformative,
are to be distinguished the 1 pers. sing. pret. Ifteal (and Iftaneal)
of verbs primes 4. 5, e. g. eteli 'I went up', etepus 'I made': like
the 3 pers. e. g. eteli pi. etelu 'they went up' (V B, 8, 82). etabrn
'they crossed' (Assurn. Ill 28), etepus 'he made' (Khors. 7) and ete-
nepusu (also etandpusu) 'they made'(VB 3, 111), these forms seem
to owe their e to the intimate connexion of the reflexive stem
with the Qal (ebir, tebir, ebir). In the 3. pers. they interchange
with the regular forms after the manner of itdmar (i. e. ittdmar),
viz: itttik, iteli and so on, while atdpas (Shalm. Balaw. II 5) is
the solitary example of the 1 pers.
(3) With e or e following: the first syllable of the infs.
of the verbs mentioned in 32 y: med. tf 4 : belu 'rule'
(=f)eelu^ bdelu), primse 4t5-1 : epesu, elu 'go up', erebu,
eresu (but also epdsu e. g. Tig. VII 74); tertise tf 2 _ 5 :
sebu (=sebe'u) 'be satisfied', semu 'hear', so too ni-
gu-u 'shine' (rtM), pi-tu-u 'open', li-ku-u 'take', ki-bu-u
'speak' are to be pronounced as negu^ petu, leku, kebu.

The older forms patii, laku, kabu, haru 'dig' are still
found alongside of those just given, and that not
unfrequently. A few examples occur even with strong
verbs, cf. e. g. si-ki-ru, certainly = sikeru, sekeru 'bolt'
(alongside of sandku II R 23, 4:3c).teleki 'thou takest'
(=taleki), teke'bir 'thou shalt bury'.
y) Initial (anlautendes) a (^!_ 5 ) in various nominal
and verbal forms.
S x : ersitu (=ersatu 35, arsatu) 'earth', but an-
batu 'plants'. eru 'chest'. ensu 'weak', esirtu 1 - temple
s. alaltu and elallu 'cistern' (J^).
eritu 'pregnant' ((J- 8 -*). eru 'be pregnant'

^ 3 : emu 'father-in-law'. im-mu (i. e. emmu) 'hot',
also annu 'favour, grace'. eklu 'field' (st. cstr. e-ki-
el),-eklitu 'darkness'. ebru 'friend' (st. cstr. e-bi-ir),
essu 'new'=e^sw^ edisu, adisu (J-^)-
X^: enu 'lord, master', ezzu 'fearful'. enzu 'goat',
esrd 'twenty'. eli 'upon', elamu 'high' (J-*). edlu
'bolted, barred', epistu 'deed' (J**). endeku 'I stand',
peicm. = amddku. epus 'it is made', perm. (J-i)
erub 'enter', ebir 'go across', (but akul 'eat'). emuku
'might', doubtless for amuku. Cf. with these abdu
'servant', adi, adi 'unto', again 'calf, atudu 'he-goat'.
o) Other miscellaneous cases: the a of the nominal
stem J.R9 and of the permansive of the Qal of stems

terti^e K 3 _ 5 : pi-tu-u (i. e. petu, same formation as edlu)
'opened'; teMku, tebuni 'I come, they come'. selaltu
'three' alongside of salallu, nardru and nerdru (Khors.
113) 'helper', serritu (sirritu) 'concubine' (rm).
taslitu and teslitu 'prayer', so too tesUtu 'wish, request
= tasUtu, and tasritu as well as tesritu (tisritu) 'con-
secration; beginning, the month Tishri'.
On 32 34: certain groups of ideograms, as well as many
glosses, still present the equivalent Babyl.-Assyr. words, even
when the latter have e, in their original form with the vowel a\
cf. A. $I. v GA = esiffu, A. DE. A = edw, A. GUB. 'BA = agubbu and
effubbu, SUE. MAN=SMrmew?t, epinu (gloss apin S lj 291), seni-
pu or smipu (gloss sdnabi S b 52), etc.
2. Transition of unaccented short a to i.
35. The transition of unaccented short a to i under
the influence of an e or e in the preceding syllable is
found in the follg. : selibu^ more rarely selabu 'fox'.
Cf. also the above-mentioned senipu 'two thirds' con-
trasted with the gloss sdnabi. mesiru, metiku and
others from mesaru, mdsaru, so too neribu ndrabUj
v. 32, $.leKt(u) 'lady, mistress', rarely lelat (III
R 7 col. I 3; see for the ground-forms belatu and the
still older lalatu II E 36, 65. 62 a), rebitu 'street,
market-place' (=rebatu, rdbatu). ezzu fern, ezzitu,
ellu 'shining' fern, ellitu (as opposed to dannu, dannatu),
ersitu, eklitu ( 34, y) from ersatu, eklatu, so

(i. e. erpitu] 'cloud' from erpatu; for this reason in
34, 8 sirritu 'concubine' was given as serritu. esrit
'temple' (st. cstr. originally es(i)rat, from esirtu).
Accented a is more stable: metaktu, mekaltu 'small
stream'; elamtu fern, of elamu; but cf. e. g. ni-bar-tu
and ni-Mr-tu 'crossing'.
In close connexion with the two vocalic sound- 36.
changes just given, let us mention the transition,
suggested by Haupt, of i to e under the influence of an
immediately following r or h: i seems to have partially
assimilated itself to these two consonants as in Hebr.
Wan? for TatT\ Take, for example, extremely frequent
orthographical forms in certain cases occurring
almost without exception such a,s u-nam-me-ra 'I
caused to shine', u-ma-e-ru 'they sent', u-mas-se-ir-u
'I sent him away' (Tig. V 29), us-se-ru 'they tore down',
lu-mas-se-ru 'they left' (Tig. Ill 67), mu-gam-me-ru
'carrying out, completing', us-te-es-se-ra 'I set right',
za-e-re-su 'his enemies' (IV R 44, 25), mesaru and
meseru 'righteousness' (but surely = mesiru) and many
others; to these add u-te-im-me-ih 'he caught', lu-sat-
me-hu 'they caused to hold', (Tig. I 51), ta-me-ih
'holding' (Tig. VI 56) and others. Now forms like
these should really compel us to see in the e more
than a mere inaccurate way of writing /, from which
it must follow that these forms are not, like u-sah-

me-tu-niormu-sa-ak-ni-es (Assurn. Ill 11 1), for example,
to be classed with the cases discussed in 30.
3. Syncope of short (and long) Vowels.
37. We distinguish the following cases of syncope:
a) Syncope of unaccented short a and i after a long
syllable. (1) The a (i) of the feminine termination : ti'dmtu
= ttdmatu, beltu = belitu, belatu\ Umtu 'decision', sihirtu
'circuit' st. cstr. siliirat\ batultu 'virgin', subultu 'ear
(of corn) 1 '= subulatu, usurtu (usurtu) 'curse' st. cstr.
usurat. RaUtu, sakutu, also, stand for rabi-atu, $aku-
atu. (2) The i of the participle J^ : dsibu and dsbu
'dwelling', fern. (st. cstr.) dsibat and dsbat. (3) i in the
preterite Qal of Verbs prirnse 1: ubiluni and ubluni
(ubluni) 'they brought', iibila and ubla 'he brought',
uriduni and urduni 'they went down'.
b) Syncope of unaccented short a, i, u after a short
syllable. (1) In many nominal forms, both inflected and
uninflected: sdntu 'year' (=sanatu), rapsu 'far, wide',
fern, rapastu, st. cstr. rapsat, pi. rapsdti (for rapasu,
rapasat, rapasdti); sihru 'small', fern, sihirtu, st. cstr.
sihrat\ pulhu 'fear', fern, puluhtu, st. cstr. pulhat;
maliku and malku 'prince', kabtu 'heavy', fern, kabittu,
I st. cstr. kabtat, erinu and ernu 'cedar' (labiru 'old'
is never syncopated) ; zikaru and zikru 'male'; limnu
'wicked', fern, limuttu. (2) In many verbal forms:

the i of the permansive of the Qal in almost all the forms
except the 3. pers. sing. masc. : asbat 'she dwells', a-
bdtu 'I dwell', asbu 'they dwell' instead of a&bat etc. ; the
vowel of the second radical in the imp. Qal: usrd 'help'
(=usurd), erbi fern, 'enter' (=erubi)', the vowel of
the second radical in Ifteal and Nifal : imtalku (=imtali-
ku) 'they took counsel together', iptahru 'they assembled
(themselves)', ittaklu 'they confided', iterba 'he entered'
(=.iterubd),itepsu 'they made' (also itepusu\iktansus 'they
prostrated themselves before him' (=iktanasu-s) along-
side of forms like iptdlahu\ sa i-da-bu 'who will speak'
(=idal)l)u, iddbubu), tili astallum 'the city which I
carried away (captive)' (=astdlalum, K. 257 obv. 32).
c) Syncope of unaccented short a after a doubled
consonant, the doubling being, at the same time,
dispensed with: altu 'wife'=as*w, assatu, masrdti plur.
of massartu instead and alongside of massardti, u-gal-
bu 'they Q.og'=ugallabu, u-na-ak-ru 'they make enemies
of (=unakkaru), etc.
Examples of the rare syncope of a long vowel are :
rdmdnu, rdmenu and rdmnu 'self; remenu and remnu
'merciful'; dl narmisu 'his favourite city' (Neb. Ill 36)
for dl nardmisu ; usziz 'I set up' from and alongside
of useziz, A case of syncope must also be assumed
in ki us-l)a-ku(-ni) 'during the sojourn' (in Assurn. and
Shalm.); see my Assyrian dictionary p. 29.

4. Contraction of two Vowels.
38. Two very different sorts of contraction of two
contiguous vowels may be discussed together in the
present section:
a) Contraction of two contiguous vowels in such
a way that the first vowel loses itself in the second,
lengthening the latter when it is short, is especially
frequent in verbs tertiae infirmse, where it is found in
the most varied forms. Examples of the contraction
of i-u (u) to w, and of i-a (a) to a: bdnu 'building',
petu 'opening' (=&#m-w, peti-u), musamsu 'causing to
find' (=musamsi-u); also imsi 'he found', ipti 'he
opened', iSmi 'he heard', ibni 'he built'; but with the
frequent ending a of the sing., the d of the 3. pers.
plur. fern., the u of the relative clause and the u of
the 3. pers. plur. we have imsd, imsu; iptd, iptu; ismd,
ismu; ibnd, ibnu. In the case of i-u (e-u\ however, we
still not unfrequently find the uncontracted forms
e. g. e-li-u-ni 'they went up' (Assurn. II 82), il-ki-u-ni
'they took, fetched' (I B 28, 27 a), ik-U-u-ni 'they
command', lis-me(mi)-u 'may they hear' (Tig. VIII 26).
Contraction of d-u to u: nasu 'carry', banu 'build' (=
naSd'u, lana-u, landiu]\ also in the adjectives of
relation in d with the u of the nom. sing, and the u
of the plur. masc.: AUuru (= Assurdu, Assurdiu) 'the
Assyrian, Assyrians'; Exx. of e-u to u: petu, semu.

Note, further, (for the inlauf) 55, b and 57, a. A
large field for the contraction of two vowels is also
afforded by the declension of nouns formed from
verbs tertise infirmse: rubu 'great' (= rubd-ul), gen.
rubi, ace. ruM, plur. rube', rdbu 'great' (= rdbi-u),
gen. rabi, ace. rabd\ surbu 'great' (= surbu-u), gen.
surbi, ace. surbd; namsu 'washing-place' (= namsi-u)',
rabdti 'great' (fern, plur.), tdbrdti (= tdbri-dti), cf. e-ri-
a-ti (also e-ra-a-ti) 'pregnant women', nam-zi-a-ti; so
too undti = unu-dti (not = unauati), etc.
&) Contraction of two contiguous vowels in such
a way that the first vowel is preserved, while the
second is suppressed, giving up, at the same time, its
accent to the first vowel and sharpening (doubling)
the immediately following consonant, if the latter is
not already sharpened: in verbs primse tf in the pres.
of the Qal and in the pret., pres. and part, of the
Piel; cf. i-a-db-ba-tu i. e. fdbatu 'he will destroy' (I R
27 No. 2, 57), usually, however, iblatu, immar 'he sees'
(= fdmar), illak 'he goes' (== i'dlak); uabbit 'he
destroys', pres. rfabbat, part, mu'abbit, but usually
ubbit, ubbat, muddis 'renovating' etc. (The pres. Qal
of verbs primse & 4 5 : ezzib, tezzib, ippus (eppus), irrub
(errub) is formed directly from the preterite; for
details v. 90, a, note).
For the contraction of the precative particle lu

and the vocalic preformatives of the verb i, u, a
see 93.
5. Complete Loss of Vowels.
39. Complete loss of vowels, together with the loss
of the X which accompanies the vowel as first radical
or of the X or i as third radical, which has been ab-
sorbed by the vowel, is found, on the one hand, in
both nominal and verbal formations from stems
primse 1 (anlaut) and, on the other hand, in those
from stems tertise X and "> (auslaui). As examples of
the anlaut we may cite here nominal stems formed
like biltu 'offering', siptu 'conspiracy', subtu 'dwelling',
suttu 'dream', also lidu, liddnu 'child' (from stems
primse 1 or tf), = ibiltu, usubtu etc. ? Observe ilittu
alongside of littu 'shoot'. To these we must add the
imperative Qal of stems primae 1 ; rid 'come down',
si 'go out' etc. Other, more isolated, examples of the
loss of an initial vowel are : anini and nmi 'we', timdli
'yesterday' from and alongside ofitimdti; teziz (= iteziz)
he provoked' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 162), dbur instead and
alongside of d ibur in the Babylonian street-name
A ibur sa-bu-um (Neb. V 15), Idsi instead and along-
side of Id iSi 'he was not' (cf. la-as-su Tig. VII 25);
duku, ballit (= aduku, uballit, Assurn. I 81) doubtless
belong to the speech of the common people. Before

we give examples of this loss in the auslaut, there is
a preliminary to it which must be mentioned here.
This is the extreme shortening of the final vowel
produced by the short vowel of the second radical
and the vowelless third radical, in verbs where the
latter is a weak letter. This shortening takes place
in every case where the final vowel is not retained by
an appended ma: thus we find ibbema 'he announced
and', ismema 'he heard and' (e = a, v. 32, y), also
ibrema 'he saw and' (e = ai, ai), but elsewhere with
short e (cf. ipete 'he opens', iseme 'he hears'), and usu-
ally short /, ibbi, ipti, ismi, ibni 'he built' (tabni, abni).
In such preterital and presential forms this short i is
now and then completely suppressed: lu-us 'I will go
out' (= liisi, in prop, names), i-ta-am 'he thinks' (=
itdmi, Neb. Ill 26), i-se-im 'he will hearken to' (= iseme,
Shalm. Throne Inscr. 5), i-te-il 'he goes off' (= ittli,
V R 25, 45 d), etc. ; cf. ]l^. Among nouns we find a
completely analogous case in mate-ma 'whensoever'
(e = ai, ai), but mail 'when?' and still further short-
ened mat, e. g. adi mat '(till) how long?'; in the same
way we have ell (from eli) and el 'upon'. Cf. also the
permansive forms of the Qal : malt 'he is full', malat,
mal-d-ta\ ba-ni, ban-at, ban-d-ta etc.; participles like
ndsi 'carrying', bdni 'building': st. constr. nds, ban,
fern, bdn-tu, st. cstr. bdnat 'mother', so Ukat 'accepting'.

semat 'hearkening to', musamsat 'causing to find'; the
same applies to the const, st. of the nominal stem
J***: rob (from rabu = rabi-u) etc. Even long vowels
are completely dropped within verbs tertise i: observe
surbii fern. sur-Mtu, perm. 2. m. sing, surbdta. For
the passages where the above mentioned feminine
forms are to be found see 68, and notice the
remarks in 62 concerning points discussed in
the present section. Other, isolated, cases of the
vowel being dropped in the auslaut are e. g. the
suffix s (for su, si), and the permansive forms
kasddt(a), kasddk(u).
B. Consonants.
I. Consonantal Sounds.
40. Assyrian has the following consonants : ', &, g, d,
z, h, t, k, /, m, n, s, p, s, k, r,, t.
41. Assyrian lacks the two semi-vowels u and i and
it is only from the inflexion of words that we can
gather that they once existed in the language even
as radical letters.
a) Verbs primse 1 uniformly appear in Assyrian
as verbs primae 8 15 hence asdbu 'sit', dsibu 'sitting',
^}aldu 'they are born', usdSib and usesib 'I caused to
sit', cf. also u'allid', only the pret. of the Qal usib (i, e.

iusib, (ausib) and the pres. still betray the original
anlaut (for details v. under verbs primse 1, 112).
Hence also dru 'forest' (=Jj fc> r the orthography of
the word v. 14), arkdnu 'vegetables' (written ia-ar-
ka-nu), tfelu (a'ilu) 'wild goat' (written ia-e-le plur.
IR 28 col. I 20); for the sign ia = a see 12 (who-
ever reads iarkdnu, ia'elu must assume them to be
borrowed from Hebrew or Aramaic). For the i of
stems tertise i, which is treated quite like the *> of
stems tertise \ and, like \ is no longer retained as an
independent consonant, v. the close of this. For
verbs med. \ as well as for those med. i v. 115.
ti) In Assyrian the Semitic semi-vowel i is al-
ways dropped in the anlaut before 2, w, w, and ^: thus
we have Immtt 'day', upattira 'he cleft, opened', wr/tf
'he went down', umu 'day', isi 'he had', ekul 'he ate'
not iimmu, iupattira, ntrid, iumu, iisi (==misi) lekul
(from idkul). Assyrian had also a dislike to the
phonetic combination la. It was employed, it is true,
to express ^ and ^ of foreign, especially Hebrew,
names, e. g. la-u-du Tiro, la-ap-pu-u IB;, 7-w ^; in
such foreign words, however, the initial i was only
pronounced with difficulty, and was, by preference,
entirely suppressed (cf. lalmdn and Almdn, latndna
and Atndna 'Cyprus', always supposing that these
words really have i for their initial vowel). In the
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 7

same way the pronunciation of ia-a-me 'of the sea'
(II K 41, 45 a. 43, 59 a) was not lami but ami (v. 14) ;
still less did they pronounce idsi instead of dsi (v.
14, 55 b). Initial ia appears in Assyrian sometimes
as a, e. g. anakdti 'she-camels' (III R 9, 57. st. p^),
sometimes as i the latter, perhaps, in isu 'be, have',
(but cf. 112) and in idu 'hand, side'? (the ortho-
graphy of the form ia-du I R 7 No. F, 8, by the way,
it to be explained ace. to Assurn. II 60). ia always
appears as i in the prefix of the 3. pers. m. sing, and
m. and f. plur. of the Qal, Ifteal, and Nifal: iksud 'he
captured' (=iaksud), ittik 'he went' (=ic?lik), iktasad
(=iaktasad) etc. The only exception is the pret. Qal
of verbs primae 1, i and, excluding *|btf 2 > primse X, cf.
the beginning of a and 1) of the present section. |, in'
Assyrian, is likewise dropped between two vowels :
hence the pronom. suff. of the 1. pers. sing. only,
of co'urse, where it would be ia and not i after in u,
e and a always appears as a: se-pa-a-a 'my feet',
doubtless pronounced sepd ( 13), abu-u-a 'my father'
(Beh. 1), ga-tu-u-a 'my hands', mah-re-e-a 'before me'
(also written mah-re-ia read mah-re-a 12 ), U-e-
le-e-a 'my lords', ap-la-a(-a) i. e. apld 'my son'.
Judging from these facts, to assume Assyrian forms
like a-ia-lu, da-ia-nu is open to very grave suspicion
(cf. 13). In the same way the above mentioned

suffix appears as a after a short i: sarru-ti~a, ina ta-
a-a-ar-ti-a 'on my return' (Shams. Ill 37) i. e. sarrutfa,
iarti'ct', on orthographical forms like sarru-ti-ia v. 12.
This omission of i between two vowels must be
assumed for the original ending in m of the so-called
adjectiva relationis, when a case-sign is appended:
Assuru 'the Assyrian' (=Assurdiu). When no case-
sign is attached, the ending referred to is probably
in a (v. 13): Sidund 'the Sidonian'; the original
semi-vowel, however, is still distinctly recognizable in
the two feminine endings, d-i-tu, where it appears as
a vowel, and itu, where di or di is reduced to a mo-
nophthong. Loss of the semi-vowel i seems also to
occur in the pronoun d'u, d'umma, d'amma (v. 59).
It is, however, especially the i of stems tertise i that,
has completely lost its independence in Assyrian.
After a long vowel it is dropped, cf. inf. ~banu=
bandi-u, amdtu, kindtu, rubil ( = ruMi-u). With
a preceding a the semivowel i unites to form |,
/, e or i (cf. ~bikitu\ which is frequently shortened
to e or i when standing at the end of a word (mat,
mati 'when?', adi and adi 'until', ibni) and afterwards
dropped altogether (mat 'when', eli, eli, el 'upon'),
v. 39; with a preceding /, it becomes i (cf. rabttu,
part, tem.pdctitu), which is also shortened, when stand-
ing at the end of a word (rabi 'he is great'), and after-

wards dropped altogether (ban-at, rati), v. ibid. In
forms like zimu, Mnu^zimiu, buniu the semi-vowel
has assimilated itself to the preceding consonant,
whereon the doubling has been compensated for by
the vowel being lengthened (cf. other cases of this
sort in 33 and 53). All that has been said con-
cerning the i of stems tertise *> holds good mutatis
mutandis for the 1 of stems tertise 1 : hence inf. manu,
miniitu 'number', imnu 'he numbered', minu 'number'.
42. In the aspirate or breath, ' or tf, are united the
Hebr. tf, n, n x (i. e. c), *i (t) an ^ 2 2 (i) 5 there was cer-
tainly no difference in the pronunciation of the initial a
of #/w 'brother', aldku 'go^alibu 'sweet milk', adi 'unto',
and aribu 'raven'. From an etymological point of
view, however, these various ' must be clearly dis-
tinguished according to their five-fold source; this
is all the more necessary from the fact that there
are unmistakable indications, in the morphology of
Assyrian, of the original diversity of. Thus, in most
cases at least, #, td, a etc., when X 4>5, corresponding
to a Semitic y (, ), immediately precedes, follows
or quiesces in one of them, have a far greater ten-
dency to pass into e and e than when in the neigh-
bourhood of ! (Hebr. $) : thus we have dkilu, but
cptiu, eribu, rtiimu, but re*u (v. 32, J3) ; tdkul, dkul,
but tepuS, epu$, terub, erub ( 32 7); uSdJcil, dkul, but

(usually at least) usebir, userib ( 32, [3); ma'ddu 'be
many' (also rdmu 'love'), but belu 'rule'; akul 'eat',
but ebir, enib ( 34, y); innamir 'he was seen', but
innemid 'he was placed'. Even when at a greater
distance, 4 5, as compared with tf 15 makes its in-
fluence felt in Assyrian morphology in favour of the
change of a and a to e and <?; thus we find akdlu, but
epesu, erebu ( 32, y, p. 83), masu 'find', but smw 'hear'
(p. 84) ; ndsu 'carrying', but semu 'hearing' ( 32, 3).
Cf. further nitdmar, but nitepm', attdbi 'I named', but
alieme 'I heard'. The conjugation of the verb aldku
'go', deviating as it does from that both of verbs
primse ^ and of verbs primse tf 4 5, would be inexpli-
cable were there contained in it an K, radically diffe-
rent from those just mentioned. Assyrian h in the
great majority of cases corresponds to the Arabic ^
(n 2 ), e. g. ahu 'brother' hatu 'to sin', while c (nj, as
already remarked, has been, in most cases, reduced to
tf, e. g. emu 'father-in-law', seru 'morning', leku (likii)
With regard to the pronunciation of the explo- 43.
sives &, ^, d\ j9, k, #; ^, /, we would offer the following
remarks,, keeping in mind what has been already said
in 19. The Babylonians were accustomed to pro-
nounce k quite like g: they pronounced and wrote
fya-ga-du 'head', ga-ga-ru 'ground', ga-tu 'hand', ga-


ar-du 'strong', i-ga-ab-'bi 'he speaks', while the Assy-
rians spoke and wrote kakkadu, kakkaru, kdtu^ kardu,
ikabU. Examples of similar orthography are met with
in Assyrian vocabularies and so-called 'bilingual
texts', since these go back, in most cases, to Baby-
lonian originals. Moreover, from the point of view
of the physiology of sound, g and k, as is well known,
are so nearly related, that one cannot be suprised at
meeting even in original Assyrian texts those, for
example, of Tiglathpileser I and Sargon the mode of
pronouncing and writing the k just referred to : guru-
ndti, ugarrin from the st. pp, etc. Recently the
question has been raised by Haupt, whether or not in
Assyrian, as in Hebrew and Aramaic, the M&D"Wfl be-
tween two vowels were pronounced as spirants. Haupt
answers the question in the affirmative. He appeals,
inter alia^ to the Babylonian reproduction of the name
Artaxerxes by Artaksatsu, and the relation of the latter
to the Hebr. ^OttJHFHK; also to the equations TauG^
(Damascius) = Tdm(a)tu, Tdv(a)tu, Bf|\6is (Hesychius)
=bel(d)ti, lao^bouxivoq (Berossos)=Savas-sum-ukm (the
reproduction of the names of the king Sarrukin and
of the god Ner(u)gal by the Hebr. fiJhO, bins seems
less convincing, although it is now regarded as most
probable that the pronunciation of the above six con-
sonants as spirants in Hebrew dates from an early

period). Haupt further refers to the fact that the
historical orthography of words containing one or
more of the SnSDl^l appears now and again to be
departed from in favour of the every-day pronuncia-
tion: thus (ace. to Pinches) in V R 14, 10 d Assyr.
na-ba-su interchanges with the Babyl. na-l>a-ti, the
s thus appearing to represent n and, in particular,
the fern, mcfattu 'much' (=ma > adtu} is, in Assurbanipal,
repeatedly written mcfassu: cf. tdbtu ma'assu 'much
good' (Assurb. Sm. 170, 93) ; dikta ma'assu adiik 'many
did I kill' (ibid. 291, m), interchanging with dikta
ma'attu adiik (V R 7, 115); itti tirhati mtfassi 'with
much dowry' (V R 2, 71), interchanging with itti
nudunne maadi (ibid. 78). These examples, for which
it is difficult to find another explanation than that
just given, really afford material for reflexion in
regard to this important question of the nSDtn. The
frequently observed interchange of g and 1\ in ideo-
grams and glosses, as we find it in the ideographic
system of writing cf. among others the quite usual
form lah-ga=laha might also, from the anti-Sume-
rian standpoint, be brought forward in favour of
pronouncing g as a spirant.
The labial nasal m was, in general, pronounced 44.
as in Hebrew, especially at the beginning of a word,
cf. Mar(u)duk tflS'a, MoXopo^ap (Hesych.) == mulu-

lab(lj}ar, etc. In loan-words from the younger Baby-
lonian and in foreign words learned through that
medium, m after a vowel, in the middle and end of
words, is repeatedly given by the Hebr. or Aram, i:
cf. Arahsdmna lltDn^ti, Kis(i)Hmu lb03, Si-ma-nu ^pPC,
Amel-Marduk Sprtob^B ('AjuiXjuapouboKoq, Berossos), zimu
'brightness' 1*>T, drgamdnu 'red purple' Aram. "JWK
(Hebr. fajfitf). The above is confirmed by the glosses
of Hesychius, according to which the sun was called
among the Babylonians aadb? (=Samas, Savas; cf. also
IaoDamascius' rendering of Tdmtu and of Damkina, the
wife of Ea, by Tau0 and AaOxri. From these facts,
taken in connexion with the Babylonian and Hebrew
rendering of Persian words like Ddrayavaush by Ddrid-
mus i. e. Tl^PTj, it is quite evident that the Baby-
lonians in later times pronounced the labial nasal m
as the labial spirant v. That m, however, at a much
earlier period, both in Babylonian and Assyrian, was
in many cases pronounced as v, in the inlaut at least,
is proved by the Assyrian transliteration of foreign v
and Semitic u in names like Jdmanu=^ 'Ionia', Ar-
ma-da (in Tiglathpileser I, Assurnazirpal, Shalmaneser)
alongside of A-ru-a(d)-da, Ar-u-a-da=^^ (cf. Ha-u-
ra-a-ni 'Hauran'). Note also the Assyrian Hal-man=
i^^s*. (with the nunation), just as, vice versa, surminu


'cypress' appears in Aramaic as fcWWltB (alongside of
WYTO). We are led to the same result namely,
that even in the Assyrian period m, in the inlaut, was
in many cases pronounced as v (not universally,
however, cf. SuImAh=yEbw in the name of Shalmaneser)
by the name of the planet Saturn, Hebr. "p^D (Am.
5, 26), Arab. o \$& in its relation to Assyr. ka-a-a-
ma-nu (i. e. kdmdnu, kdvdnu 13; ace. to Haupt we
should read ktfdvdn, from which we should have Hebr.
]^3 like tTPJE alongside of ni'tfJE). For the complete
oniission of the m, after it has become v, /, see further
49, a; see also the same section for an occasional
v (u), a secondary development from an intervocalic
tf. For the pronunciation of m as n before dentals
and gutturals, as also for the rare interchange of m
and g, see the same section. Finally for further
treatment of m see 52. For the pronunciation
of the dental nasal n as m before labials, see
49, b. For n see also 52.
For the liquids I and r, in so far as they have 45,
been developed from sibilants see 51, 3. We
may further, in passing, call attention to the
various ways in which a shewa-like vowel, with a
leaning to syncope, is treated and written when follow-
ing r, thus: Aramu and Armu 'Aram', but also Arimu
and Arumir, Arabu^ Aribu, Anibu and Arbu 'Arabian';

/ii-ri-bU) ni-ru-bu (Assurn. II 24) and nirbu 'pass'.
On r and / as the second radical in quadriliteral
stems v. 61.
46, On the pronunciation of the two sibilants z and
s there is nothing to be said: it is the same as
in Hebrew and, just as there are etymologically
two T's and three 's in Hebrew, so there are two z's
and three s's in Assyrian. Cf. irzu 'cedar' t^tf, xjt,
ll'f Oi)> uznu 'ear' ]JK o >t, |J?f 2 ) ; subu 'finger'
^f, j.^ (s^.jupru 'claw' pfes, yL ]4 fe),
'earth' y^, j,' t, |^?f, fe). Of the two sibilants
5 and s, the former corresponds to the Hebrew o;
the latter, sh, is also etymologically of three kinds:
sa'dlu 'ask' bW, j&, V-^ ft), swrM 'ox' nW, ; _0, ] 5 ? ol
(s z ),..Jcarsu 'belly' tons, J^ |jS^ (s 3 ). In Babylo-
nian both 5 and never, we may say, ceased to
preserve their original pronunciation. This is best
shown by the names of the months, which the
Hebrews borrowed from the Babylonians during the
exile: Tisritu ^TDPl, Arahsctmna 'jlT&n^'a, Sabdtu BITO
on the one hand, Ni-sa-an-nu "jo^, Si-ma-nu ITO, Kis(i)-
limu lbD3 on the other. Cf. further Bel-sar-usur
^SKT&ba (also j'ftew ^P)^) for the one sibilant, Sippar
n^^SD, Simiballit tD^D for the other, as also the
Babylonian names of the winds which have found
their way into the Aramaic of the Babylonian


Gemara: sutu 'South' tftiw and sadu 'East'
(Also TOTp, if=Sumer; here belong further the
Aramaic apt?, KSifc, and perhaps the Hebrew-
Aramaic qtBfc*)' I n accordance with the above, the
Babylonians render the sh of a foreign tongue, as we
should expect, by s: Kusu 'Ethiopia' like flFD, $#n'-
civus (TDV^lj), #wr#s (flhl'3) = Pers. Ddrayavaush,
K'n^ush etc.; a foreign 5, on the other hand, is
rendered by s, cf. Babyl. Aspasina and Pers. Aspacand,
Babyl. Ustaspa and Pers. V-ishtaspa etc. *isat?tpb!a is
no exception to the rule, for this name in Babylonian
may have been equally well Balatasu-usur as Baldtsu-
usur; it seems, in any case, to be strongly influenced
by the similarly pronounced ^tftfcu A real exception,
however, is a word which is repeatedly found in
Nebuchadnezzar written hursanis 'mountain -like',
while 'mountain, mountain range' is, in its original
form, hursu. The exception has perhaps been caused
by the coming together of two sibilants and the effort
to obtain greater case of pronunciation by means of
dissimilation. Compare, however, usannu (III B, 43
col. Ill 21) instead and alongside of usannu (1 Mich.
II 14), srPiDN! 'North'=Babyl. istdnu, and a few others.
The two pairs Srfalu blKTT and Istar rn'PNBS have been in-
tentionally disregarded, since their explanation as loan-words
from Babylonian is both uncertain and improbable. The name of
the Old Babylonian king Samsu-i-lu-na, the son of Hammurabi,

and that of the Old Assyrian king Samsi-Ramman (1 E 6 No. 1)
render it probable that even in the earliest period the word for
'sun' fluctuated between samsu, samsu and samsu.
In Assyrian, on the other hand, s has given up,
more and more, its pronunciation as sh and has
gradually become identical with s. For Assyrian
words and forms, it is true, the historical orthography
was faithfully adhered to (although after s and s had
become identical in pronunciation, they could not
fail to get mixed up -in writing, cf. ishup 'he cast
down' Tig. II 39, ispunu Shalm. Ob. 21, nashuru 'a
turning to' I R 35 No. 2, 7 for ishup, ispunu, nashuru]
also askup and iskupu Tig. VII 24. 22, and again isruka
'he gave' Assurn. II 26 for isruk, and many others) but
the employment of the signs containing s was confined
to genuine Assyrian words, while the s of foreign
words was rendered simply by 5, it being, of course,
pronounced like that letter. An Assyrian s, on the other
hand, naturally appears as a simple s, when reproduced
by foreigners, since these heard only an s. As illu-
strations of the latter statement cf. Tukulti-pal-esara
nCtfbirnbrft, Sarrukm fl'ShO, Asur-ah-iddina ffarn'CK,
saknu, 'viceroy' D^C pi. ; of the former, DbttW Ursa-
limmu, fhtJE Sa-me-ri-na, TVm$ Asdudu, Win A-u-si-a,
'Ethiopia' tFD Kiisu, Sasank I^auuYxi? Susinku and many
others. In Hebr. fipE-rn (=Assyr. rob sake 'chief

officer') the tD may be due to a mistaken popular
etymology. In the same way the rendering of AUur
by -fiBJtf is only an apparent exception, since the
Hebrews' acquaintance with the name of the country
must date from a period prior to the time when s was
universally pronounced as s. Such a period may
perhaps be found in the reigns of Tiglathpileser II
and Sargon; the D in the sadly disfigured name of
king iDZtttibttJ (kssyr.Sutmdn-asared) is to be explained
partly by dissimilation, partly by the influence exer-
cised by the name ^OxbfeTtori. In Assurbanipal's time
the rule given above, that s, notwithstanding its
being pronounced as s, must not be employed to
render a foreign s, began to be set aside, and conse-
quently we find in a few proper names like Pu-si-ru
'Busiris', Hininsi (05fl), Si-ia-a-u-tu^ Pi-sa-an-hu-ru,
Ha-rsi-ia-e-su, in Assurbanipal's prism inscription an
Egyptian s rendered by an Assyrian s, pronounced as
5. Still the only correct rendering of a foreign s like
that just given is found, for example, in the name of
Sais, Egyptian Sau, Sal (with o), Assyr. Sa-a-a (with
D). Phenomena such as these would be inconceivable,
had the Assyrians, as some maintain, pronounced not
only s as s, but also s as s. That the name of the
moon-god in Assyro-Babylonian was Sin (with o), not
Sin, is a fact which nothing can alter; the rendering


of the name Sm-ahe-erba by S^rwp proves, accordingly,
that the Assyr. s, like the Babyl. s, was never
pronounced and never heard otherwise than as s. So
long as no Assyrian word can be pointed out, the s
(o) of which is reproduced in a foreign tongue by s
(tiJ), we must maintain that in the pronunciation of
Assyrian s and s, we have to do, not with an inter-
change of sounds (Lautverschiebung), but simply with
a 'onesided softening of the broad sibilant sh to s
for which analogies are not wanting in the other
languages of the Semitic group.
For the rendering of b in Assyrian cf. on the one hand
-^2=Samru (III K 5 No. 6, 45), on the other pfei Di-ma-as-H
(I B 35 No. 1, 15. 21). Vice versa cf. ^(X)?ri and especially
the inhabitants of the land of Kasdu.

II. Phonetic Changes affecting the
47. The Breath. When ' closes a syllable, either (1) it
quiesces in the vowel which precedes it, lengthening
this vowel when it is short, e. g. zi-i-bu i. e. zibu
'=z/7m, muru 'young animal, esp. fo&l\=mu'ru
nddu 'exalted'=ftrt'dw, na'idu, nikul 'we ate 7,
suhuzu 'cause to take', ndmuru (Inf. Nif.) 'be seen'=
no? muru for other examples of a=d (and then=<?),
and for ' at the end of a word (Wortauslaut) v. 32

P and Y, or (2) it is assimilated to the consonant
which follows it: aUik 'I went' ='//#; orthographical
varieties like a-lik are to be considered in the light
of 22. Nevertheless, instances are by no means rare
in which the breath has been retained: cf. mu'du
'multitude', bfu and bisu 'wicked', bu'sdnu and biisdnu
'bad smell', nctbutu 'flee', iba 'he comes', etc.
When ' follows a syllable ending with a consonant,
it is mostly assimilated to the consonant which pre-
cedes it, and should this doubling of the consonant
be dispensed with, the preceding vowel is lengthened:
labbu l lion'=/0&'w, hittu 'sin', nibu ( immber'=m'&&M=
nilfuj zeru 'seed'=z#rw, zarru, zaru (v. 33) ; inna-
mir 'he was seen', innabit 'he fled'=w'0wzr, inhabit
(pret. Nif.). Nevertheless instances are found, especi-
ally in the conjugation of verbs primse ^ Ii2, where the
' has been preserved: ?''/, ir'u'b (of. 20), im'id 'he, it
increased' alongside of i-mi-du, lisairiida 'may he
Between two ^-vowels, ' either maintains itself or
is dropped, the result, in the latter case, being the
contraction of the two vowels: ma'adu 'much', la'abu
'flame', scidlu 'ask' and mddu 'much', ma-du i. e. mddu
'be much' cf. also rctmu 'love'. ' maintains itself, as
a matter of course, in cases like rfdsu 'vermin', mu'dru,
ba'ultu 'subjects'; but it does the same also in net-id

112 PHONOLOGY: 48 b, d, AND t
'he is exalted' and rcTimu 'loving', for example, so long-
as the i is not syncopated. Loss of ' and subsequent
contraction seem to occur in ruku 'distant' =rauku,
rauku. We should naturally expect the virtually
doubled or sharpened ' to be particularly persistent,
and the Piel forms of verbs mediae tf 1>2, such as umair.
mrfuru, mulcSit, confirm our expectations. It is hard,
notwithstanding, to decide whether buuru 'catch,
hunt', even in cases where it is written not bu--u-ru
or bu-u-ru, but bu-u-ru, is to be read as bu'uru or,
giving up the ', as bum, the reason being that along-
side of uma'irdni 'he sent me' we also meet with forms
like u-ma-ra-an-ni (V R 34 col. Ill 1). For the con-
traction of i'dsas and similar forms to issas v. 38, b.
For the loss of ' in the anlaut, e. g. in timdti 'yester-
day' v. 39, and for the same in the auslaut in conse-
quence of the shortening of the vowel, in which '
quiesces, e. g. ndsi, peti (form J^ from a^flfc, K 3 ns)
v. ibid.
48. fc, d and t. The labial b readily assimilates itself
to the m of a following ma\ the assimilation is esp.
frequent in erumma 'I entered and' instead and along-
side of erub-ma. Cf. also u-si-im-ma 'he dwelt and'
alongside of u-sib-ma (Senhb. V 4) and pres. us-sab-ma
(K, 4350 col. 16. 9). No argument, however, may be
drawn from these in favour of reading b as v, and m

as v (as e. g. erumma), in view of other cases of a
consonant being assimilated to the m of the copula
ma, as e. g. liskumma=Uskunma (v. 49, b).
Among the dentals, t of the Ifteal and Iftaal is
assimilated to a foregoing z or s: iz-zak-kar 'he speaks',
assabat 'I, he siezed'; on orthographical varieties like
a-sa-bat, a-sdb-ta cf. 22. For the assimilation of
the same letter to a foregoing s, see 51, 2. Vowelless
d, further, is assimilated to a following, e. g. ma-at-tu
fern, of ma-'adu 'much'; also to a following s, when
the latter is the third radical of a stem containing
three consonants: essu 'new' (=edm, edisu), sessu
'sixth' (=Sd$u, sdd(i)su). After k the f of the
reflexive stems becomes, e. g.akterib 'I approached',
after ^ it becomes ^?, e. g. agdamar 'I complete'. Also
after m and ^ it is frequently softened to d, e. g. am-
dahis 'I fought', umdasir 'he quitted', amdahar 'I
received', but compare with these amtahar (for attahar
v. 49, a) imtalik etc. The same change is presented
by the t of the feminine after m and n: tdmtu and
(always, it would seem, in ordinary pronunciation)
idmdu 'sea', sinundu 'swallow' etc.
Nasals, a) m. Of the nasals, the labial nasal m, 49.
before an immediately following dental, passes into
the dental n always, we are sure, in pronunciation,
and in most cases in writing as well: cf. mundahse
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. g

* warriors' =mumdah(i)se, sindu 'yoke (of oxen), team'
(Khors. 124, TOE), sandu (V R 35, I6)^samdu, nakamtu
and nakantu 'treasure', hantu 'swift, active' for
hamtu etc. Frequently also before a following s or s:
unsu 'want' alongside of umsu, hansd 'fifty', i-ri-en-su
'he presented to him' (III R 43 col. I 13, a^ 3 n);
occasionally the ft, which arises in this way from m,
is afterwards assimilated to s: su-un-su 'his name',
and then into sussu, hdnsu and Mssu 'fifth'. Cf. also
na(m)zidti (Assurn. II 67). This transition of m to n
must be assumed as an intermediate stage in
at(t)ahar 'I received' (Assurn. II 102. Shalm. Ob. 120).
m also passes into an n before k: hence dumku and
dunku 'favour', emku and enku 'wise'; cf. also ikkut
m, when pronounced as v, seems to have been
completely dropped in the younger Babylonian texts
whenever it occurs in the middle of a word (inlaut)
between two vowels: thus we find the form malmd,
usalvd 'I, he caused to hem in' written u-sa-al-va-am
and u-sa-al-am (V R 34 col. I 34. 26); cf. also u-sat-
vi-ih and u-sat-ih 'he caused to sieze' (V R 65, 5b, st.
tamdhii), sur-i-ni 'cypress' (2. 4b) in place of the usual
surmeni, surmini (intermediate form survmi, surfini],
na-i-ri 'panther' (V R 46, 43 b) for namiri, and a few
other forms. Observe also Du'uzu, Duzu (=Dwuzu,

Davvuzul) in its relation to HSPi (and zu-u'-ri-su 'his
body' III R 43 col. IV 16 for zu-um-ri-su 1 Mich.
IV 6). When, on the other hand, a v is found where
the etymology of the word does not lead us to expect
it, as e. g. in u-kct-va-an-ni 'he waited for me' (V R
65, 27 a) alongside of u-ga-a-an-ni (V R 63, 28 a) i. e.
uka'anni, and especially in Mmiru, Mviru 'wooer,
bridegroom, husband' (cf. e. g. ha-me-ir IV R 27, 2a,
ha-mir Descent rev. 47) in place and alongside of
h&iru (st. WJ 'see, choose', as Haupt rightly assumes,
v. V R 50, 60 a), in this case Haupt regards the v as
a secondary development from the intervening spiritus
lenis. Or was it the case that the signs ma, mi, mir
(va, vi, vir) etc. were simply employed for '#, '/, 'ir,
just as the sign mur (vur, 9 No. 188), for example,
was on occasion used for ur? This would, to a certain
extent, be a parallel to the use of i-a for a.
In the Babylonian writing an interchange has been observed
between m and g, on which scant light has yet been thrown.
Thus hursam 'mountain range', for example, was ideographically
rendered by hur-sag, and, vice versa, halciJcu (halayu) 'perish' by
Jia-lam-ma (Haupt, ASKT 181, XII), sahluktu 'destruction' by sa-
ha-lam-ma (see for the latter ideogram III B, 60, 71, 65, 4. 22 b).
The name "fiftttS, also, whose identity with Sumer still remains
probable, at least, seems to point to the conclusion that the Semitic
Babylonians, in certain cases, pronounced m as ng or without
the nasal tone as g: in writing they kept to the historical or-
thography Sumer, but the Hebrews heard Sunger.

V) n. The dental nasal rc, when it is vowelless,
readily assimilates itself to the immediately following
consonant. Such is always the case with the n of
the Nifal and Ittafal, e. g. issakin and ittaskan 'it was
made' ; and almost always with the n of verbs primse D,
hence issuk 'he hit', issu 'they took', attdbi 'I named',
madattu, mandattu=mandantu 'tribute' (in the Shafel
we also find usansir 'I set a watch', usaribit 'I made to
shine'; but cf. im-lri 'he spread abroad' on the one
hand, usassi 'he caused to carry' on the other). As
third radical, n is assimilated in mandattu, libittu
'brick', sukutlu 'rubbish, stuff'. From other cases of
the assimilation of n we would single out the follow-
ing: lil-U-im-ma 'may he cast down' (viz. his counte-
nance) =lilbm-ma (V R 56, 55), lis-kum-ma 'may she
do andWtfArtwmfl (III R 43 col. IV 17. 1 Mich. IV 7),
but al-U-in-ma (V R 66 col. I 11), az-nun-ma (V R 62
No. 1, 13). The converse, viz. progressive assimi-
lation, is illustrated by the name of the moon-god
Nannaru=Nanmaru (Haupt). Ar re'i=an re'i 'to the
shepherd' is read in Pinches' Texts p. 15 No. 4, 9.
Assimilation of n after a long vowel is found in um-
mdtu=ummdntu, fern, of ummdnu 'army', istdtu=istdntu,
fern, of iltan, isten 'one' and a few others.
Before &, n passes into m in all cases in pronun-
ciation and in many cases in writing as well: cf.

however iribu 'fruit', but imbubu 'flute' (st. 11D). The
same change takes place before k: sumkuru 'estrange'
and 'make keen' (the glance, v. E. M. II, 339, 1. 6),
usamkir (st. ^Di), and even before dentals and nasals
(v. 52). It is to be carefully noted, however, that
the Assyrian script has not in all cases developed
two signs for compound syllables ending in m and n
(e. g. dam and dan) but has in very many cases been
content with a single sign (v. 9 Nos. 148. 206 and
cf. 138; No. 182, also, has the two values rim and rin,
No. 196 ban and bam; special signs for han (in addition
to that for ham), Ian, nan, ran, san, tun (v. p. 138),
mam, mim etc., not met with as yet, in all probability
never existed) For this reason, we need have no
scruples in reading sum, sam etc. as sun, san.
In the imperative Qal of verbs primse 3, n is merged
in the spiritus lenis, hence usur 'protect', isi 'lift up'>
idin 'give thou'; also in the infins. of the Ifteal itpusu
(=nitpusu), itaributu, itanpuhu (=nitdbutu, nitdpuhu)
and Iftaal (?): itappusu\ the same applies to the
characteristic (Nifal) n in the infinitives of the Ittafal
(Intafal): itaplusu 'see' (=nitaplusu), itaktumu 'faint
(=nitaktumu), etc.
For the employment of m and n as substitutes for
a doubled consonant, or one sharpened by the tone,
see 52.

50. Liquids. For the interchange of r and /, when
hoth go back to an original sibilant, v. 51. Assimi-
lation of r to the following consonant is nowhere
found: for this, if for no other, reason hattu 'staff',
anndbu 'hare' cannot be derived from older forms
such as hartu, arndbu. That words like kakkaru 'the
ground' are no proof of the assimilation of r is shown
in 61, 1 (p. 144).
51. Sibilants. 1) When immediately preceded by a
vowelless dental or sibilant, the s of the pronominal
suffixes is always changed to s, hence mdt-su 'his
country' (contrasted with mdta-su), as-bat-su' thereon
the dental is frequently, the sibilant always, assimi-
lated to the 5, after which both dental and sibilant,
it would seem, are entirely dropped in writing (for
the accent v. 53, a): hence sal-la-su-nu 'their spoil'
(Khors. 47) from and alongside of sal-lat-su-nu
(Khors. 48), kak-ka-su 'his head' (Esarh. I 18), ka-a-su
'his hand' (=kdssu, kdtsu, kdt-$u\ karassu 'his body'
(from karsu), murussu 'his sickness' (mursu), izussu
'he parted it' (=izuz-su), u-sak-ni(-is)-su-nu-ti 'I sub-
dued them' (ID), u-lab-U-su-nu-ti 'I clothed them,
Id us-har-ma-si 'he shall not destroy it, (the palace)'
(I R 27 No. 2, 39 tttnn). Exceptions like ap-pa-lis-su
(Assurb. Sm. 290, 55), ar-ku-us-su (V R 8, 12) or bi-
rit-u-nu (II R 65 No. 1 obv. 3 a) are very rare, and

in Assyr. texts may be explained by the pronunciation
which we find in later times of s as s, so that they
are quite as reprehensible as the rendering in Assur-
banipal of a foreign s by s, (v. 46 p. 109). Compare,
however, in Babylonian ussab~bit-mnutu (Beh. 87), kisctt-
sunu 'their presents' (V R 33 col. V 46).
2) The radical letter s, which precedes the t of
the reflexive forms Ifteal and Iftaal, and also the s
of the causative form which precedes the t of the
Ishtafal are able to maintain themselves in very many
cases (apart from the change to /): astakan (altakari),
usteUla etc. There is, however, a marked tendency
on the part of this st, especially in the language of
everyday life, to pass into ss or s: hence in both
Babylonian and Assyrian letters the frequent forms
assapar, asapra 'I sent', isaparuni ?they sent', ussibila
'I sent for'; cf. usamris (III E, 4 No. 4, 41). Among
the longer historical texts, the only one that shows a
special fondness for these forms is the great inscrip-
tion of Assurnazirpal, which is otherwise remarkable
for its peculiarities (because reflecting the language
of the people?): asakan 'I made' (Assurn. Ill 2 and
often), asarap 'I burned' (II 21) etc., etc.
3) Before an immediately following dental, Assy-
rian sibilants very frequently become / (cf. vilta in
certain Italian dialects, e. g. that of Pisa, alongside

of vista), hence selalti 'three', hamilti 'five', rapaltu=ra-
paStu, fern, of rapsu, maltitu 'drink' from and alongside
of mastitu, altur 'I wrote' (Assurn. I 69) from and
alongside of astur (Esarh. Ill 48), altanan 'I fought'
(Tig. I 55. Ill 77, ]DE), manzalti 'stand, position' (V R
2, 43), eldu and cs(a)du 'harvest'; tultesera=tmtesera
'thou governest' (IV R 67, 12b). The same change
occurs when two different sibilants come together:
ulziz 'I set up' from and alongside of usziz (=useziz),
ahi 'I spoke, called'=#ss2. From iltdnu 'North' in the
Assyr. vocabulary II R 29, 2h, contrasted with the
talmudic tfJIJOtf (Babyl. istdnu), from the Babyl. kus-
tdru 'tent' (V R 35, 29), in Assyr. always kultdru, and
especially from the name for Chaldaea, hitherto
found only in Assyr. texts, viz. Kaldu contrasted with
the Hebr. D^te3, which presupposes the Babyl. Kasdu,
we might be tempted to conclude that this phonetic
interchange of s and / was peculiarly Assyrian; such,
however, is not the case, for forms exhibiting this
particular change occur in the later Babylonian
period at least, e. g. in the texts of Nebuchadnezzar.
It is long since it was inferred from the Babylonian
Urastu, Assyr. Urartu (tTPis) that an r formed an
intermediate stage between s and /; since then other
examples of this sort have been found, especially by
Pinches: thus even in the same (Neo-Babylonian)

text IV R 15 we find isdudu (1. 5) alongside of irdudii
(1. 10), an Assyr. duplicate having in both passages
isdudu. Cf. the name of the plant mas-ta-kal (?),
mar-ta-kal and mal-ta-kal.
As a substitute for the doubling of a con- 52.
sonant, characteristic of the stem or of the inflexion
of a word, as well as for the sharpening of a consonant
occasioned by the tone, a nasal sound is often given
to the vowel preceding the consonant in question:
sumbu 'freight waggon, cart'=sw#&w; numbu 'scream,
howl'=m^Zw, ham~bakuku (=hab~bakuku), Amkarruna
'Ekron' (1*1*1 J5?) ; inamdin, inambi, ittanamzaz, ittanamdi
(all written with nam, for which comp. p. 117) from
and alongside of inddin, indbi, ittandzaz, ittanddi;
IttanUt and ittandribit (I 3) 'he shone' (=ittdbit, ittand-
&rt), inf. itanbutu (=nitdbutu)^ etanamdaru (I 3) 'they
were afraid' (=ittanddaru or etanddarii)\ innam-
darii, innandaru (IV 1) 'they rage', ittanamdar
alongside of ittanddar (IV 3) 'it rages' ; issanundu
(=issanuddu), astamdih, inf. sitamduhu (=astddih, sitd-
duhu). For the duplicate forms ndduru, ndhuzu and
nanduru, nanhuzu, for ittananmar 'it is found' (IV 3
=ittandmar, ittand'mar) and other cases consult 11.
There is no instance of the doubling being resolved
by means of r.

Another substitute for the doubling of a consonant is the
lengthening of the preceding vowel: note as examples subu
'cart' (=subbu) and the cases mentioned in 33 and 41, b, zeru
'seed' (=zdru, zarru), zimu (=zimmu, zimiu) etc. (usaziz, useziz
101 may also come in here as being=Msa.mX usanziz); for a
similar case of compensation for the sharpening of a consonant
cf. the forms with enclitic ma mentioned in 53, d.
53. By way of appendix we may here add a few
remarks as to the place of the tone in Assyrian words.
a) There can scarcely be any doubt that in words like
kdrdu, sdrratu, epussu ('ei feci'), musdksid, musdksidu,
uftdkkar, ustdklil, tusahhdssi, and in those like abubu,
nakruti, imere, iksuduni, narkabdti, idukuni, usamsi-
kuni, iksudsunuti the position of the principal tone
or stress is really as indicated above. Forms like
ulaWissu 'I clothed him' (=ulabbis-su), even when
written u-lab-bi-su must, according to the above, be
accented uldbbisu, ulabbissu. The sharpening of the
immediately following consonant, however, which
never fails to accompany the accenting of a short
vowel, and the fact already repeatedly referred to,
that the Assyrian writing adapts itself to the every-
day pronunciation are the causes of certain other
phenomena. Thus as regards the present of the Qal,
the fact that in the great majority of cases the second
radical is written twice, as in iSakkal, iballut, inaddin,
ilabbin, isemmu, shows without a doubt that the
characteristic 0-vowel of these presents was accented.

The same is proved for the syllable ta of the verbal
stem I 2, and for the syllable na of the verbal stem
I 3, both in the preterite and in the present, by the
extremely frequent forms which are written thus:
istakkan, astakkan, iltak(k)anu (Assurn. I 30), attak(k)i
'I sacrificed 1 (Tig. VIII 10), amdah(fy)is, mundahhise
'warriors', iktarrabu 'they blessed', iptallahu 'they were
afraid', muttdbbil 'leading, ruling', italluku 'go to and
fro', cf. astamdih, istamdahu 'they drew' ( 52); ihta-
nabbata 'plundered', istanappara 'he sent', imta-
nallu^ cf. ittanamdi ( 52). The forms akteril), ilteki
( 34, a) as alternatives of aktarib etc. render it also
in a high degree probable that the syllable ta in I 2
was likewise accented. That in the present Nifal>
further, the tone rested on the second syllable is shown
by orthographical forms like innakku 'there are poured
out', innemmedu (rel.) 'there is hidden', and especially
innamdaru, innamdu 'they are founded' (V R 64, 27 b),
cf. 52. In the continuous transliteration of Assy-
rian words, forms with the consonant written twice
should be given as in isakkal or isdkal, so that isakal
might signify that the second radical was written only
ti) When a consonant is uniformly written once,
on the other hand, we may with certainty infer that
the preceding short vowel is unaccented. Consequently,

in the case of verbal and nominal forms like iskulu
(rel.), iskulu, iskuld; hatanu 'son-in-law', Idbiru 'old' etc.,
this much at least is certain that the tone did not
rest on the middle syllable. That the tone, moreover,
did not rest on the last syllable we know from the
fact already mentioned in 10 regarding the verbal
forms, that the length of the verbal endings i, u, a is
never expressly denoted in writing, when they are
part of the last syllable of the word: even with verbs
tertiae 1 we find, though rarely, forms like ib-nu 'they
built', an impossible orthography were the accentu-
ation ibnu. The same is proved with still greater
certainty by the contraction of forms originally ending
in e and f, such as isme, ismi, ibne, ibni to isrm, ibm etc.
We should therefore read: iksud, tdksud, tdksudi^ ik-
sudu etc.
c) Special attention must in future be paid to
those cases in which the verbal forms now mentioned
are nevertheless in contrast to the course pursued
in the overwhelming majority of cases written with
the third radical doubled. As against the supposition
that these are simply cases of inaccurate and defective
orthography (v. 22) we have, in the first place, the
circumstance that forms written in this way are, after
all, not so rare as one might suppose, and, in the
second place, the fact that, in some cases at least, the

sentence accent is seen to be, without a doubt, the
determining factor. I shall confine myself here to a
few examples, in which the verbal forms in dispute
are distinctly brought out by means of spaced type.
'An art, which among the kings, my fathers, none
ihuzzu had learned' (end of sentence). 'District and
border iskunnu did they establish' (end of section
II R 65 obv. col. I 23); 'such an one iskunnu they
set up to bear rule over them' (end of sentence, ibid,
col. II 32, supplement). 'Whirlwind and hurricane
isabbannu (end of sent., Nimr. Ep. XI, 122)'; 'what
I tell them, ip p u ssd they do' (NR 24) ; l ul i llikku 'they
have not come' (end of sent. K. 831 oby. 7); 'in the
evening usaznan(n)u samutu kibdtC (Nimr. Ep.
IX, 83); 'on the street ittanamzazzu su-nu they
tread' (IV R 2, 17b); immalillu, ittanahlallu (end
of sent. IV R 15, 38, 40 a). Examples are often found
in the contract tablets: uszizzu (Strass. II 13, 6);
'till the creditor k a spa isallimmu is paid in full'(Str.
I. 118, 11), inamdinnu 'they must pay', and many
others all of them pausal forms. Also at the end
of relative clauses: 'their landmarks which ibtillu
had been removed' (Khors. 136); 'where my father
ipkiddusu had appointed him' (Assurb. Sm. 46, 62);
'Auramazda who iddinnu hath created this earth (or
these heavens etc.)', in D, 2f., for example; 'what I

epussu have done here, and what I ep us su in another
land, all that I epus$u? (E, 1618); 'what I epussu
and what my father ipussu (D, 14. 19. C, a, llf.
C, b, 21/23). Cf. also iskunna Assurn. Ill 110. This
orthography is not unfrequently found in the second
of two verbs joined by ma: 'Assurbanipal, on whom
Nebo and Tasmet have bestowed (isrukus) great
intelligence, ihuzzu enu namirtum hath received a
clear-seeing eye' (often in the subscriptions to tablets) ;
ikbusuma usaknissu sepusun 'they trod (them) down
and made them submissive' (Esarh. IV 36); 'Sargon,
who brought the king to his city of Assur and Muski
emiddu apsdnsu (Lay. 33, 11). Cf. also I R 49 col.
IV 6. Attention is even called to the position of
the tone by lengthening the vowel in place of
sharpening the immediately following consonant:
cf. u-si-i-bu K. 13 (IV R 52 Nr. 2) 1. 6; and ul-te-
zi-i-bit (Assurb. Sm. 293, a c), also U-i-li (IV R
5, 39 b)? Of permansive forms the following demand
a place here: 'Istar isdta Ut-bu-sat melamme na-sa-
a-ta (var. nasal) was clad with fire, wore (a mantle
of) radiance' (V R, 9, 80) where nasdta seems to be
simply the equivalent of nasdta. From the contract
tablets cf. the phrase isten bu-ud sani nasi, for which
we find also na-a-si, n a- as -si, fern, na-sa-a-ta.
In the same way is explained the phrase often met

with in the subscriptions of tablets satirma ba-a-ri
(IV R 16, 67b).
d) The enclitic particle ma, including both the
copula ma and the ma of emphasis, draws the tone to
the syllable immediately preceding it ; vowels originally
long then re-appear, though often enough it is only
to disappear once more in the sharpening of the m
of ma: cf. on the one hand ma-ti-e-ma, ak-ri-e-ma st.
tf^p (Sarg. Bull Inscr. 99), ap-te-e-ma (Senhb. I 27),
is-me-e-ma (often), as-me-e-ma (V R 3, 127), adkema,
ahrema, as-te--e-ma (often), ab-ri-e-ma (Neb. Senk.
II 3 and often), u-mas-si-i-ma (Sarg. Cyl. 46), on the
other hand sanumma 'some other one' (=sanu-ma),
ilamma 'he came up and' (=ild-md)] vowels originally
short remain, the tone, of course, causing at the same
time the sharpening of the m of ma, cf. amelutumma
(Nimr. Ep. XI, 182) illikamma 'he went and', ikkisu-
nimma 'he refused and'; in some cases, however, the
lengthening of the short vowel is substituted for the
sharpening of the m (cf. 52 note). Thus in mi-tu-ti-
i-ma (IV R 67 No. 2, 60 b), i-ba-ru-(u~)-ma 'he went
out and' (rel., Sarg. Cyl. 21), 'when that house i-lab-
U-ru-(u-)ma shall become old and', 'whoever u-ma-a-
ru-u-ma (III R 43 col. I 32) will send a friend and',
alongside of u-ma-'-a-ru-ma. In many cases we may
be in doubt as to whether the length of the vowel,

preceding the enclitic ma, is to be explained by the
first or by the second of the methods now exemplified.
This applies, for instance, to the verbal suffix of the
3. pers. m. sing., which, united to ma, is often written
himma or swna\ cf. liskunsumma 'may he appoint unto
him' (V R 56, 43); ar-si-su-u-ma (V R 3, 20), tam-nu-
su-u-ma (V R 3, 7), Uskipu-su-u-ma IV R 6, 68 a. 63,
55 a): does the original long vowel of su make its
appearance here? And how is it with sarri eni-ia-a-
ma 'of my lord the king' (K. 823 obv. 5 etc.), sumi-ia-
a-ma (also sumi-a-md) 'of my name'? And how with
kaldma 'all together' (declined ka-la-mu, gen. ka-la-
a-mi Nimr. Ep. 1, 4)?
How far it may be safe to draw conclusions of a more general
nature in regard to the position of the tone from orthographical
forms like ina bi-ri-in-ni 'between us' (V E 1, 126), is a question
which, on the one hand, it is difficult to decide, and which, on the
other hand, it is better to reserve for the future (cf. 74). In
general, neither nominal nor verbal suffixes draw the accent of
the word to the syllable immediately preceding them: kin-na-as-
811 ffabbi 'his whole family' (IV E 52 No. 2, 8) like ab-bi-e-su 'I
addressed him' (V E 64 col. Ill 11) is evidently influenced by the
sentence accent. It would be of special importance if we could
infer from nam-kur-ri-su-nu (e. g. Tig. Ill 3) contrasted with na-
um-kii-rum (II E 47, 49 d), that the stress could not, in Assyrian,
fall upon the fifth syllable from the end of a word (e. g. ndm-
kuriunu) as is possible in Arabic, but that, in cases like these,
the stress was laid upon the syllable nearer the end of the word.


Merely mentioning in passing the only inter- 54,
jections as yet met with, viz. the exclamations of
pain,#-# (doubtless=) and w', we proceed at once
to the pronominal stems, and to the pronouns
developed therefrom. The former consist either of
the vowels a and u, simply, or of one of the conso-
nants f, ft, k, g, s, /. m, with a short or a long vowel,
The latter are to be learned from the paradigms A, 16;
55 60 are meant to be nothing more than ob-
servations supplementary to the paradigms.
A. The Pronoun.
1. Independent personal pronouns: a) To 55.
express the nominative: sing. 1. c. andku. 2. m.
atta\ sometimes also used for the fern., e. g. lu assati
atta 'thou art not my wife' (V R 25, 10 b). The form
at-tam (IV R 20 No. 3, 18) must be explained as atta
with ma (m) added for emphasis. 2. f. On the form
at-ti-e (IV R 57, 45 54 b) see top of p. 78. Plur. L c.
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. g

Notice the personal name Istu-Rammdn-a-ni-nu
(Var. ni-ni) C b 233; ni-i-ni (IV R 53 No. 1, 40). 2. m.
at-tu-nu, e. g. IV R, 56, 47 a. For the rare cases where
anaku and attunu are used in place of the verbal
suffix to express the dative (without special emphasis),
see syntax 135.
For u, si, unu used as adjectives v. 57, a. u (no gender)
'he, it', with emphatic ma 'that very man or thing', e. g. ina satti
u-ma 'in that very year' (Senhb. Bav. 34) is very frequently used
to indicate the repetition of one or more preceding words (note
Neb. Ill 50 where um-ma is written). This meaning corresponding
to our 'ditto' we also find in su, siima, especially in the vocabu-
laries. Perhaps, too, in the oft recurring phrase ina ume-su-ma
'on that very day', the su is not the pronominal suff. but the ex-
pression should rather be read ina uvne siima, analogous to the
above-mentioned ina satti uma. For the ideogram of u (u-ma),
see the table of characters No. 268; for further details, see Dicty.
No. 103.
ft) To express the genitive and accusa-
tive. Sing. 1. c. On the reading otia-a-si, a-a-si etc.
as dSi, dti (from idsi, idti 41, b) v. 13 and 14; ia-
a-tu written ia-a-pi (v. table of characters No 69)
Assurb. Sm. 37, 9. 2. m. and f. are completely iden-
tical: Jcdti, kdsi', in the 3 m. and f., also, no distinction
of gender is implied in the final set, si of sdsa and sdsi,
in contrast to sdsu the masculine forms kdsa and dsi
alone forbidding such a supposition. The fact is, as
we learn from the forms of 1. c. plur. occurring in
Bertin's list (v. p. 70), viz: ni-ia-ti, m-ia-sim, a-na ni-

a-sim, that all these pronouns asi, kdsi etc. are made
up of the nominal suffixes and ati, aSi (or atu, asu) and
ata, dta (ati, asi etc. or dti, dsil cf. su-a-tu 57, a).
In the case of the 1. c. sing, this is 'another reason
for putting aside am as an altogether impossible
reading; in the 2 f. we have contraction from ki-asi,
and in the 3 m. and f. contraction from su-asi (su-
asu) or sa-asi. The form su-a-su is still found e. g.
Assurn. Ill 76 (ana su-a-su 'to him'). In the 2. and
3. pers. plur. the plural termination is appended to
the singular forms. To say that the pronouns above
given serve to express the genitive and accusative is
in general correct. As a matter of fact, in connexion
with prepositions governing the genitive only these
pronouns are used: cf. ana asi 'upon me' (lift up thine
eyes, IV R 68, 29 b), ana kdsi 'to thee' (fern., will he
draw near), ana sdsu, ana sdsi 'to him, to her' (he
spake), ana kdsunu 'to you' (IV R 56, 46 a), kima ia-
ti-ma 'as I' (Tig. VIII 60), kima sdsunu 'like them'
(Khors. 96), sanamma ell asi 'another than I', ela kdti
'besides thee' (0 goddess, there is no deity). In the
same way, in such a connexion as: 'him (himself), his
wife, etc. he carried off', or: 'her (herself) I took
captive alive', we never find, in the accusative other
than sdsu, sdsa. Still we also find: andku u kdsi 'I
and thou' (will do so and so, K. 3437 rev. 3), and

when one of these pronouns is, for the sake of
emphasis, placed before the verbal or nominal suffix,
it naturally stands in the nominative, e. g. sdsu esirsu
'him I shut in', prop, as for him, (nom. absol.) I
shut him in (Senhb. Ill 20); sdsu masaksu akus 'as
for him, I flayed him' (Khors. 35), Mtu amdtka ; thy
command'. Other examples of this use of the pro-
nouns in question will be found in the syntax 119
and 135. For the rare cases apart from sulmu dsi
'my greeting' in which these pronouns are used as
a circumlocution for the nominal suffixes v. syntax
119, and for the equally rare cases in which they
are used in the same way for the verbal suffixes,
where no sort of emphasis can be intended, ibid. 135.
For the rare use of sdu as adj. 'selfsame' (usually su'atu)
v. 57, a.
c) In still another way do we find the nominal
suffixes transformed into independent pronouns,
a) Joined to rdmdnu (rdmenu, rdmnu) i. e. 'fear-com-
pelling might' (st. DB^), the nominal suffixes express
the idea of 'self: rdmdni 'I myself, rdmdnka 'thou
thyself etc. Cf. Khors. 77: ina kdt rdmdnisu napittasu
ukatti 'with his own hand he took his life (committed
suicide)'; inBeh. 17 we read : 'Cambyses mitutu ra-man-
ni-lu miti died by suicide'; rdmdnkunu 'you yourselves'
(IV R 52, 23 a); saknu sa rdmeni'a 'my own viceroy'

(Assurn. I 89); rdmnu e. g. Khors. 125. (3) Joined to
attu in the forms attua (1. sing.) attuni or attunu
(1. plur.; not to be confused with attunu 'ye'!) and
attukunu (2. m. plur.) they serve to emphasize the
nominal suffixes, cf. at-tu-ni asdbani 'our remaining'
(V K 1, 122) ; for at-tu-ku-nu v. K. 312 1. 24. In the
Achsemenian inscriptions, however, they are used
simply as another way of expressing the nominal
suffixes, the latter being even expressed, in some
cases, over and above, see syntax 119. In Beh. 18
we find attunu with the signification of a possessive
pronoun: 'from the days of our fathers the supreme
power has been at-tu-nu u sa zer-u-ni ours and our
family's', y) As a possessive pron.= 'thine' in ex-
pressions like 'heaven and earth are thine', e. g. IV
R 29, 26 if., we find ku-um-mu, made up of the no-
minal suffix ku (a bye-form of ka, v. 56) and the
particle ma which appears in the case inflexion (cf.
kaldmu gen. kaldmi and mimmu, mimmu 58 end) ; for
mm see 53, d.
2. Suffixed personal pronouns, a) No- 56.
minal suffixes. For the way in which they are
appended to the three cases of the sing, and to the
various forms of the plural, and for the choice
between the two forms i and a (=ia, 41 b) of the
1. c, sing., see 74. For orthographical varieties like

mu-te 'my husband' (mu-ti-ma var. mu-te-ma Nimr. Ep.
42, 9), see p. 78. For ka of the 2 m. we also find
ku\ for which note especially the text IV R 46: dl-ku
l thy city' (1. 30 a), Mt-ku 'thy house' (31 a), Uliit-ku
'thy glory' (28 a) and many others. For the change
of s of the suffixes of the 3. pers. singular and plural
into 5, see 51. Plur. 1. c. Besides m we also
find nuj as in attunu 55, c, p and in proper names
like Sadunu (also Saduni), A-hu-nu (also A-hu-ni).
This suffix seems also to occur in the name of the
Old Babylonian king Samsu-i-lu-na. 3. masc. The m
of bu-sd-sii-num 'their (ace.) property' (Neb. VII 20)
must be explained like that of at-tam ( 55, a). An
alternative form of sunu is sunuti\ cf. libba-su-nu(-ti)
'their heart' (V R 1, 120), [eli-su-}nu-u-te 'over them'
(Assurb. Sm. 35, 14), laltusunuti. 3. fern. Once we
find sinu, viz: V R 66 col. II 19: mandatti-si-nu 'their
tribute' (countries are spoken of).
&) Verbal suffixes. For the way in which these
are appended to the verbal forms both to those
ending in a consonant and those ending in a vowel
when the third radical of the verb is strong, as well
as when it is weak, see 118. The forms iskulassu,
iptassu etc., which are found alongside of iskulsu,
iptiSu etc., call for a word of comment. Iskulassu, for
example, is not to be explained as if the simple pro-

nominal suffix su, and the same applies to Si, ka etc.
were appended to the verbal form iskula, which ends
in short a\ for the verbal suffix does not draw the
tone to the last syllable : tu-na--a-m-uu (V R 45
Col. II 52) might pass for such a form but never
iskulassu, iskulassunu. We should rather assume, in
the case of verbs tertise infirmse, that forms like
iptassi are to be read iptd-si (=-ipti-a + si) according
to 11. The analogy of verbs with a strong con-
sonant as third radical, however, renders it prac-
tically certain that here also we have to do with the
stronger suffixes assu, assi, akka, which run parallel
with su, si, ka: al-ka-su-nu-u-ti 'I removed them' (Tig.
I 87) may be formed directly from alkd, but iptassi,
iptassunuti certainly stand for ipti-assi, ipti-assunuti
(like nasanni 'he drove me' perm, for nasi-anni Neb.
Ill 19): we even find such forms as: us-si-si-as-su
'I brought it out' (III R 4 No. 2, 7). What we have
just said does not exclude the possibility that in cer-
tain cases as, for example, in verbal forms in a
relative clause the a of ossu, assindtu, anndsi may
at the same time represent the final a of the verb.
The verbal suffix of the 1. pers. plur. occurs only in
this stronger form : anndsi ; in the same way the suffix
of the 1. sing, is, without exception, anni after verbal
forms in the singular. Exceptions are found only

with verbal forms in the plur. (in u), e. g. Tig. VIII
30: ZalmiS littarruni 'may they lead me in safety';
V R 7, 105: 'the rule over whom the gods iddinuni
had conferred on me'; Assurb. Sm. 11, 12: 'mighty
forces usatlimuni have they granted unto me'; Esarh.
IV 41 (usdzizuni). In passages like Assurb. Sm. 11
(cf. also 217, k) to refuse to recognize the suffix of
the 1. pers. would result in a construction extremely
harsh and forced, while to do so in the other cases is
absolutely precluded by the context. U-sal-la-a-ni
'he implored me' (Esarh. Ill 7) stands for usalldnni.
The question as to the origin of the stronger suffixes
assu, assi, akka (in certain cases ikka\ anni (in certain
cases mm'), assunu(tu or #), assindtu (or ti) and assimti,
anndsi is to all appearance intimately connected with
that as to the origin of the Hebrew suffixes J^-^-,
i*4- etc. Examples of the 3. and 2. pers. are: use-
Ulassu 'he made him bring', (V R 7, 44), rimutu as-ku-
na-su (for askunassu) 'mercy he showed unto him' (end
of sentence, Assurn. Ill 76), Id tandsaUi 'break it not'
(0 Istar! Descent obv. 23), iptassi 'he opened to her'
(ibid. 1. 39), a-da-na(k)-ka 'I shall give to thee' (end of
sentence IV R 68, 21 a. 58 c), si tu-sa-an-nak-ka 'she
gives thee to know' (Assurb. Sm. 125, 63); rimutu as-
ku-na-(as-)$u-nu (end of a section, Assurn. Ill 56), in-
da-na-as-lu-nu-tu 'he gave them' (Beh. 96), 'what

I a-kab-ba-assi-na-a-tu command them' (NR 24), id-
dan-na-a$-si-ni-ti 'he surrendered them, (viz : the
countries) to me' (NR 21). No distinction can be
detected, to all appearance, in the use of the weaker
and stronger forms of the suffixes.
Addenda: Sing. 1. c. Asur-se-zib-a-ni (C a 28). i-ki-
pa-an-nim c he gave me up' (Neb. 1 42), cf. ai-tam 55, a.
After the 3. pers. fern. plur. we find -inni: i-se-im-ma-
'-in-ni 'they obey me' (Beh. 7), 'the countries sa ik-ki-
ra--in-ni which rebelled against me' (Beh. 40). 2. m.
Contracted to k : ak-ti-ba-ak 'I have said to thee'
(IV R 68, 39 c) ; ku : Uk-bi-ku 'may he announce to
thee' (IV R.66, 7. 8 a). 2. f. li-Ul-lak-ki 'let him
bring to thee' (IV R 65, 38 b). 3. m. On the change
of the s of all the verbal suffixes of the 3. pers. into s,
see 51; for the long u of su in forms like liskipu-su-
u-ma, 53, d. The follg. are examples of the verbal
suffix contracted to s: u-sak-ni-su-us 'they subdued
him', ak-U-is (Neb. I 54), u-se-ri-ba-as 'he made him
enter' (V R 35, 17); us-mal-lis=usmalUsi, viz. the
palace (Senhb. Const. 86). su is found strengthened
by m (ma) in IV R 21, 30 b: lik-ka-U-sum 'let it be told
him'. Plur. 1. c. ikarrabanndsi 'he blesseth us' (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 181), 'who il-li-kan-na-si hath come to us'
(Nimr. Ep. 60, 14); is-pur-an-na-a-su 'he hath sent to
us' (K. 647 obv. 7). 2. m. ak-lak-ku-nu-su 'I spake

to you' (IV R 52, 27 b). 3. m. du-u-ku-su-nu-u-tu
'kill them' (Beh. 48). at-ta-nab-bal-su-nu-si 'I offer to
them' (V R 63, 22 a); note also II R 11, 25 28 b: id-
din-su-nu-sim, i-na-din-m-nu-si etc. 3 f. ultesib-si-na-
a-tu NR 23. is-te-ni--e-si-na-a-tim 'he provided for
them' (VR35, 14). askun-si-na-si-im (Hammur. Louvre
II 6). The form -si-na has as yet been found only
with the particle ni appended enclitically : 'the coun-
tries sa a-pi-lu-si-na-ni which I had conquered' (I R
27 No. 2, 23. Assurn. Ill 125. 133).
57. Demonstrative Pronouns, a) su-a-tu (su'atu,
suatu, su'atitf), a contracted form of which is sdtu
cf. 38, a. It occurs only in connexion with a sub-
stantive, after which it always stands, never before.
A sufficient number of passages might be quoted in
support of all the forms given in the paradigms.
For the fern, of the sing. cf. Shalm. Obel. 50. Ill R 4
No. 1,1.2 and oft.: ina satti-ma si-a-ti 'in that same
year'. Plur. m. dldni su-a-tum also su-a-tum or, as I
would propose to read, su-a-tun (v. 49, b, p. 117)
V R 56, 9. 11. In the same sense as suatu fern, sfati,
plur. su'atunu fern, sdtina we find su fern, si, plur. sunu,
and more frequently sunuti, fern, sindti: cf. dlu su-u
and $u-u 'said city' (Assurn. Ill 133), dlu su-u (var.
dlu alone) 'this city' (V R 69, 21) this explains the
supposed suffix $u in Sarg. Bull Inscr. 91, ekallum

si-i 'that palace' (Assurn. II 5); murdni su-nu (su-nu)
'said young lions' (Lay. 44, 16), sabe su-nu-li 'those
people' (Shalm. Ob. 154), dldni su-nu-ti 'those cities'
(Assurb. Sm. 82, 7); as regards the fern., note how
ekU sa-ti-na and ekle U-na-a-ti change places in the
two parallel passages III R 15 col. Ill 25 and Esarh.
II 49. Very rarely, it would appear, was sdsu used
for su'atu (although they are at bottom identical, the
one being=-sw -f asu, the other su + #^w, see 55, b),
e. g. V R 64, 11 a: eli all u biti sa-a-su 'against that
city and that house'.
b) annu, from an-ni-u, cf. for example an-ni-u
a-hi-u 'this other' (III R 54, 43 b), umu an-ni-u (V R
54, 39 a), gerily. ina umi an-ni-i 'to-day', cf. Vi^ool.
It is always placed after its substantive, except in
an-na-a ka-~bi-e 'this speech' Nimr. Ep. 48, 178, III
an-nu-tu sdbe 'these three people' (V R 54, 51 a). In
an-ni-a-am (IV R 66, 30 a) we again meet with ma\ so
too in sd-ma-mi an-nim (annem) 'of these heavens' (Neb.
Bab. II 2). For the fern. sing, note istu usmdni an-ni-
te-ma 'from that camping-ground' (Assurn. II 39
and oft.). Plur. m. an-nu-te... an-nu-te, also a-nu-le
'some... others (... a third party)', v. Assurn. I
117. 90 f.
c) ullu, e. g. D, 20: 'what I have done and what
my father did, ul-lu-u-um-ma that may Auramazda

protect'; D, 15: tabbanutu ullutu 'those buildings,
works' (ace.)- Another contrast to annu 'this' is
ammu in the phrase ina padan (? 9 No. 261) or
simply padan, also padan pl am-ma-(a-)te 'on the other
side' of a river (Tig. II 4. Assurn. Ill 1), opposed to
padan an-na-te (var. ti) Assurn. Ill 49 f. (padan am-
ma-te, var. ti).
d) ago, (in Assurbanipal and especially in the
Achsemenian texts) is placed both before and after its
substantive: e. g. bit a-ga-a 'this house', a-ga-a sadu
'this mountain', umu a-ga-a 'to-day', same a-ga-a 'this
heaven' (ace.), irsitim a-ga-a-ta 'this earth' (the fern,
is always placed after). Plural forms (always put
after the subst.): salmdnu agannutu 'these portraits'
(Beh. 106); mdtdti a-ga-ni-e-tu 'these countries' (Beh.
8. 9). In these forms of the plural agd is clearly
strengthened by annu, as in agdsu by su. agdsu is
always placed after a subst. or a proper name, e. g.
nikrutu a-ga-su-nu 'these rebels' (Beh. 46. 65).
58. The relative pronoun sa (originally $a-a, ace.
of su, v. II R 31 No. 2, 14 c. d, and oft., cf. Hebr..,.,
origly. tj) may also be used to express the genitive
relation, e. g. ina silli sa Uramazda. The original
demonstrative signification still appears in such ex-
pressions as sa bit sibitti 'that (man) of the prison, the

prisoner' (IV R 58, 32 a, and cf. V R 13, 8 lOb), in
which sa is used like the Arabic y.
The so-called pronomen relativum generale
'whosoever, whatsoever, all that, as much as, as many
as' is expressed sometimes by the interrogative pro-
noun with or without sa, sometimes by the substan-
tives ma-la, mal (doubtless =mald) and ammar (always
without sa, for which v. Syntax 147), both of which
originally signified 'fulness'. Cf. man-nu sa itdbalu
'whoever shall take away' (v. Diet. p. 214), man-nu
atta sarru 'thou, whoever thou art, that shalt be king'
(Beh. 105), ma-nu arku 'whosoever shall be in the
future' (I R 35 No. 2, 12); lei ml-na-a ba-si-ma 'lord
of all that exists' (said of Merodach, Neb. I 35);
Hani ma-la sum nabu 'the gods as many as there be',
'the living beings ma-la ina mdti basa, often in the
phrase ma-la (mal) basu 'as many as there are (or were)
of them', gab-bi ma-la epussu 'all whatsoever I have
done' (E, 9); sdbe am-mar ipparsidu 'the men, as many
as there were of them, had fled' (Assurn. 166 and oft.).
A third expression, by means of the indefinite pro-
noun with or without sa, is found only for the neuter:
man-ma (doubtless to be read min-ma or mim-ma.
v. 60) sa etepusa 'all whatsoever I had done' (Shalm.
Ob. 72); mi-im-ma or ^--ma i. e. mim-ma (v. 9
No. 212) or mimma (apparently the sign, nin, v. ibid.)

sumsu 'whatsoever is named i. e. exists', mimma isu
Whatsoever I possessed' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 77 ff.), mimma
MI sttma nabu 'all creation'. Note also ^--mu-u i. e.
nummu eppusu 'whatsoever I do' (VR 63, 11 a, cf. 41 b),
^-~mu-su(-nu) 'his (or their) property' (often in the
contract-tablets) and cf. man (i. e. mim)-mu-su 'all his
goods' (K. 245 col. II 68).
59. Interrogative Pronouns. For mannu and
minu (e. g. ina ell mi-ni-e 'on whose account?' V R
9, 70) references are unnecessary. With mannu there
is used interchangeably the pron. a-a-u i. e. d-u
(p. 13 and 31), e. g. a-a-u Hamad 'who learns?'
(IV R 67, 58 a) a-a-u ilu 'which god?' (IV R 9, 52 a),
which goes back, directly or indirectly, to the interro-
gative stem dj which, again, may be regarded either as
contracted from ai (cf. Stade, Hebr. Gramm. 99,3), or
better, as an interrogative existing independently
alongside of ai. The same applies, of course, to
Hebr. y& alongside of f^a; cf. Mtim 'houses' alongside
of ~bait.
60. The indefinite pronoun is formed partly by
the reduplication of the interrogative stem man (per-
sonal indef. pron.), partly by appending enclitically
the generalizing particle ma to the interrogative stems
man (for persons) and min (for things). Illustrations are
to be found everywhere (cf. ma-ma sa-na-a 'any man'

IV R 45, 25; mi-im-ma or mi-ma lim-na 'anything
wicked' Tig. VIII 70). Mu-um-ma 'any one whatever'
(Shalm. Mon. rev. 71) stands quite alone. For man-
man etc. employed as adjectives cf. ilu ma-nu-man
ul... 'no god' (IV K 6, 14 c). Manman is usually, as
here, followed by the negative. When the latter
stands at the head of the clause, la mammana etc.
also signifies 'nobody'. Both manma (mamma} and
mimma are very frequently represented ideographic-
ally by - with the phonetic complt. ma, and this
when closely written looks very like the sign, nin
(v. 58 above). For ^--ma (nin) = mamma see, e. g.,
V R 6, 66 (mamma ahit 'some stranger') and Diet,
p. 293 f., for nin=mimma v. V R 63, 23 a (a variant of
mi-im-ma Neb. II 32. VIII 11) and many other passages
(always so in mimma sumsu 'all sorts of). The neuter
indefinite pronoun is also sometimes written man-ma;
see 58 above, and also cf. man-ma amdt limutti 'any-
thing wicked' (I R 27 No. 2, 80, for which in 1. 42:
mimma amdt limutte). Since it is highly improbable
that manma is also used as a neuter, we ought cer-
tainly to read min-ma or (v. 49, b, p. 117) mim-ma,
especially as there is express testimony V R 37, 34 d
that the sign man has also the value min (cf. also man-
di-e-ma IV R 53 No. 3, 37 corresponding to mi-in-di-
e-ma Nimr. Ep. 65, 13). For ffumma as regards the

reading and writing of which 12 14 are to be
compared see e. g. Shal. Bal. V 3: a-(i)a-um-ma ul
ezib 'not one did I spare', sarru ia-um-ma 'some king
or other' (Tig. I 67 and oft.), la te-zi-ba a-a-am-ma
'leave not one alive' (M 55 col. I 21).
Most of the pronominal stems mentioned in 5560 we
shall meet again among the particles (u, u in the adverb umma
and the conjunction Oiumma, ago, in the adverh aganna, and so on);
for details see under 78 82.
Transition to the Noun and the Verb.
61. In Assyrian as in all Semitic languages roots
in which an idea or meaning is inherent are of
two kinds. Either they originally consist of three or
more consonants, or originally of two, which have
been subsequently increased to three.
1) Roots composed of two consonants are
still found: a) in those nouns that show complete
reduplication no verbs have yet been found. Such
nouns are: lakalaka 'stork' syn. rakrakku, sarsaru
'cricket', barbaru 'jackal 7, panpanu 'chamber for gods';
dandannu 'all-powerful', kaskas(s)u 'very strong';
kalkaltu 'panting, pining', kamkammatu 'ring' ; -
birbirru 'brightness of the rising stars', zirzirru name
of a tiny insect, dikdikku, name of a very small bird;
zunzunu and dukdukku synonyms of the two last-
mentioned words, mulmul(l)u 'javelin, lance', b) in

those nouns and verbs that show imperfect reduplica-
tion of the root. Verbs are rare: babdlu 'bring'; kakdru
II 1 'root out', tatdpu 'shut in' (part. II 1 : mu-te-tip-
tum, to which add ti-tip-pu, a synonym of daltumimss,
2. 3c). As regards the nouns, the question sometimes
suggests itself, whether it is not the case that the
second radical of the biconsonantal root has been
assimilated to the first radical, when the latter is re-
peated: as, for example, in ka(k]kabu 'star', kakkadu
'head', cf. Ip^jP, kakkaru 'ground', the masc. prop. noun.
Ilahhuru Hebr. *nmrf, sissinnu 'palm-branch' cf. 0^2020,
kukubdnu 'stomach' (of animals), cf. Arab. t^JLl,
Aram, jwaf^lp. We must not, however, from these
and a few other similar contractions (cf. li-il-U-du
'child' II R 30, 47 c) formulate any laws for the assi-
milation of Assyrian consonants of universal applica-
tion, or even as applied to the derivatives from
triconsonantal roots (cf. above 50). Note further
papahu 'chamber for the gods', dadmu 'dwelling-place',
mamlu 'strong', lallaru 'crier', fern, lallartu 'wailing,
loud crying' (also name of a bird and an insect),
sis(s)iktu 'dress, robe', dudittu (=dudintu) 'ornament
for the breast', pitpdnu (?) 'bow', c) Possibly in some
.of the so-called primitive nouns to be discussed in
62. These biconsonantal roots may also be in-
ferred from some of the so-called 'weak' stems or
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 10

verbs, notably from the verbs tertise i and 1 (v. 62),
verbs mediae geminatse, which probably go back to a
biconsonantal root with a strongly accented a vowel
(v. 63), and verbs mediae 1 and >, which seem to be
developed out of a biconsonantal root with a for the
medial vowel (v. 64).
2) As examples of roots composed of three
consonants we have first of all the verbs with three
strong radicals. Whether the n of verbs primse 2,
and the u, i of verbs primse i, i be of secondary origin,
and if so, in what cases are questions which will be
difficult to decide. The gutturals, however, were
without doubt as inseparably part and parcel of the
root in verbs mediae and tertise, 2, n, as in the
case of verbs primaa X, y, n.
3) Roots composed of four consonants, em-
ployed as verbs, are but sparingly represented in
Assyrian ; the two principal examples are nsba IV 1
'free one's self, be torn to pieces; cross over', and
Ithfc IV 1 'flee', cf. also taaitj, twin II 1. Ill 1
'destroy', nobs, Wis. Of the nouns we may mention:
akrabu 'scorpion', har'basu 'fright' (?), paltlgu 'travel-
ling-chair' (II R 23, Q^parziHu 'iron', hab(b)'stalk (of grain and of a flower)', parsumu and pur-
sumu 'old, venerable', sursummu, hurhummatu, pur(par)-
Su-u-u 'flea', iumelu 'left' (b^ttE), and many others.

From these examples we see the extent to which the
liquids I and r have contributed to the formation of
roots of four consonants. For roots like robs and
VDntJ, which have four consonants in appearance only,
v. 117, 1 and 2. I know of no roots composed of
more than four consonants.
B. The Noun.
On the difficult question as to the existence of 62.
so-called primitive nouns, the following remarks
'may be made from the stand-point of Assyrian.
1) Primitive nouns alongside of roots ter-
tise X We have already, in 39, referred to the
extreme shortening which takes place in the forms of
the part, of the Qal (and Shafel) in verbs tertise tf
and % in the perm, of the Qal in verbs tertise i, and
in the constr. state of the nominal stem J-^. This
shortening, we found, resulted in the complete suppres-
sion not only of the final vowel, whether short or
long, but also of the last consonant of the root.
Among the derivatives of verbs tertise % nominal
stems formed like tertu 'law' or tudtu 'decision' (from
mi and rm v. 65 No. 32, a) deserve, in this respect,
to be singled out. The same disappearance of the
auslaut may also be observed in a series of nouns
which, after what has just been said, must not, from

the mere fact that they contain but two radicals, be
set down as primitive nouns, in the sense that the
corresponding verbs tertiae 1 never existed or, at least,
had never reached the triconsonantal stage. Impossible
as it is to derive forms like surb-at, ter-tu from other
than triconsonantal stems, it is equally unnecessary,
to say the least, to regard as primitive nouns, Ann
'god of heaven', fern. An-tu [st. cstr. Anat], sat-tu
'year',=&wftt [Sana], kas-tu 'bow', plur. kasdti, am-tu
'maid', dal-tu 'door', sap-tu 'lip', bar-tu 'rising, revolt' ;
enu 'lord' fern, entu, enu 'time', fern, en-tu, ettu, ittu;
binu 'son' fern, bin-tu, ilu 'god' fern, il-tu [Mat], isu
'wood', ir-tu 'breast' [irat], it-tu 'side' pi. itdti, sinu
(sina) 'two'; suk-tu 'drinking-trough', ul-tu originally
'direction', then prep, 'from', and others, especially
as for the most of these nouns there exists a tricon-
sonantal stem. In the latter as in the former case,
we may have to do with examples of the extreme
shortening of verbs tertise *, a fact which no one
questions in regard to el=eli, ett, elai\ mat=matai,
le-at fern. st. cstr. of le'u 'strong', and many others
(cf. also Hebr. "ry, i]?, 5^).
While, therefore, daltu, binu, bin-tu etc. are not,
any by means, necessarily primitive nouns, it is still,
from another point of view, very remarkable that
nominal formations like the above are not found

from stems (verbs) tertiae tf (nominal stems like mi-lu
'flood' and ze-ru 'seed' are proved by the variants
mi-i-lu and ze-e-ru to be of the same form as zimu,
Itunu, v. 65 Nos. 1 3). It is evident that the third
radical of stems tertia3 ^ (also 1?) waslmuch less
distinctly felt to be part of the root, and treated as
such, than was final tf ; and it was for this reason that
in 61, 1 the stems tertiae * (and i) appeared to me
to warrant, more than did any others, the assumption
of biconsonantal roots.
The problem becomes more complicated when we
take the case of those biconsonantal nouns, to which
we cannot assign a definite and known stem, as, for
example, ahu 'brother' and 'side', and emu 'father-in-
law'. Are these, by reason of their feminines ahdtu
'sister' and 'side', and emetu 'mother-in-law', to be
set down as shortened forms from triconsonantal
stems tertise *>, or must they be recognized as bicon-
sonantal primitive nouns, that are on the point of
rising beyond the biconsonantal stage and appearing
henceforth as triconsonantal (note the instructive
athu 'companion') ? For ahdtu in the signification of
'sister' as well as for emetu, the latter- alternative
seems to me to deserve the preference, because
only in very rare cases do we find the form Jl^i
with a concrete personal signification. The d seems

to owe its existence to an effort at strengthening, or,
so to say, expanding the short word of two con-
sonants. In this respect it resembles the a in perman-
sive forms like danndta etc. Abu 'father' (u is tho-
roughly well attested) cannot, from an Assyrian
standpoint, be regarded as other than a derivative
from a triconsonantal stem nitf (prob. 'decide').
2) Other primitive nouns. Ummu 'mother', origin-
ally 'womb', we may easily recognize in Assyrian
as derived from the stem dtttf 'be wide, spacious'; it
may be allowed to pass for a primitive noun only in
so far as all stems mediae geminatae are at bottom
of biconsonantal origin. To set down words like sdsu
'moth' and sumu 'garlic' as primitive nouns in the
sense in which the term is usually understood (cf.
Stade's 'isolated nouns') is very hazardous, to say
the least, since it is perhaps a mere chance that the
corresponding verbal stems with medial vowel are no
longer to be, or have not yet been, met with in our
texts. In the case of damn 'blood' and dmu 'sea', we
might, looking at n'H, d}, W, f i; DJ, HJ, d^, regard
them as primitive nouns for the reason that the
various Semitic languages to a certain extent, each
separate language have adopted various plans in
order to give to these words a greater stability; but
who will guarantee that the Hebrew and Arabic forms,

let us say, represent only a comparatively late stage
of development under the influence of continuous
shortening, analogy etc., and that damn and Idmu
must, nevertheless, be assumed as the ground-forms
in primitive Semitic, from some unknown stem which
has long ago disappeared? The same applies to
isdtu 'fire' and others. We should be most inclined
to see examples of primitive nouns in mutu 'husband',
idu 'hand, side', and immu, connected with umu 'day'
(cf. i% Q h ^S ace. to Praetorius from an old word
'*), whereas, on the other hand, mdtu 'country', sumu
'name', mu 'water', pu 'mouth' are altogether uncertain.
An intermediate position between the so- 63.
called primitive nouns and the forms of nominal
stems discussed in 65 is occupied by the derivatives
of verbs mediae geminatae and mediae i and 1, inas-
much as these present unmistakeable traces of their
descent from biconsonantal roots (v. 61, 1). For
this reason we shall treat both classes apart from
the derivatives of the other stems, and shall begin
with the formation of nouns from stems mediae
geminatse. While the verbal forms from these stems
follow in all respects the analogy of the strong stems
(the only exception is the permansive of the Qal,
v. 87 and cf. 89, also 37, b), this cannot be said,
to anything like the same extent, of the nominal

forms. Nouns like dannu 'powerful', sarru 'king',
sallu 'captured' are formed directly from the root,
there being no proof as is the case in the feminine
forms of the nominal stems jii ( 65 No. 6) and
Jji (No. 7) of an intermediate stage with a vowel
between the second and third radicals. Between sarru
and dannu, ellu, emmu ('hot') the three last men-
tioned, being adjectives, cannot by any possibility re-
present the form jjj and between sarratu -queen'
and dannatu 'powerful', dannat 'she was powerful'
(the permansive form is J-ai), Sullatu 'booty' (cf. the
Hebr. masc. bbtj) no difference can be detected: in
other words, stems mediae geminatse, in place of all
the forms of nominal stems enumerated in 65
Nos. 1 10, are content with three: with jji, which
combines the meanings of substantive and adjective,
and with jJU and jjj, which form only substantives.
Of jj,i examples have already been given. For jJU
cf. sillu 'shadow', sippu 'threshold', liblu 'heart', hissatu
'perception'; illatu 'might', although found written
ellatu, must also belong here on account of its femi-
nine ending atu (ellatu would give ellitu), while sirritu
34, 6, on the other hand, must be put alongside of
the Hebr. rns. For jji cf. gubbu 'cistern', zumbu
'fly', uzzu and uzzatu 'anger', kullatu 'totality, whole'.

Corresponding to these forms we have sarrutu, sallutu
( 65 No. 34) ; harrdnu 'street', Rammdnu, zilldnu
(No. 35). Only when a long vowel appears between
the second and third radicals, or when the doubling
of the second or third radical is characteristic of the
nominal stem, are the stems med. geminatse compelled
to follow the example of the strong stems. Hence
saldlu, nardru (nerdru) 'helper' (No. 11); dumdmu
'wild cat' (13); hasisu 'intelligence' (14); kililu 'setting
(of gem), garland', zikiku and zakiku 'wind' (15);
'saruru 'brilliance', dbubu 'deluge', asustu 'sorrow' (17);
sibiibu 'brilliance', sinundu 'swallow' (18); sululu
'shadow, shade, covering' (19); Dan-na-(a-)nu prop.
n. m., al-lal-lu 'strong' (25, or is it stem No. 23?);
nambubtu (28) name of a bird; imbubu 'flute' (315,
30, e). For the nominal stem No. 31, a, cf. masattu
'herdsman's tent', namaddu 'measure', on the one
hand, and on the other (like strong stems) manzazu
'stand, place' fern, manzaltu. The stems kunnunu,
suklulu (also namurratu) see under 88.
Stems mediae 1 and *> agree with stems med. 64.
geminatse in not belying their descent from biconson-
antal roots. This descent is most distinctly visible in
the permansive form of the Qal : ddr, kdn, tdrat etc.
(v. 87 and cf. 89). Impossible as it is to fit these
forms into the scheme of the ordinary permansive

jji, it is equally unnecessary to make nominal stems
like tabu 'good' contracted from an hypothetical
original taiabu (stem jii) ; they are further examples,
rather, of the oldest form of the root, which is still
free from internal vowel change. Also for the semi-
nominal infinitive of the Qal: tdru (with feminine
ending tdrtu), tabu we must be content to give up
the theory of intermediate forms, such as taudru,
taiabu. When once the characteristic of the infinitive,
the vowel #, had appeared before the last radical
(jCsS), tdru was the natural root-stem of the infinitive.
In connexion with the perinansive forms above
referred to, which will be thoroughly discussed in
89, such as da-(a-)ri, ka-ia-an and ka-a-a-an, ta-ab,
ta-a-n-rat etc., which must undoubtedly be read ddri,
kdn, tab, tdrat (v. 13), we would call attention, in
the first place, to the most difficult forms of stems
med. 1 and i, that is to the nouns written da-ia-nu,
da-a-a-nu 'judge', a-a-bu, ia-a-bu, a-ia-a-bu 'enemy',
ha-a-a-ru 'consort' and many others. Looking at the
Hebr. -j^, we naturally feel inclined to read the
Assyrian word for 'judge' also daianu\ but apart from
the fact, that such a form is at variance with the
treatment of the intervocalic i elsewhere ( 41, b), in
accordance with which da'anu is all that would be
phonetically admissible, it is shown to be altogether

out of the question by the orthographical variation da-
a-a-nu. For this form, whether read dd'anu or da'dnu
dainu is excluded for reasons hoth graphical (v. 13)
and grammatical can never be classed under the
form JjJ ( 65 No. 24). The only way out of the
difficulty would be to read da'dnu, which we might
regard as a form JlSi; for this we might appeal to
za-ia-a-re 'the adversary' (Assurn. 18), to a-ia-a-bu
and ta-ia-a-ru (v. 14). Moreover, the form jUii
(No. 25), which, in any case, is scarcely found in
'Assyrian for names of professions, such as 'judge',
appears quite unsuitable for words like za-ia-a-ru,
a-ia-a-bu, while for a word like ha-a-a-ru 'bridegroom,
husband', which can hardly be assigned to a different
category from a-a-bu and da-a-a-nu, it is utterly im-
possible to assume a form with the second radical
sharpened. A vastly more suitable explanation,
however, appears to be suggested by the word ha-a-
a-ru, just mentioned, which in II R 36, 39 42 d,
appears alongside of the part, ha-i-ru', it is that
these supposed nouns are nothing but participles
with syncopated, that Mru accordingly stands in
the same relation to htfiru as do dsbu to dsibu, rdmu
'loving' to rd'imu ( 37, a). If this explanation is
correct, it of course disposes finally of the theory
that a-a=ai', and further, whoever believes in

the possibility of hairu and aibu being contracted
from hd'iru and aibu, will be obliged henceforth to
relinquish this theory in face of the construct a-a-ab
( 14). There is, moreover, another important con-
sideration which tells against this view of dbu,
ddnu etc., viz. the fact that it is precisely the parti-
ciples of verbs med. 1 and % formed after the model
of the strong stems, that, in contrast to the J^U
of all other verbs, are wont, for a reason that is
easily intelligible, to preserve in its purity the ^-vowel
before the last radical: cf. out of a great number of
such participles only za--i-re, za-i-re^ za-e-re, za-e-
ru-ut (IV R 44, 25. Tig. VIII 32. 41. Assurn. I 28.
Shalm. Ob. 20. Senhb. V 57. Neb. II 25 etc.), da-i-
rcw-te"judgmg' pi. (Sarg. Cyl. 53), sd'idu, dd'iku fern.
daiktu (v. 13). There is, consequently, no other
course open to us but to read all these nominal
forms as ddnu, dbu, zdru ("it), tdru, Mru in connec-
tion with the permansive forms mentioned at the
commencement of this paragraph, and in agreement
with the two-fold employment of the Hebrew D as
3. m. perf. and as participle. That these nouns have
frequently ut in the plur. is entirely in harmony with
their character as participles. In the same way ka-
a-a-nam-ma adv. 'continually' =kdndma, ka-a-a-ma-nu
(st. 65 No. 35) adj. 'everlasting ; Ssiturn=Mmdnu etc.

It has already been shown in 12 14 that there is
no impediment from the side of the orthography:
the permansive forms and the varieties in the way
of writing a word like tdrtu ( 13) corroborate anew
the statements there laid down.
A-a-lu 'ram', in accordance with the laws of Assyrian writing
and phonetics, can hardly be read otherwise than as alu. In the
case of words like a-a-lu 'stag', and the name of the mouth A-a-ru,
& '
Ave may on principle assume the form Jj*3 as ground-form, but
there can be no doubt, all the same, that they were respective!}'
pronounced merely as alu and Aru. Even if we were to read A'aru
or 'quite falsely Airu, the Hebr. 1*K (same form as 13N) would
have to be set down, in any case, as a free Hebrew transformation
of the Babylonian name (as in ^lairr?). A 1 alu 'stag' (Hebr. b*X),
we may be sure, was forthwith contracted to alu (v. 47), which
affords the only satisfactory explanation of 'ram' and 'stag' being
written identically : viz : a-a-lu. The * in the first syllable of the
name for Saturn "jl^, ^)\y^ contrasted with the Assyro-Baby-
lonian Jcdmdn, kavan (cf. p. 104 f.) goes back perhaps to a bye-
form Jcevdn, with the first a modified to 3, which may have been
current in every-day speech (cf. "125^5 in its relation to Sumer,
49, a note).
As examples of the remaining forms of nominal
stems we would mention: mutu 'death', sum 'ox', urru
(= uru) 'light', inu 'eye', imtu 'fright' (stem 65 No. 1) ;
mru 'yoke', dinu 'judgment', sihtu syn. pir'hu 'shoot 1
(No. 2); mku 'street', nunu 'fish', rfltu 'breath' (3);
mitu, metu 'dead' (abstr. noun metutu), kenu, kinu fern.
kettu^kittu 'true, just' (7); tdrtu 'return' (11); ki-a-Su
'surname' (? tjip 12) ; simu '(purchase) price', fern, simtu

'fate' (prop, that which is fixed), diktu 'fallen host',
ktttu 'present', Mr(d)tu 'bride, wife' (14); makdnu 'place',
makcisu 'rack', mahdzu 'town', mdlu (blK) 'front', mandhtu
'resting-place', also 'care for one' (31, a); mutdnu
'plague, pest', si-da-nu 'hunting-net' (35). For the
stem kunnu, fern, tubtu^tubbatu (and the form kut-
tin-nu derived therefrom) see 88.
There yet remain many difficulties to solve : for example,
does puru 'young wild-ox' stand to piru 'elephant (st. ^B 'be
strong, powerful'), and pulu 'dressed stone' to the more common
pilu (pelu) with the same meaning, in the same relation as
Jje to J-ai? For the nominal stems tiduhu 'killing', tituru
'bridge', tinuru 'stove' cf. 83 note.
65. Summary of the Nominal Stems in Assyrian.*)
I. Internal Vowel Change only (Nos. 119).
1. Short vowels only (Nos. 110).
a) A short accented vowel after the first radical
and a short, unessential, vowel after the second

*) That is of those corresponding to verbal stems composed
of three strong consonants. Weak stems will also be included,
with the exception of stems med. gemin. and med. 1, \ For no-
minal stems of four consonants, in so far as they present internal
vowel change only, see 61, 1 a and 3; note also 65 No. 35 (at
end) and especially 117, 1 and 2. Arrangement observed in
discussing Nos. 1 33: the derivatives of the strong triconsonantal
stems, which include those of stems primse 5, are taken first, and
are separated by a period and a dash from the derivatives of the

(Nos. 1 5): confined most probably to substan-
tives. The vowel heard after the second radical
serves merely to prevent the stem from terminating
in two consonants, and is syncopated, almost without
exception, when inflexional endings are appended.
There is entire uniformity among the stems in this
division, except as regards the addition of the femi-
nine ending atu: before the latter, Nos. 1 3 synco-
pate the second vowel, while Nos. 4 5 retain it (in
the, abs. state).
1. JJi (jJ*i st. cstr. jii) fern. cJlai. kalbu
\kalab] 'dog' fern, kalbatu, samsu [samas] 'sun', masku
[mas afc] 'skin', saknu [akan] 'viceroy'. dbnu \aban\
'stone', anbatu^ but also ersitu] eklu [e-ki-el] 'field';
enzu, erpu fern, erpitu (v. 34, y. 35); resu 'head'
fern, restu; seru 'back'; remu, seru\ T)elu fern. ~beltu,
but also radu (v. 32, y); mdlu 'abundance', lab~bu
'lion'; zeru, di-mu 'tear'= demu, damn (v. 33. 47);
leru 'glance' (IVR45, 43), beru 'middle' fern. lerit\
perhaps also menu, mmu (=mdnu) 'number' (v. 33.
41); arhu [arah] 'month'.
2. As ji st. cstr. AS fern. Jii. zikru

weak stems ; tlie latter, separated from each other by a semicolon
and a dash, are taken in the following order: primse, mediae and
tertise X, tertise 1 and \ primse 1 and \ The forms of the con-
struct state are always placed in square brackets, as in 62.

|"r/Av>] 'name', sibtu 'staff', kirbu [Jcirib] 'interior',
kibratu 'point of the compass, direction, region',
zibbatu 'tail'. igru 'pay'; rimu 'wild ox', siru 'flesh'
(v. 47); hittu, hitu 'sin', milu 'flood, overflow'
(v. 47); simmu 'blindness' (JTJ3D, whence samii
'blind'), limmu and limn 'archonate', prop, 'period'
(v. 41).
Whenever the corresponding feminine is wanting in nouns
of this form, derived from strong verbs, we cannot, of course,
distinguish accurately between stems 2 and 4. The same applies
to Nos. 3 and 5.

3. JJ1 (JJ*1 st. cstr. jis) fern. cLCls. sulmu
\sulum\ 'happiness, peace', mursu 'sickness', puhru
'totality, whole', lubsu 'dress, garment', dumku 'favour',
iumnu 'evil'. urhu [uruh] 'road, street', umsu fern.
umsatu 'want'; mu'du 'abundance' (IK/Q), burn, burtu
'well, ditch'; nuru 'light', muru\ rubatu 'hunger'
(v. 47); tultu 'worm'; su-(um-)mu 'thirst'; bunu
'child'; 'countenance', musu 'night' (f^L^, note musitu).
4. JJ& (j^i st. cstr. Jjti) fern. cLI^i- rihsu
[rihis] 'inundation' fern, rihistu (rihiltii), gimru [gimir]
'totality, whole' fern, gimirtu \gimrat\ simdu and
simittu plur. simddti 'yoke (of oxen), team', sipru and
sipirtu 'epistle', sidirtu 'battle-array', sikiptu 'defeat',
sipittu (iSD) 'mourning', nisirtu 'treasure', piristu
'decision', siriktu 'present', libittu \Jibnaf] 'brick' plur.

libndti. nibu 'number' fern. st. cstr. nibit 'name';
here belong also ilittu 'shoot, child' (also littu), biltu
[bilat] 'offering, tribute', siptu 'exorcism', situ 'issue,
Where no masculine form occurs, nor the plur. fern, nor yet
the construct state of the fern, sing., the form No. 15 is also
possible. And however improbable it may seem to me, I should
like to call attention to the fact that the i of the first syllable, in
forms like the above, might also be regarded as having arisen from
e (a), from which it would follow that the i of the second syllable
might be viewed according to 35: consequently there would be
no need for reading hi-sih-tu in place ofhi-sah-tu, a variant ofhi-
*i-ih-tu 'need': heSahiu and hesihtu (Msihtu) might both represent
the nominal stem CULi (No. 6). For unmistakable examples
of this origin of the i of the first syllable, see what is said in
connexion with sihru i. e. sehru 'small' in the note to No. 7.
*, J S 9J'J^ n. > 9^->
o. jAi (J&i st. cstr. J A S) fern. cuui. pulhu
[puluti] and puluhtu [pulhat\ 'fear', tubku [tubule] and
tubuktu [tub/cat] 'region', plur. tubkdti and tubuMti,
tukultu [tuklat] 'assistance', plur. tukldti 'helpers, sol-
diers', bu/cru and bukurtu 'first-born', nukurtu 'enmity'.
Here belong also subtu [subat] 'dwelling', suttu
'dream' plur. sundti^
The remark made in the note to No. 4 also applies here :
whether, e. g., ukultu 'food' has a long or a short u in the second
syllable can only be decided by finding the construct state of the
sing. The intimate connexion between stems Nos. 2 and 4, 3 and 5
is well shown by masc. forms like misiru 'territory' (V E 8, 72),
elsewhere always misru [misir]; uzunu 'intelligence' (Bors. I 5),
elsewhere always uznu [uzun] ; udre and udurd 'dromedaries' ; also
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 11

by tukuntu [tukmat] 'fight' exchanging with tuJcmatu (to be taken
as sing., in my opinion, in passages like Assurn. I 35. Sarg. Cyl. 25),
plur. tukmati and tukumati, and by other cases. For the stem
^ 9S ' ^ is'
.Las fem. v^XLai, which corresponds in the same way to stem
No. 1, v. note to No. 6.
b) A short accented vowel after the first radical
and a short vowel after the second radical (Nos.
6 10): forms substantives and adjectives.
The vowel of the second radical is much less fre-
quently syncopated, and, in particular, is always
retained a few forms due to analogy excepted
before atu (the abs. state of the feminine).
6. jjii (jJ2 or jj st. cstr. jii) fem. cLiii-
Jiatanu [hatari] 'related by marriage, son-in-law', na-
karu 'enemy', raphi 'wide' fem. rapaltu [rapsat] plur.
rapsdti. (thru fem. ahartu 'the future'; again 'calf,
but also elamu 'high' fem. elamtu (v. 34, y)) elirtu
'ten' fem. (= elartu, ace. to 35), whence (v. 36)
eSertu [eserit]\ ma'adu, mddu 'much' fem. mdattu',
la'dbu 'flame' ; kanu 'reed', manu 'mina', $amu 'heaven',
kalu \kai\ 'totality', mate (cf. p. 99) 'when ? ', eru 'chest,
box', adi 'unto' (cf. ^y), eli (eli, el, ela) 'upon' (cf. *by),
dbitu and dbutu 'answer, wish' (st. *! and intf), nagu
and nagitu (also na-gi-a-tu) 'district, place'; akru
'precious' (lj^) fem. akartu plur. akrdti.
A few nouns of the form fa al, fem. fa altu stand in the same
intimate relation to stem No. 1, as do Nos. 4 and 5 to 2 and 3

(v. No. 5 note); cf. e. g. nakmu and nakamtu 'treasure' plur.
nakamati, si-ba (doubtless = seba) 'seven' fern, sibittu (sebittu =
sebattu, seba'tu), also karasu 'interior' (Assurb. Sm. 11, 8), rdkabu
'ambassador', palagu 'canal' (plur. pa-la-ya-su, Neb. VIII 39),
which stand apparently in the same relation to karsu, rakbu, palgu
as uzunu to uznu. In view of the difficulties in the way of an
exact classification, we do not attempt to set up a stem with the
vowel a, analogous to Nos. 4 and 5. The surest sign by which to
know if a noun belongs to stems Nos. 6 12 or to Nos. 1 5, is
an observation, the accuracy of which appears to me beyond
question, that adjectives are not found under any of the forms
1 5. When the second vowel is syncopated and no feminine or
constr. state is known, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to decide
between Nos. 6 and 1, and between 6 and 7 : with regard to admu-
"something created, child, young (of animals)', Hebr. d^X might
perhaps justify us in thinking of No. 6; but we shall never perhaps
be able to say with certainty whether Sadu 'mountain' and sabitw
'gazelle' belong to No. 6 or to No. 7. In the case of words like
epiru, epru [epir~\ 'dust', we must not forget the possibility of
explaining the i ace. to 35, which would place epru on a par
with the Hebr. 122. For feminines like hisihtu, si-har-tu, si-hir-tu
'circuit, city wall', v. remarks on No. 4 above. Again, of the nouns
assigned to No. 7, having e in the first, and i in the second
syllable, one or two may belong to No. 6: eriStu 'desire' e. g. may
be = arastu rdix. Also mi-hi-ir-tu, st. cstr. mi-ih-rit (mih-ri-it
Tig. jun. rev. 16, mill sign 9 No. 109) alongside of mi-ih-ra-at
(Neb. VII 61), and mi-hi-ra-at (Neb. Bab. II 18, same form as
sih-hi-rat, II R 21, 16 d), might be looked upon as the fern, of
mahru [mahar] when pronounced mehru and mihru. With what
has now been said compare my remarks p. 48 f. Finally, we may
hesitate at times between Nos. 6 and 11; ga-ra-bu 'leprosy',
however, is shown by the Hebr. S'la to belong to No. 6.

7. J_*i ( j_Ri or jjj st. cstr. j_*i) fern. cuX-ai-
naklru 'strange, hostile' fern, nakirtu, kabtu 'heavy'


fern, kabittu [ka'btat] plur. kdbt&ti, kabittu 'disposition',
napittu \napUf\ 'soul, life' plur. napsdti, namru 'bril-
liant' fern, namlrtu (and na-mi-ra-tu 'brilliancy' K. 40),
labiru 'old' fern, labirtu, damku 'gracious' fern, damiktu
[damkat], gamru [gamir] 'complete' fern, gamirtu, hamsu
'five' fern, hamiltu. The fern, of maliku, malku [malik]
'prince' (and of a few other nouns) follows the ana-
logy of stem No. 1: malkatu [malkat and malikaf].
esirtu [erit] 'temple' plur. etreti, er(i)nu 'cedar', egitur
'letter'; eritu', ebru [ebir], eklu 'dark' fern, ekiltu', edlu
fern, ediltu, epistu [epsit] (v. 34, y and observe No. 6
no te); ndidu, nddu 'exalted'; main 'full' fern.
malitu\ petu [pet, pit] 'opened, open' fern. petitu\ nisu
'distant'; rabu 'great' fern. rabitu\ saku 'high' fern.
sakitu (Lay. 51 No. 1, 2).
Just as naJcaru 'hostile' is another form of nakiru, syncopated
nakru, so there was, to all appearance, alongside of aplu
[apil] 'son' a bye-form aplu [apal]. Regarding sihru [sihir]
'small' we may have some hesitation, at first, in deciding between
Nos. 2, 4 and 7; but even if it should prove not to be the case
that the stems 1 5 are confined to substantives, the form si-ih-
ri-tu (II E, 36, 57 a. 37, 51 h), which occurs alongside of sihirtu as
the fern, of sihru, points through the i of its second syllable to
the existence of e in its first (v. 35), so that sihru may certainly
be taken as ehru, and this again, with its fern, sehirtu as stem
No. 6 (the original sahru is still found alongside of the other, like
rciSu alongside of reu). The same applies to gisru, alongside of
gasru 'strong': for although gi-sar-tu (sign sar, sir 9 No. 141),
the fern, of giru, suggests the possibility of stem No. 9, the
reading giSirtu (=geirtu) is also possible. On the circumstance

of the forms sahru and sihru, gasru and gisru etc. being placed
side by side, cf. the interesting list II R 32, 31 36 c: samkatu
and Samuktu, harmatu and harimtu (the first [and last] members
of each couple clearly representing the same nominal stems);
finally, kazratu and kizritu (=kezratu), plur. kiz(i)retl. See also
the note to No. 8.
.JX. S f ^ 9^ 9 ^>x- - f J^x
8. Jj& (Jjd or j^ st. cstr. J_ai) fern. ^uXji.
samuhu 'gr owing luxuriantly' fern, samuhtu, marustu
(marultu) fern, 'bad, mischievous'. rumtu syn. of
kabittu (masc. rcfwnu, D^!"l ?) ; ruku ; far, distant' (also
perm, of the form jii) fern, ruktu [rukai]\ saku
'high' (=sakui) fern, sakutu (alongside of saku, st. JjJ.
No. 7). Note also 76.
A parallel to sihru=sehru is afforded by limnu 'wicked' fern.
limuttu, but also lim-ni-tu (V R 6, 114): here too, the latter form,
limnitu, proves that i of the first syllable is really an e, that is, a
modified a ( 35); limnu iherefoice=lemnu (lemunu). In this way
are also explained the permansive forms li-mun (le-muri) 'he is
wicked' (IV R 6 Col. VI), fern. limnit=lemnat, limnetunu { ye are
wicked' (v. Pinches in PSBA, Nov. 7, 1882, p. 28).
For the stems Nos. 6 8 cf. also 87.

9. JJLs (j-ia st. cstr. J^i) fern. cL^. sikaru
'wine* CIDTO), zikaru 'male, man' fern, zi-ka-rat (III E,
53, 31 b). niku 'offering', binutu 'creature', hidutu
'joy', minutu 'number', nigutu (also ningutu) 'joy,
rejoicings' (plur. nigdti), kilutu 'burning'; i-ti-a-tu
'side, enclosure' (II R 30 No. 4 rev.), sikitu 'watering',
Ukitu 'weeping', biSitu 'being, possession', sisitu 'speech',

also with e: limetu (and li-mi-tu) 'enclosure, territory,
period', ki-ri-e-lu 'feast' (Esarh. VI 35;

In the case of a few of these nouns with e in the second
syllable, the possibility of the origin of e from a must be left an
open question. zikru, which occurs alongside of zikaru, is not a
syncopated form of the latter, but, as we see from the const, st.
ziJcir, an independent variant, and is perhaps to be explained
in the same way as ffisru, nikru 'hostile' (Beh.). Bi-'-u 'wicked'
and siru 'exalted' will also be found to admit of an explanation
which renders it unnecessary to assume that,JJ*3 also forms ad-
Note on Nos. 6 9. I am also unable, for the present,
to determine with certainty the nominal stem of imnu 'right
(hand)' fern, e-mit-tu, i-mit-tu, and i-sa-ru 'right, straight' fern.
isartu and isirtu. It almost seems as if both emittu and the i in
the second syllable of iSirtu point to an i = e (= a) in the first

10. j^i fern. J-jJi. Perhaps ugaru 'fields';
uru 'shame, nakedness', unutu 'vessel', ututu (also
itutu) 'appointment'; musitu 'night', busu, "buSitu
'goods, property'.
2. A short vowel after the first radical and a long vowel after
the second (Nos. 1119).

11. jl^i tdhdzu 'battle', kardsu 'camp', karabu
'fight'. It is the form of the Inf. Qal, e. g. pa-ka-a-du
'to house' (Senhb. VI 29), ka-na-(a-)su 'submit one's
self (Tig. Ill 74. IV 51); for the forms with modified
vowel, such as ameru, seheru 'be small' (written si-

hi-ru opp. rabu K. 2867 obv.) v. 32, y. 34 (3.
atdnu 'she-ass'. ki-'be-tu, kiMtu 'order' (V R 51, 50 b:
ki-ba-a-tu)', amdtu 'speech, affair', kamdtu 'enclosure,
city wall' (cf. p. 99).
With these feminine infs. of the Qal employed as nouns,
such as amatu, kibetu, reMu 'shouting' plur. resati, tdrtu (v. 64),
cf. the analogous forms discussed after Nos. 24, 33 and 40, and
also 88, h, note.
12. Jlii. lisdnu 'tongue', pisdnu 'reservoir, gran-
ary'. igdru 'wall' pi. igdrdti^ imeru 'ass'; ri'dsu
'creeping thing' ; tidmtu 'sea'; himetu 'cream'; sipdtu
'garment', pihdtu 'vice-royalty', kindtu 'servants,
menials' (cf. p. 99).
Haupt also places here pi-ti-e-ku 'child' (II B 36, 51 c).
13. jljj. hurdsu 'gold', turdhu 'wild goat', hu-
sa(H)-hu 'famine'; kurddu 'brave'. -- ubdnu 'peak,
finger'; tu'dmu 'twin' plur. f. tutimati 'folding-doors'
(cf. O^iifin); rubu 'great, noble' fern, rubdtu, Supdtu
'garment', usdtu 'assistance' (cf. p. 99).
14. J-^. harisu 'city moat', zakipu 'post, stake',
mahiru '(purchase)price', saMmu 'inclination, compas-
sion, treaty', tallmu 'full brother' fern, talimtu [talimaf],
alibu 'sweet milk'; rimtu 'beloved' (V R 9, 75).
15. J^A5- zikipu 'post, stake' (esp. in Assurn. and
Shalm.); or is the occurrence of both zikipu and

zakipu (cf. zikiku and zakiku 63) to be explained by
34, a?
16. J^*- u-di-i-nu 'eagle or vulture'; also, we
think su-pi-lu, su-pil-tu 'mulieris pudenda', butiktu
(more frequently lutuktu) 'eruption (of water),
17. jJ*S. batulu 'young man' fern, batultu 'maiden',
ka-ru-bu syn. of rubu 'great, noble', ga$uru 'beam'.
Asur 'the god Ashur' (as the 'bringer of good'), the
plant a-du-ma-tu, eburu 'fruits of the field' (coll.),
emuku 'might'; bauldti plur. 'subjects'.
18. jii. Cf. the examples in 63 (p. 153).

19. Jy*l. ruktibu 'vehicle', rukiisu 'possession',
lubuhi 'garment, clothing', doubtless also gusuru
'beam'; fern, subultu 'ear (of corn)', uzubu 'an under-
standing', usiirtu 'ban', 'end'. usumu 'ornament,
Note on Nos. 11 19. The only example of a long vowel
after the first radical and a short vowel after the second, is
which is confined to the participle of the Qal.

II. Internal Vowel Change with sharpening
of one of the Consonants of the Root
(Nos. 2029).
1. Sharpening of the third radical (Nos. 2023).
a) with the same vowel after each of the two first
radicals (Nos 2022).
20. J^i. parakku 'chamber of the gods, holy of
holies, throne-room; monarch', kalakku 'lath-work',
kaparru (V R 12, 36 b). adannu 'strong', agammu
'marsh, pool', also agappu 'wing', aganndti plur. 'basins'.
21. \R3. kisimmu 'a destructive insect' (grass-
hopper?), gimillu 'good deed, presentation', nigissu
'fissure', sipirru (to be preferred to siparru) 'bronze'.
ki-bi(f)-ru 'burial', sibirru 'staff, rod' isinnu 'feast,
22. jil suluppu 'date', kurunnu a kind of wine,
hubul(l)u 'interest', duruHu [durus] 'foundation', su-
gullatu 'possessions (in herds)'. uruhhu 'way', -
uhummu 'rocky precipice', the demon Utukku. See
also stem 38.
b) with a different vowel after each of the two
first radicals (No. 23).
23. jji and other forms: Sakummu 'sorrowful'
fern, sakummatu 'sorrow, suffering'. abullu 'city gate',

agurru 'enclosure', coll. 'burnt bricks'; daummatu
'darkness, lamentation'. ekimmu 'robber' (a demon).
pilakku 'axe', pilakku 'spindle'.
Note on No s. 20 23. It is difficult to decide whether
the sharpening of the third radical of stems 20 23 is a result of
accenting the second syllable or is to he explained, in certain
cases, as compensation for an original long vowel in the second
syllable. The latter explanation must by no means be accepted
without question in those cases where we find the last radical
doubled, alongside of variants with it written but once, for, as is
well known, we also meet with the reverse process, where the
sharpening of a consonant is compensated for by lengthening the
vowel (v. 53, d). What has now been said applies to nouns like
lamassu, for example, for which we find la-ma-su (Neb. Grot. II
55), hazannu 'overseer' (cf. "(Jin), but plur. ha-za-na-a-ti, Jcu-nu-
(uk)-ku 'seal' etc.
2. Sharpening of the second radical (Nos. 24 29).

24. jii (forms names of occupations and inten-
sive adjectives), gdlldbu 'one that flogs', kallabu
'pioneer' (who makes a path with axes), kassapu
'magician, enchanter' fern, kassaptu, makkasu 'publi-
can (as in N. T.)', massaru 'watchman' ; karradu
'brave', nakkaru 'hostile', gammalu 'camel', bakkaru
'young camel', sapparu fern, sappartu a species of
antelope. Cf. also sallaru 'wall'. allaku 'messenger',
ahhazu 'Siezer' (a demon), annabu 'hare' (prop.
'springer'), ammaru 'plenty', apparu 'marsh, jungle of
reeds'; irrisu 'gardener' (= arrasu), cf. ippisu (V R

13, 39 b); tap-pi-u, tappu 'companion' (doubtless
= tappai-u).
im-me-ru 'lamb' might also come under this form, if we
explain its e ace. to 36, and assume immiru to have arisen from
emmiru and emmaru ( 36). Such questions are included
among those discussed under Nos. 4, 7 and 8. And for this
reason we abstain, at present, from indicating the stem of such
nouns as in-di-ru 'threshing-floor' (doiibtless=iddiru) cf. diggiru,
dingiru as they appear in di-gi-ru-u 'god' i-ih-hi-ru 'small,
young' (also written si-hi-ru) zinnilttu, [zinniSat] 'female, woman'
(also written zi-ni-es-tum) and others.
The form j^J appears as the inf. of Piel, or as
the inf. used as a noun; also as adjective (always
with pass, signification), e. g. bussurtu [bussuraf]
'glad tidings', nukkusu 'cut off', burrumu 'particolour-
ed' fern, burrumtu, uhhuzu 'enclosed, enchased'; ullu
'moved up, distant, eternal', v. 88, b and note.
25. jl2 (cf. 63 No. 25) varies with jj (like
Hebr. Kl'af? with tf3) but is much rarer, za-am-me-ru
'singer, musician' fern, zammertu.
26. lis. ummdnu 'artist'.

27. J-Jii. hab-bi-lu 'wicked', sa-ag-gi-su 'criminal'
(Neb. Grot. II 2).
28. Jyil Assur 'city and land of Assur', ma-ak-
ku-ru 'possession', passuru 'dish, bowl', sak-ku-ru
'intoxicated'. ak-ku-lu 'gluttonous' (II R 56, 23 c).
29. i. sik-ku-ru 'bolt', bi-is-su-ru 'shame'.

Notes on Nos. 20 29. a) As regards the quantity of the
vowel of the second syllable, and, to some extent, the doubling
or not doubling of the second radical, not a few nominal forms
present all sorts of difficulties in the way of correctly determining
their stem. Thus, e. g. ukJjaztu name of a creeping plant, su-
(um)-me-rat libbi 'the hidden thoughts of the heart'; ha-si-in-nu
and (st. cstr.) ha-as-si-in 'axe', etc. Nouns like aggullu 'pick-axe',
sattuk(k)u 'daily sacrifice', akkullu 'tribulation, darkness (metaph.)',
ikkillu 'lamentation', zikkurratu 'temple-tower, pinnacle' (zi-ku-
ra-at in Neb.) seem to present the sharpening of the second and
third radicals.
b) Following the forms with sharpening of the second or
third radical, those may here be mentioned which repeat the
second or third radical: zu-ka-ki-pu 'scorpion', adudUu, a-mu-
mes-tu y a-gu-gi-il-tu (v. Diet., No. 61), a-su-si-im-tu name of a
plant (cf. Hebr. rn^'un), etc. a-dam-mu-mu name of a bird, alka-
kati, ilkakati 'ways, events, issues', nam-ri-(ir-)ru 'brilliancy', ir-
nintu (irnittu) and urnintu (urnittu) 'strength, victory', ren-nin-tu
fern, 'luxuriant' (of growth of plants, cf. "iJSTOi etc. Sahrartu
(and saharratu) 'straits, difficulties' comes from TirKii ; for this
kind of quadriliteral verbs, v. 117, 2.
III. Internal Vowel Change with external
formative Additions (Nos. 30 40).
1. Preformatives (Nos. 3033),
30. s: j^\ etc.
0) jit. artctu 'four' fern. erUtti (= erlatti),
irlitti. To these we may add azkaru 'crescent of the
new moon', asgagu, allaku. See also &.
V) J-lj- ismaru 'lance', also asmaru (or w?), in-
sabtu 'ear-drops', also ansabtu. Doubtless also i$-ka-ru

'fetters, chains', iSparu fern, ispartu. Or do these
helong to c?
c) JLalj- ip-te-en-nu i. e. iptenu 'meal', also, we
think, ip-ti-ru 'ransom', ik-ri-bu 'prayer', is-di-hu 'way',
is-kip-pu an animal, the same as ipteru etc. Note is-
ri-i-ru II R 32, 10 c.
d) J^sit- Perh. askuppu, askuppatu 'threshold'.
e) j\ (cf. 63 imbubu). is-ru-ub-bu (V R 32,
35 b), whence is-ru-bu-u.
Forms with prosthetic &< do not, of course, belong here.
I am not aware of any certain example of 1 as preformative ; the
names of two of Merodach's dogs Iksuda and Il-te-bu (II B 56,
24, 25 c) are certainly pure verbal forms, like the name of the
deity I$-me ka-ra-bu (III E 66 obv. 2 e).
31. tt and 5: JJuL^, JJ*J^ 5 and similar forms.
) JjJJfl (forms nomina loci and nom. instru-
menti, serving also to express that wherein the idea
implied in the verb is realized): magsaru 'might,
strength', maskanu 'locality, pledge' (or was 'pledge'
ma&cfaiut), ma(n)dat(f)u 'tribute', massartu 'watch'.
mesiru 'siege, cover, case'; mdlaku 'way'; metiku
(=metaku, v. 32, y and 35) 'way, course of events'
(the orthographical variation mi-te-ki III R 55, 59 b
is a parallel to ne-mi-ku and ni-me-ku p. 78) fern.
metaktu 'procession, march (of events)' (Shams. IV 27),
medilu 'bar, bolt' ; ma-a-a-lu, ma-a-a-al-tu, i.e., on

the analogy of nardmu from DK 3 1, nia'dlu, ma'dltu
'couch, bed'; messu (me-is-su-u) and messetu (me-si-
e-tum II R 20) 'street', hence perhaps mil-ki-tum 'pos-
session' is to be taken as representing melketu (=mal-
imaltu 'vessel for drinking' fern, mastitu 'beverage',
marsitu 'possession', cf. markitu 'refuge'; maklutu
'burning'. musabu 'dwelling', musu 'starting-point';
mesaru 'righteousness, justice', mekaltu 'streamlet'
(II R 38, 19 b, cf. Hebr. o?fc te^tt).
Instead of the above, J^ij appears when the
stems contain a labial (Earth): nakbaru 'grave',
narbasu 'couch, hiding place', nadbaku 'incline, wall'
nappasu 'dormer-window', napraku 'bolt, bar',
'dress', nasramu 'sharp-edged tool', narpasu
'threshing-roller or sledge', napsamu 'bit and bridle',
nagldbu 'scourge', narkabtu 'chariot', nahlabtu 'dress',
nakpartu 'lid', napharu 'totality', naspartu 'mission',
nabsaltu (sic) 'boiled food' (IV R 64, 7 b), namrasu
'grievance', naspatu (also nispatu, C a 96) 'court, justice'.
nabbahu 'rack', nannabu 'shoot'; ndbaru, ndbartu
'cage' (st. 11^ 3 ) ; ni-bi-ru i. e. nebiru (=ndbaru, v. 32, y
and 35) 'ferry' fern, mbartu, nibirtu (i=e=d) 'crossing,
the other side', neribu (niribu, nirbu) 'entrance, pass',
nipistu (= nepistu, ndpastu) 'work, production' (cf.
for ni-me-ku a variant of ne-mi-lu v. 30

p. 78, ace. to which ni-me-du 'room' would also come
under this form ; nardmu 'love, darling' fern, na-
rdmtu (formed after the analogy of verbs med. 1, i) ;
nahbu, nahbdtu 'quiver' (tf^ft); naptetu 'key'; nam-
bau 'fountain', nasmu and nismu (doubtless = nesmu)
'hearing', nisbu 'satiety'; namsu 'washing-green'; narbu
(narbutu) and nirbu 'greatness, size'; nabnitu 'pro-
For words like nirbu 'size', nirmu foundation', niptu 'key',
nirdamu (also nardamu, K. 4378 col. VI 57), nirmaJcu 'pitcher',
t niramtu a weapon (IR 28, 12 a), nibretu 'hunger' we may assume
a special form,jJLa^o. metuku 'way' (Assurn. Ill 110) stands
alone. The following are exception to Earth's law: mdmitu
'word, oath' (though from !T2K), musabu (v. above), muspalu and
mudbaru (v. below).
b) Jjj. mus-pa-lu 'depth', mulu 'height' (II R 29,
66f. b), mudbaru 'wilderness' (Tig. V 45, also madbaru).
mu-nu-u (and ma-nu-u) 'couch' (II R 23, 57 f. c).
In its place J^lj: nunsabtu (Nimr. Ep. 51, 14).
The form jJuL> occurs as inf. of the Nifal or as
infin. used as a noun, and also as an adjective e. g.
namkuru 'property', naduru 'dark', v. 88, b and note.
32. n: Jjj etc.
a) JJLaj. tarbasu 'court, womb', tapsahu 'resting-
place', tamharu 'hostile meeting, fight'. tdmartu
'being seen, appearance, sight'; tallaktu 'way'; tak-
kaltu 'weeping', tenu 'couch, bedchamber'; tdndttu

'majesty' (formed after the analogy of verbs med. 1, 1) ;
tarbu fern, tarbitu 'shoot, offspring', tabru fern, tabritu
'gazing, view' plur. tabrdti, tdritu 'woman with child 1 ;
tutaru 'throwing down'. Cf. the short forms: teltu,
tertu (also turtu) 'law', tudtu 'decision' (v. 62, 1).
b) JjJo- tak-ti-mu 'covering, envelope', taskirtu
'lie', tazzimtu 'lamentation', tazmertu do. (cf. 36).
tdnifyu 'sighing', tddirtu 'fear', tdmirtu 'horizon', teriktu
'length', tenihu 'couch', teniStu 'human being'; ta-
nit-iu 'majesty'; teniku 'suckling, tender shoot'.
A few of the forms with %, in the first syllable and i in the
second may belong to a. Others, such as tedistu 'renewal', ta-am-
i-lu 'likeness, similarity' suggest d. ta-lit-tu 'posterity' (st. T^l)
is evidently formed by analogy.
c) Jlilj. tasmetu 'hearing, granting', cf. tah-ra-
ah-hu (V R 48 Col. IV 28. V 2&). tal-la-ak-ku 'way'
(VR65, 26 b)?
d) J.^otis. tasritu 'consecration', cf. lurru 'con-
secrate, begin' (also tisritu from teSrttu, cf. ^TJJn),
taslitu and teslitu 'prayer' cf. sullu 'ask', tesbitu 'wish,
request' cf. subbu 'to request'; tamlu (also written
tam-li'd) 'terrace (cf. mullu 'fill up'), setting (of gems)'
plur. tamleti.
Cf. also te-di-(iJc-)1fu 'dress': c or d 1 * te-me-ku 'fervour', 'fer-
vent entreaty' : c or a (&) ?
e) Jyub or jJub. tahlubu and tahlubtu 'covering,
cover, roofing', taphilitu 'rest, resting-place', takrubtu

'attack, fight', tamgurtu (II R 40 No. 4), tam-hu-us
kakki (IV R 13, 10 b); cf. targum-anu, turgum-dnu
'interpreter'. ta-hu-za-tu a creeping plant, ta-lu-ku
'procession, course (of events)'.
/) JyJu- tur-bu-'u fern, tur-bu-u'-tu 'tumult'.
Note, finally, the peculiar tabbanu 'building' plur.
tabbanutu (D, 13. 15).
33. us: JjLi^o and similar forms, very rare.
a) jjLsLi}. sapsaku 'necessity' also 'steep path'.
V) jJLL (jfyuLE?)'. sahluktu 'destruction', sal-
pii-tu (doubtless = salputtit) 'fall, devastation, ruin'.
The form Jjul> fern. cxLa-Li) occurs as inf. of
the Shafel, or as an inf. used as a noun, and also as
an adjective, e. g. sulputtum 'fall, ruin' (III R 62, 31 a),
susurtu 'a throwing down' (II R 43, 4 a), su-ru-ub-tum
'produce (of fields)' prop, what they bring in, re-
turn suluku 'current, suitable', surM 'large', susku
'high' v. 88, and note.
2. Afformatives (Nos. 3439).
These are confined to the formation of nouns from
the nominal stems already given, and from their mas-
culine forms almost exclusively.
34. iitu forms abstract nouns, aplutu 'sonship',
aMtu 'fatherhood', Hutu, belutu. Sometimes with col-
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 12

lective signification (cf. 67, a, 6), e. g. amelutu 'hu-
manity', littutu 'posterity'.
35. an, also modified to en, forms substantives
and adjectives, admdnu 'place of abode' ; rdmdnu and
rdmenu ( 55, c). sil-lan-nu 'potentate, ruler' (II R
31, 27 a); titdnu and istenu 'one, single'; mi-ra-nu
'cub'; liddnu 'child, young (of animals)' dulMnu
'disturbance, unrest', Sulmdnu name of a deity, kur-
ba-an-nu and kir-'ba-an-nu 'offering, alms'; Uzndnu
(n. pr.), us-ma-nu and \d-man-nu 'camp'; bu'Sanu,
biisdnu 'noisome disease'; bu-un-na-nu 'edifice', bu-
(un-)na-(an-)ni(-e) plur. 'outward appearance, like-
ness, image'; surmenu 'cypress'. adannu 'tent',
da-la-ba-na-a-ti plur. fern. (Neb. Ill 52); e-ri-in-nu
'chest, box', doubtless = erinu, erenu. Compare also
the two bird-names kakkdbdnu (from kakkabu 'star')
and hurdsdmtu ('the golden yellow'), targumannu and
turgumannu 'interpreter' (v. No. 32, e), ndbalkuttdnu
'rebel' (from ndbalkuttu 'rebellion', (v. 117, 1
under IV 1).
For quadriliterals cf. argamannu 'red purple', kurkizannu
'rhinoceros', harbakdnu name of a bird (II E 37, 7 f ). Some of
these forms in anu, annu (innu) are doubtless to be regarded as
stems with short an, e. g. kurbannu, bit-tan-nu 'palace' (Esarh.
V 32) Hebr. I^S; it is however no easy matter to separate these
from the others, for which reason we did not, for the present,
attempt to do so.

36. am and dm, very rare, elamu 'front'. su-
ma-mu 'thirst', si-ri-ia-a-am 'coat of mail', pa-li-ia-a-mu
(VR28,7a). And witti pu-ri-mu 'wild ass' cf. Hebr. *T)B?
37. a, origly. di, forms adjectives of relation, esp.
nomina gentilicia. (For the reading of -/#, a-a as d,
v. 13 and 14). Ar-ma-da-a-ia 'of Arwad' (IR28,2a),
Sur-ra-a-a 'Tyrian'. With the u of the nom. sing. E-
la-mu-u 'Elamite', U-ru-u 'of Ur' ; also with u of the
plur.; am?]u Assiir-u 'Assyrian (Khors. 32), sabe Nip-
pur-u BdUl-u (V R 56, 3). Fern. sing, sometimes d-i-tu
sometimes itu (v. 41, b, p. 99); ar-ka-a-a-i-tu 'those
of Erech', Dur-Sarru-ken-a-a-i-ti (1 Mich. I 14) ; assu-
ritu, akkaditu. Of adjectives with other significations
we find e. g. (thru and arku 'future' (plur. fern, ahrdtu,
arkdtu 'the future', ddru 'lasting', mahru 'former', elu,
saplu 'upper, lower' fern, elitu, saplitu, kak-kar, su-ma-
ma-i-tum 'wilderness' (Desct. 11 and often). Cf. also

This di is also found appended to the ending an (No. 36):
.besides hurasamtu mentioned in No. 35, cf. remenu (remnii fern.
remnitu) 'compassionate', bardnu 'rebellious' (st. ma). With
participial forms it indicates the continual or professional exer-
cise, so to say, of the particular action: cf. IV R 57, 3. 4. 49 a etc.
and the common word mutnennu 'the pleader' from utnen 'I
pled for mercy' (Haupf).
38. m, which with u of the nom. sing, is always
contracted to u: eribu (and aribu) 'locust' st. i^ 1 'lay

waste' (cf. !t?n). The same form is apparently found
in egirru 'dreams', igisu 'present'. This ending may
also be recognized in nouns that go back, in the first
place, to jJU, such as nudunnu 'dowry', p urussu 'de-
cision', sulummu 'favour', duluhhu 'excitement', hulukku
'destruction' (v. Pinches' Texts p. 18) etc. (nusurru,
pugurru, rugummu). In many nouns ending in w, the
origin of the latter is as yet obscure.
As a note to the foregoing, we may also mention si-hi-pu-u
(V E 36, 39 f.), di-gi-ru-u and Jii-li-bu-u 'god', id-di(s)-su-u (v.
Dicty. s. v. 01X3), si-su-u 'horse', H-ru-bu-u 'piece of ground',
salhu 'rampart' 7 du-ka-ku-u 'youth'.
39. ak (dk? with u of the nom. akku, aku) has the
same meaning as di (No. 38): note, in the same prop,
name, the two varieties Za-za-a(-a) and Za-za-ku i. e.
prob. 'endowed with a vast body' (C a 220). For ud-
da-ak-ku,matutinus' v. 80, a.
Of. also such names and words, "belonging to or taken from
the artificial language of the grammarians, as gespu-tukullaku
(S c 25), same formation as musen-dugu (1. 51); sa-na-ba-ku 'pos-
sessor of the No. 40' (said of Ea, II E, 55, 51 c. d), he-nun-na-ku
(IV B, 61, 45 a), synonymous with za-za-ku. For adjectives in
i-8u (i-sam-mu) v. 80, a and [3.
3. Informatives (No. 40).
40. n after the first radical: Jliis and similar
0) Jliis. it-ba-a-ru 'friendly, friend', ri-it-pa-Su

'wide', git-ma-lu 'perfect', mit-ha-ru 'one' (prop, 'meet-
ing, harmonizing', a form with Ifteal signification)
fern, mithdrtu (adv. mithdris 'in the same way'), Istdrtu
(pro\). = Itsdrtu; or does rnhtt? point to a ground-
form with a in the first syllable, like athu 'companion,
brother, atmu 'word, speech'? cf. VR 20, 17 b); itpesu
'careful, prudent'. Tiz-ka-ru 'exalted' = zitkarut (cf.
83 note).
b) JlsLxi. sutmdsu and sutmesu (IV R 52, 43 b).
Also kustdru 'tent' (with the same transposition of
consonants as in Istdrtu)!
The form JJLb fern, culib appears as the ordi-
nary inf. of the Ifteal, as the infin. used as a noun,
and as an adjective, e. g. kitnibu 'attack' also 'offer-
ing', 'gift', mit-hur-tu 'agreement' (III R 52, 39 b), sit-
kultu (ibid. 52 a), mitluktu 'consultation, decision',
situltu (= sit'ultu, bfc^flj) 'decision', sitmuru 'anger;
angry', pitkudu 'heedful', sitlutu 'victorious' (Khors.
74), Jiitmutu 'hasty', v. 88, b and note.
Case-inflexion of nouns in the singular. Apart 66.
from the names of the gods, which, in many cases, have
not developed case distinctions, (cf. Samas, Sin, Mar-
duk, Istdr), and names of persons, the nominal parts of
which very often dispense with the case-endings, (cf.
Adar-malik, Samas-swn-ukm, Asur-ah-iddina), the As-

Syrian noun, when not standing in the construct state,
appears but rarely without a final vowel: cf. murus
kak-kad (IV K 3, 43 b), ku-dur u-kin-nu 'the boundary
they fixed' (II R 65 rev. col. Ill 21), mala su-um ndbu
(IV R 26, 59 a), unammer kima u-um (V R 34 col. I 52),
simma Id as (for Id dsd) 'unyielding blindness' (III R 43
col. IV 17). As a rule, all masculine nouns, as well
as those with the feminine ending at, end in one of
the three vowels ?/, i or #, which, in nominal stems
already ending in a short or a long vowel (as is the
case with most of the stems derived from verbs ter-
tise infirmse and with the stem 65 No. 37, cf. 38),
unites with the latter to form a long vowel: ^/, i (e),
a. Moreover, it must be laid clown as a general rule
that u is the sign of the nominative (so always in the
Assyrian vocabularies), i of the genitive, and a of the
accusative despite the number and variety of the
exceptions that are everywhere found: cf. e. g. niiru
ul immaru 'light they see not' (Desct. obv. 9), tenw ul-
teruni 'they brought the news' (Assurn. I 101), tar-pa-
sii-u 'the expanse', ace. (Lay. 38, 17); ana ndru inad-
diisu 'they throw them into the river' (V R 25, 6 b) ;
iplaJi IMasunu 'their heart was afraid', Nebuchad-
nezzar mu-da-a e-im-ga 'the prudent, the wise' (Neb.
Bors. I 4), ru-ba-a-am na-a-dam (nom.); pisu imsi 'he
washed his mouth', rubbisi zerim 'increase the off-

spring', ma-a-ti u nl-si 'land and people' (ace., Neb.
Senk. I 9), etc. In Babylonian vocabularies the vowel
i is often found in the nominative. To the short case-
endings (w, 2, a) an m may be appended, identical in,
origin with the emphatic particle ma, whichhere^aftd
elsewhere is frequently shortened to m (v. 79) : um,
im^/m^fo_ flftfWj fiiim } ntnrn, \V~jf.hJlrmor vowels, llOW-
ever, the mimatioji is -fouftd only in isolated cases,
e. g. re-e-um 'shepherd' i. e. re urn, ra-bi-im gen. of
rdbit (I R 52 No. 4 rev. 8), ru-ba-a-am 'the great'. The
mimation has no reference to the definite or indefinite
signification of the noun: Hum and ilu both denote
Mir god and a god.
For the contraction of the final vowels of the stem (a, a, i, i,
u, u, e) with u of the nom. and a of the ace. to u and a see 38, a.
With i of the genitive, one might suppose that final *, 2, u, u and
e would be contracted to i, a and a, on the other hand, to e, but
as a matter of fact we find as frequently e in the former case as
i in the latter: sakii (J-ai) gen. sa-ki-e and sa-ki-i, ina ra-mi-
e-ka 'when thou openest', but also a-si-i gen. of asii, nam-si-e
'washingplace' gen. of namsu ( namsi-ii) etc. Cf. 30 p. 78.
Formation of the plural of nouns (excluding 67.
those with the feminine ending atu).
a) The following terminations occur in the plural
of substantives:
1) ?, passim. The frequent cases in which the
plural is written so as expressly to emphasize the e

of the auslaut (examples p. 75) seem to justify us in
also reading plural forms like mal-ki, ar-lii, gi(r)-ri
'ways' (Assurn, I 43. 45) as malke, arhe, girre; also
lak-ti 'fingers', ka-ti 'hands' as lakte, kdte. In any case,
notwithstanding the interchange of e and i in pro-
nunciation, we must regard e as the original plural
ending, and must admit that e was also the original
pronunciation, e is found construed as feminine e. g.
in emuke sirdti 'surpassing strength', emuke rcibdte
(Senhb. VI 59). From stems tertiae i (1) cf. abe 'fa-
thers' (abu pl -e-a 'my fathers' I R 7 No. E, 5), ru-bi-e
'the magnates', same 'the heavens', mi-e, me-e 'the wa-
ters'. The two last-named substs. have also samdmi
and mdmi. An m is found appended to e in Neb. II
14. 34 4.: sa-di-im i. e. in my opinion sade-m 'mountains',
IV R 61, 19. 32 b: se-rim (sere-m) u lildti 'morning and
evening'. Cf. 57, b.
2) dni (dnu), passim, ildni 'gods', zikipe and za-
kipdni 'stakes' (Lay. 72 No. 2, 8), hursdni and hur-sa-
a-nu (I R 28, 12 a), harbdnu and tildnu (III R 66 rev.
36. 37 d), sal-ma-a-nu 'images' (Beh. 106). From stems
tertise * cf. saddni, adverbially sd-da-ni-is 'like moun-
tains' (e. g. Neb. VI 34).
3) an, always construed as feminine: e-mu-ka-an,
e-mu-kan sirdte (e. g. Lay. 33, 6), i-da-an pakldte
'powerful forces' (Sarg. Cyl. 24), ur-mah-he pi-tan

bir-ke (Senhb. Kuj. 4, 21). en (with a modified to <?)
is also found; observe the interesting form e-mu-ki-in
i. e. emuken gasrdtim 'the powerful forces' (Hamm.
Louvre II 15). This ending is found as the plur. of
a masculine substantive in ar-di-en (1 Mich. II 4).
4), very frequently construed as feminine. VI
ur-ra (elsewhere also ur-re) '6 days' (Nimr. Ep. XI,
121), ru-bi-e u sak-kan-nak-ka (V R 35, 18), ni-ri-ba-
si-in 'their entrances' (Neb. V 63), ar-na-a-su 'his mis-
deeds', nam-ra-sa 'difficulties' (Neb. II 21, elsewhere
namrase), puggulu e-mu-ga-a-m 'powerful are^his for-
ces' (V R 64 col. I 25), nidbaSu ellutim (Neb. Grot. 1 13),
si-in-na-a-su 'his teeth', si-ba kak-ka-da-su 'his (its)
heads are seven' (II R 19, 14 b), resdsu 'its top', is-
ddsu 'its foundation', sittdtim ma-ha-za 'the other ci-
ties' (V R 35, 5), il-la-ka di-ma-a-a 'my tears do flow',
kat-ma sap-ta-su-nu (Nimr. Ep. XI, 120). This form
in d is the favorite form for the plural of the names
of those parts of the body that occur in pairs, e. g.
bir-ka-a-a 'my knees', se-pa-a-a 'my feet', u-zu-na-a-su
'his ears' (mind); the plur. in <?, however, is also of
frequent occurrence. For the formation of the nu-
merals 20, 30, 40 and 50 by means of the plur. in,
see 75.
"We cannot enter here into a further discussion of the ques-
tion as to the possible relationship existing between these four

terminations. A very instructive form in this connexion, how-
ever, which is deserving of special mention, is i-na-an, which ac-
cording to the ideograms, and therefore according to the Assy-
rians' own teaching, denotes 'the two eyes' and 'the two words
invC (viz. eye and fountain); see the Zurich vocab. rev. 1719,
and cf. V B 36, 39 c.
5) u. pa-ar-su reUiitu 'the laws in force from the
beginning' (Nerigl. I 20), u-mu rab-bu-tum (IV R 1, 19 a),
se-e-du (IV R 5, 4 a), 470 pit-Jml-Ju-su (III R 5 No. 6,
12), cf. Ill R 66 rev. 3840 d. In annu'a ma'ida 'my
sins are many' (IV R 10, 37 a) it is construed as fe-
minine (v. also 70, b). An m is appended to u in
IV R 20 No. 1 obv. 25: be-el be-lum 'the lord of lords'.
6) utu (uti, uta, utum); very rare, without question
identical with the afformative iitu of the nominal stem
65 No. 34, to some extent, therefore, a so-called
'broken plural', tab-ba-nu-u-tu 'buildings' (D, 13. 15:
mddutu 'many', ullutu 'these'), a-me-lu-u-tu (e. g. D, 3),
a-me-lu-tv (I R 27 No. 2, 69), a-me-lu-ti (IV R 68, 27 b)
etc. 'human beings', sa-mu-tum 'the heavens' (verb:
usaznina, Senhb. IV 76).
b) Adjectives and participles, in so far as
they preserve their signification as such, always
form their plural by means of the termination just
given, viz:
iitu (uti, ute, utum). Hani sur-bu-tu (IV R 59, 49 b),
Jiurstini sakitti (sakutu, sakute) 'lofty mountain ranges',

time ru-ku-ti, arhe or girre paSfcute (Assurn. I 43. 45),
ma-ru g'lt-ma-lu-tum (IV E, 1, 6 c), limniiti 'the bad ones'
(Assurn. 18), baltuti 'the living ones'; (i)a-a-bu-ut 'ene-
mies' (cf. 64 p. 154); alikut(ii) 'current, living' plur.,
mu-ut-tab-bi-lu-ut 'governing' (Tig. I 15) t etc.
Since adjectives and participles, however, very
readily assume, or at least tend to assume, the sig-
nifications of substantives, we find in addition to utu
e. ru-bi-e 'the great ones, magnates' (V E 35, 18,
cf. 67, a, 4), Id ma-gi-re 'the unsubmissive' (Senhb.
I 8), multahte 'the rebels', mun-nab-ti 'the fugitives',
mundah(i)se 'the warriors', etc.
The ending u occurs IV R 2, 40 b : ul zik(a)ru su-nu ; or is
zi~Jt.a-ru to be taken as sing, notwithstanding the parallel zinnisati?
Formation of the Feminine. The Assyrian 68.
noun distinguishes but two genders, the masculine
and the feminine, the latter having also in the case
of adjectives a neuter signification, e. g. tdbtu 'good'
(das Gute), Umuttu 'evil', simtu 'what is appointed, fate'
(cf. 9 No. 212). The feminine ending is at (atu, ati,
ata; atum etc., v. 66), which attaches itself to the
nominal stem stripped of the case endings (in certain
cases with syncope of the vowel of the second syllable,
v. 65 before Nos. 1 and 6): kalbu fern, kalb-atu, rapsu
fern, rapastu. When e or e precedes, the feminine
ending is it, hence belitu, ellitu (v. 35). Very fre-

quently the a of the ending atu is syncopated, which
produces the appearance of tu alone being appended
to the stem of the masculine: cf. sattu 'year' (= san-
tu = san-atu, st. cstr. $anat\ ti'dmtu (= ti'dm-atu), si-
fiirtu (= sihir-atu) etc., and v. 37, a, where we have
already remarked that forms like bikitu^ rabitu, sakutu
(Ishtar sa-ku-ut ildni), surbutu (Ishtar sur-bu-ut ildni,
II K 66 No. 1, 4) etc. are to be considered as syn-
copated forms of biki-atu (bikai-atu)^ rabi-atu etc. ; cf.
the interesting singulars na-gi-a-tu, i-ti-a-tu (v. 65
Nos. 6 and 9), ta-mi-a-tu (v. 108 end). A large num-
ber of illustrations of what has now been said is con-
tained in 65. A few of the participles formed from
verbs tertise infirmse are peculiar-in this respect, that
they suppress their final vowel and with it their last
radical in the st. cstr. before the feminine ending:
cf. se-ma-at ik-ri-bi le-ka-at un-nin-ni (II R 66 No. 1, 7),
musalkat, musamsat (ibid. 1. 6). The same phenomenon
appears to a still greater extent, in the derivatives
of stems tertise i where, besides the regular feminine
participles like ka-mi-tum, Idpa-di-tum (IV R 57, 50. 53 a),
bdnitu (ba-ni-ti-ia, cf. Zer-bdnitu), we find the con-
tracted forms bantu (ba-an-tum V R 29, 66 h). and where,
besides the usual constr. form ba-nit ildni, we also find
ba-na-at ildni. In the same way the nominal form J^J,
in addition to the regular feminine forms like rabitu,

for example, admits a formation like le'atu, whence
letu ('might, power, victory' and 'wild cow'), st. cstr.
le-a-at, from the masculine le'u. See 39 above, and
for le'at 62, 1.
Note 1). On the femin. forms in utu: mut-tal-ku-tu a suke
'that roams the streets' (IV E 57, la), ru-uk-ku-ti (E, 12, else-
where, even in the Achsemenian inscriptions, rukti, fern, of ruku
'far') I do not venture to pronounce an opinion. For sanutu 'se-
cunda' v. 76. Ina ummdnisu i-su-tu 'with his scanty army (V E
64 col. I 30) must be understood in the light of Nabon. II 42. 51,
compared with 70 b, end (umma / nesu\). Quite unique is the
fern,- in atu in Desct. 5: ina kak-kar a-ga-a rap-a-a-tum. tap-
'pat-turn 'companion, concubine' (V E 39, 62 d) is also difficult; the
form reminds one of a-hat-tum 'sister', but for the fern, of tappu
'companion' (v. 65 No. 24) we should expect tappUu.
2) Not at few Assyr. substantives have a fern, termination
in the sing, where Hebrew (in most cases like the other Semitic
languages) has none: thus e. g. ersitu, tVamtu, napistu, riCtu,
rutu 'breath, spirit', kabittu 'liver, disposition', zibbatu 'tail', cf.
also Elnmtu 'Elam', Idiklat, Diktat 'Tigris'.
Plural of Ferninines in atu. Substantives and 69.
adjectives having atu in the sing, take the plural in
dti (cite, dtim, also dtum^ dtu^ did): sar-ra-a-ti 'queens',
ta-ma-a-ti 'seas', kibrdti 'regions', pulhdti 'fear' (for
forms like nakamdti, tubukdti v. 65 Nos.5 and 6 note),
um-mdndtea gab-sa-a-te (Senhb. Ill 43), mdtdti ru-ga-a-ti
'distant lands' (Neb. II 13). When the stem of the
singular, to which the fern, termination is to be at-
tached, ends in i or w, e. g. raU a tu, hidu a tu, this end-
ing unites with d of dti to form d (v. 38 a): niSe ra-

ba-a-ti 'the mighty nations' (IV R 32), tabrdti plur. of
tabritu, hiddti, mintiti, undti plur. of unutu, ugndtum
plur. of ugnitu, russdtu (sing. masc. russu). The cases
are rare where the vowel is retained: mdtdti sa-ni-a-ti
'other lands' (Shalm. Mo. rev. 33), nam-zi-a-te (Assurn.
II 67), e-ri-a-tum 'women with child' (III R 62, 26 a)
alongside of e-ra-a-ti. For feminine forms in eti (with
change of a to e) like girreti, esreti, beleti, kudurreti,
and even mddetu (note also mdtdti sa-ni-ti-ma Desct., 7)
v. 32, a and y.
For the feminine plurals with suff. of 1. pers. sing, like ha-
bldtu'a v. 74, 2, e. Cases are rare in which the plural termina-
tion dti is appended to a feminine in atu with retention of the t
of the sing. The hest attested examples are: le-ta-at kur-di-ia
'the victories of my courage' (Tig. VIII 39), tttat plur. of letu,
'might, victory' (st. !"i&6), and i-si-ta-a-te (Assurn. I 109) or a-si-
ta-a-te (Shalm. Mo. rev. 53), plur. of isitu, asitu 'pillar', alongside
of which we also find (Tig. VI 27) the regular plur. a-sa-ia-te,
pron. asdte ( 12). Cf. also salmatdte 'defences' (Assurn. Mo. rev-
40) in the second syllable of which the reading is uncertain. Does
mdtdti 'countries' belong to this category? The Hebr. rr'rvrp is
in Assyr. kasdti. The plural ending e (an) is taken by a couple
of substantives, which have forgotten the origin of their f, viz.
dattu 'door', plur. dalte (Hebr. ninb'n), and Saptu 'lip', cf. sap-te-
e-u 'his lips' (VB, 3, 80), sap-tan (construed as fern., IV E 16, 61 b),
also saptd (v. p. 185).
70. a) A number of Assyr. nouns have the feminine
plural in #, although the sing, lacks the feminine
termination; thus ndru 'stream' plur. na-ra-a-ti (IV R
22, lib), inu 'fountain' plur. Inati, gurunnu 'heap' gu-

rundti (guruneti, Shams. IV 30), kanu 'reed' kandti.
misru 'territory' misreti, kudurru 'boundary, boundary
stone 1 kudurreti, piru 'elephant' pirdti, atdnu 'she-ass'
atdndti, ekallu 'palace' ekalldti, papahu 'chamber' pa-
ptihuti, pit(l)pdnu 'bow' pitpdndti, pilakku 'axe' pilak-
kdti, riksu 'bond, league' riksdti, harrdnu 'street,
procession' harriindti; hazzanu 'ruler of the city' haz-
zanati, etc.
Mu-sa-a-ti 'nights' may be plur. of miisu or muSUu. The
sings, of ba-ma-a-ti 'high places' and par-sa-a-tu 'lies' (Beh. 100)
are unknown to me. lildtn 'evening', re-sa-a-tum 'shouting' (e. g.
S b 352) and si-na-a-tu 'urine' (S b 229) are probably used only in
the plur.; cf. the masc. plur. tantum usse, ussii 'bottom, founda-
tion'. Sdtu 'eternity' plur. of $itu 'exit'? A number of adjectives
unite seemingly with the plur. in dti the meaning of substantives,
by leaving a subst. of the fern, gender to be understood ; cf. ahratu
'the future', prop, future (times), ana ddrdti 'for ever', ana ru-
ka-ti 'to distant ages' (IV R, 44, 31), ana ru-ki-e-ti 'afar, to a
distance' (he fled, Senhb. II 10, IV 14 and oft). Salmat (?almdt?)
kakkadi Babyl. gagada(m) also 'the black-headed' men (supply
sikndt or ni-sim?) possibly comes under this head.
b) Many nouns, which lack the feminine termina-
tion atu in the sing., have in the plural the (exclu-
sively feminine) ending dti and also one of the (mainly
masculine but occasionally feminine) endings given
in 67 #, 1 5. Examples: ep(i)ru 'sand, earth, dust'
plur. epire (construed as masc.) and eprdti, girru
'way' girre and girreti, tudu 'way' tu-ud-de (Tig. IV 53)
and tu-da-at (Sarg. Cyl. 11), uku 'street' siikuni and

sukdti, niribu 'entrance, pass' mribe, nlribct, niribeti,
mdtu 'country' mtitdti and ma-tan (V R 62 No. 1, 3),
ubtinu 'point of finger, peak' ubdne and ubdndti, bdbu
gate' bdbdni (ba-bi Senhb. Const. 71) and bdbdti, bitu
'house' Utdni and bitdti, igdru 'wand' igdrii, igare and
igdrdti, lisdnu 'tongue, speech' li-sa-(a-)nu (IV R 20
No. 1 obv. 24, construed as fern. B, 3) and li-sa-na-a-ta
(0, 16), kursinnu 'ankle-bone' kursinnd, kursinnu and
kursin(n)dti, sinnu 'tooth' sinnd and sinndti, karnu
horn' kar-ni (also V R 6, 29 var.!) and karndti, sumbu
'cart' sumbe and sumbdti, umu 'day' time and umat (I R
28, 14 a), kuppu 'jet of water, spring' plur. kuppe and
kuppdti) ud(u)re&nd udrdti 'dromedaries', tuppu 'tablet'
(S c 3^) tuppe, tuppdni and tuppdti, kultdre and kultd-
rdti 'tents', ummdnu (rarely ummdtu, v. p. 116) 'army,
troops' ummdndte, but also ummdne (um-ma-ni V R 35,
24. 64 col. I 39. 43 must be so understood, v. 74,
1, b); nasiku 'prince' nasikdni and nasikdti^ etc.
71. Gender. Many substantives even without the
fern, ending atu are of the feminine gender, a) The
names of parts of the body that occur in pairs, such
as uznu, enu, saptu, kdtu, birku, sepu. But also sinnu,
lisdnu, kursinnu. b) Other words of the fern, gender
are: dbullu 'city gate', bdbu, hahu 'fortification' (halsi
rabitim ace., Neb. Bab. II 16), harrdnu, usmannu 'camp',
ummdnu, elippu 'ship', hattu 'staff, sceptre' (nds hatti

sirti, elliti), pitpdnu (but pitpdnu su'atu III R 16 No. 4,
51), birku lightening' (Tig. VIII 84), zuktu 'point,
top', emuku. Also mdtu 'country', c) The names of
rivers, cf. at least the common Purdt ina milisa ebir
(Shalm. Ob.)-
The following are of the common gender: abnu
'stone', eklu 'field' (masc. Ill R 43, fern. Esarh. VI 49),
girru 'campaign' (fern. Senhb. V 26), urhu 'way', kussu
'chair, throne', bitu 'house', ekallu 'palace', ummdnu
'army' (masc. Senhb. Const. 30. Nabon. II 42. 51), etc.
The Construct State, a) Singular. When, 72.
with a noun in the singular, there is joined a sub-
stantive in the genitive (the so-called nexus of the
construct state), the first member of the nexus drops
the mimation and also, in the nom. and ace., the
vowel of the case ending. For the re-appearance (in
words without the feminine ending atu) of the short
vowels of the stem, that had suffered syncope before
the case ending, and for their continuance in that
state before the permanent a (i) of the feminine end-
ing at (it\ in the nominal stems given in 65 Nos. 1 8,
see there. The i of the genitive of the first member
., p \,
is retained; Wen in the nom. and, ace, the vowel i
may take the place of__the_constr. state. Examples '.^^
ba-ab Uti, bel ildni, misir Assur, murus kakkadi, ereb
Samsi, naphar mdtdti; belut mdtdti, gimrat ildni rabuti
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. J3

(Shalm. Ob. 1). - - ana niri beliitfa, sa-ak-ni Bel 'of
Bel's vicegerent' (IV R 44, 14), ina tukulti ildni rabuti,
si-ir zuktiNipur 'on the top of the mountains of Nipur'
(Senhb. Ill 69). U-si-ti sd-di-im hi-is-bi tdmdtim
(Neb. II 35), 'I lovepuluM ilutisunrf (Neb. I 38). This
use of the genitive in place of the constr. state is
especially frequent in nominal stems ending in the
nom. sing, in long t2, and derived from verbs with a
weak letter as their third radical: cf. sa-ni-e temi
'madness' (nom., Assurb. Sm. 135, 54), mu-pi~(it-)ti
durug saddni (Tig. II 86), mu-di-e tukunti 'experienced
in fight' (ace., Shams. II 18), hi-ri-e nari (ace., Sarg.
Cyl. 46. 55). But we find also e. g. rob sake. - - If
the first member retains the case-endings u and,
the construct nexus is broken, and sa must appear
before the genitive which follows as the second mem-
ber e. g. erebu sa Samsi.
To these rules, as to the rules regarding the case endings
( 66), there are a great number and variety of exceptions. It
is an extremely common thing to find the first member retaining
the case endings u and, without a appearing before the second
member; e. g. saldmu Samsi 'the west' (Tig. VI 44), harbasu ta~
hdzi'a (HI R 4 No. 4, 48), subdtu belutisu 'his royal robe' (ace.,
in E 4 No. 4, 45), mandaitu beluti'a (Senhb. Const. 15), $usku
tamli 'the heightening of the terrace' (Senhb. Bell. 54) ; mala libbi,
kullata ildni 'the totality of the gods' (V E 35, 34). The same
is the case with participles as the first member, see 131. Even
the mimationis sometimes retained: Jcimapurim seri 'like the
wild-ox' (IV E 63, 49 b), hardnam namrasd (Neb. II 22). On the

other hand expressions like tern a Arabi 'news of the Arabs'
(K. 562, 10) are extremely rare.
b) Plural. The plural terminations uti and dtl,
when standing in the constr. state, also, in most cases,
drop the final vowel: abut Asur (Assurn. I 28); iddt
dldni (Tig. I 81), sandt nuhse 'years of r plenty' (Tig.
VIII 29), ba'uldt Bel (Tig. I 33. Lay. 33, 5 and oft.),
sinndt imeri 'asses' teeth'. But cf. also salmdta kurd-
desunu 'the corpses of their warriors' (Shams. IV 29).
For the plural ending e cf. me ndri 'the waters of a
stream', but also kdpe sa sade 'the rocks of the moun-
tains' (Assurn. I 65); for the' other plural endings;
cf. ildni sa same (IV R 28, 20 b), gubldni sa me 'water
cisterns', but also ma-si-ha-an ekli 'land surveyor' (III
R 41 col. I 14); gi-me-ir ma-al-ku sadi u hursdni 'all
the princes of the high lands and the mountains' (IV
R 44, 18).
Composition of words or the fusion of two 73.
nouns to one word as the expression of a single idea
is found a) with two nouns standing in the construct
'relation (including the cases in which the first mem-
ber is a participle) : apil sarrutu, 'princely dignity,
right of succession to the throne* (V R 1, 20), dlik
pdnutu, 'headship' (K. 312, 11), nds patrutu 'right of
carrying a dagger' (V R 61 col. V 25); Mt nakantu
'treasure-house' plur. Ut nakamdti (V R 5, 132 ff. con-

strued as masc. plur.), mupnisku^i. e. doubtless mitr
tiisku jiorse' (so called as being the 'noble' animal),
cf. aban nisikti 'precious (I e. 'noble') stone', plur.
mur(mu-ur}-ni-is-ke (Esarh. IV 26 and oft.),~~mu-ur-ni-
is-ke-ia 'my steeds' (III R 38 No. 2 rev. 62). Expres-
sions like bin binim 'grandson', (as is shown by lillidu,
doubtless = lid lidu, cf. p. 145) are also to be regarded
as single words. ((^Adjectives, preceded by a sub-
stantive which stands virtually in the accusative. A
peculiarity of Assyrian syntax consists in placing the
object before the finite verb on which it is dependent
(v. 142), a construction which we also find in rare
cases with the participle of the Qal (cf. Zer-bdnitum,
Sammu-rdmat, i. e. 'incense-loving'? see 131 note),
frequently with infinitives (e. g. mita bullutu 'raising
of the dead', see 132) and not less seldom with the
adjectives ( 88) corresponding to the perm, and
inf. of the derived verbal stems (cf. hurdsu uhhuzu
'set in gold'). An extension of this construction, ap-
parently, led to other classes of adjectives having
placed before them accusatives that had been added
for more precise definition. We usually find, it is
true, tdbat rigma (Nimr. Ep. XI, 111), rapsa uzni 'of
a far-reaching mind', pit uzni 'of an open mind', 'Sin
belu nam-ra si-it the lord, glorious in (his) rising' (IV
R 2, 22 b, elsewhere: $a sesu namrat), but we also find

Se-ip a-rik 'longfoot' (a bird II R 37, 46 b), ttu ka-at
ra-bu-tii (III R 66 rev. 23 d), libbu rapsu, libbu ritpdhi
'magnanimous' (V R 4, 37. 35, 23), libbu ruku do., libba
palhu 'of a. god-fearing heart' (V R 63, 4 a), sumu tabu
'fair-named' (of Nebo), a-la-ri-du 'the first, noblest'
properly asar edu 'the first in place, he that occu-
pies the foremost place', whence the plur. a-la-rid-
du-ti (Khors. 31), an abstr. noun asaridutu 'foremost
place, precedence, majesty'.
We would here add in a note a word or two regarding the
numerous and still somewhat puzzling Assyro-Babylonian sub-
stantives like gu-mah-hu 'great bull 3 ', paramah(h)u 'holy sanctuary',
kiralluh(h)u 'floor-polisher' (V E 13, 1 4 b, fern, kisallnhatu),
tupsarru 'tablet-writer'. That words like these, which are com-
monly regarded as 'Sumerian' compounds and loan-words, really
served as ivords, did not, that is, possess merely ideographic value,
is as little open to question as is the fact that many of them can
only be explained as compounds. Now whoever cannot bring
himself to see in the Assyr. pardkJcu (and with it the Hebr. rqhs,
cf. also Syr. i-2j3), with its etymon of the best Assyro-Semitic, a
loan-word from an hypothetical Sumerian bara(g), but finds in
bara(pard), which accompanies the ideogram for pardkku as a
gloss and is also used as a syllabic value, only a contraction of
pardkku (ba-rak-ku Senhb. Kuj. 4, 6. 8 and oft.), must recognize
in the whole word pa-ra-ma-hu, para-mah(h)u (Sarg. Cyl. 49.
Bull Inscr. 47) a coin from the Semitic mint. This conclusion
is all the more unavoidable from the fact that we do not first
require to cast about for a plausible derivation of mahhu. The
Assyr. paramahu bears the stamp of a word coined for a pur-
pose by Semites. There is a host of such artificially formed
words in Assyrian, although but a comparatively small minority
has been adopted into the language of every-day life. As exam-

pies of words whose artificial character has never been denied,
and whose Semitic origin has been universally admitted, we would
cite the names of the Assyrian characters and groups of charac-
ters: the sign ar compounded of si (igi) and tal has the name
igitallu (S a 1, 2); the ideogram for supru 'nail, claw' etc., made
up of gad, tak and ur, bears the name gadatakkuru (S c 298). The
collections of ideograms, therefore, made by the Babylono-Ass}^
rian scholars, which now serve us as vocabularies, merit our se-
rious attention. They show us the tolerably extensive use of
words which have been artificial!} 7 developed from the ideographic
method of writing. Accustomed as they were to express ever}'
idea, every object, not only by a phonetic reproduction of the word
but also by a variety of ideograms, and to regard these groups of
ideograms as having precisely the same meaning as the words
themselves, the masters of the art of writing in Babylonia, the
priests and the scholars, in learning and using these ideograms,
must have felt the boundary between the latter with their con-
ventional readings, the ideogram-words, so to say, and the proper
words corresponding thereto being gradually and imperceptibly
effaced. Most of these artificially formed words, of course, as we
find them again and again in the 'vocabularies' (cf. e. g. V B 32
No. 1 obv. 7 17), never got beyond the stage of termini technici,
never, that is, came into general use. For all that, the number
of words of this stamp which one meets in cuneiform texts of
the most diverse contents is by no means small. They will all
have to be questioned one by one as to the manner of their com-
position and properly arranged ; we may perhaps be able to dis-
cover a certain class of ideas, to which all the conceptions and
things represented by such words belong. To two points only
would I here call attention. The Babylonians and Assyrians call
a written document, destined in particular to hand down the name
of its author, sitir sumi or sumu satru (also sumu zakru, v. II
B, 40, 46 f. c. d. IV B 45, 12. 14) and this they express ideogra-
phically, following closely the Semitic term just given, as mu-
sr*r-(a), from which was derived a new word that afterwards be-
came the usual term for 'document, inscription', viz. mu-sa-ru-n

(Khors. 159 musarru, Esarh. VI 64 mu-sa-ru-u). Now when we
find appended to this musarii in Senhb. VI 68. Esarh. VI 64 ff.
V K 64 col. Ill 45. 47 (cf. II 43) and other passages the apposi-
tional expression sitir sumi, do we not feel inclined to suspect that
musarii, notwithstanding its frequent use, must have continued
to give the impression of a rare word that needed to be explained?
We must also call attention once more (v. the beginning of this
note and cf. 25 p. 68) to the fact that many words belong only
in appearance to this class of artificial neologisms, their ideograms
being based on the reverse process, the artificial breaking up of
a genuine Semitic substantive with three or four consonants.
Such is certainly the case, for example, with Jci-sur-ru (Khors. 82.
13/6, cf. V R 31, 3 e. f) i. e. Jcisurru (or kisurrii? cf. kusurru)
'boundary, district' from "i&D 'hem in, mark off' (not a compound,
therefore, from ki-sur-ra) and apparently with ki-mah-hu 'coffin',
which, in spite of its being written ideographically ki-maJj, must
be derived from the triliteral stem fi^p, as is proved by gi-ma-lti
a variant of ki-ma-hi Sm. 50 1. 14. Do ekalhi 'palace' (ideogr.
e-gal), hu-ha-ru 'bird-trap' Tig. jun. obv. 15. 32) and others also
belong to this category?
I give here in conclusion a short list of additional words
which in my opinion are to be understood, or at least deserve to
be examined, from the point of view here laid down: ab-kal-lu
'chief ruler' (kal sign 9 Nos. 162 and 169, v. Dicty., No. 23),
gii-gal(169)-lum 'large bull' (IV E 23, 10 a) same formation as
gu-uk-kal-lum, gu-uk-ka-al-lam (S b 1 obv. col. Ill 12. Neb. Grot.
Ill 12)?, dim(?)-gal(lQ9)-le-e plur. 'architect' (Senhb. VI 45; for
the sign dim=banu v. S c 279), ki-si-ib-gal(l69)-lum 'chief over-
seer' (V R 13, 34 b; cf. with kiib 'oversight' Hebr. Sdp?), su-us-
kal-ln a species of snare or such like (ideogr. su-us-gal and su-
us-kal), ii-sum-gal-lu; am ^ lu sur-mah-hu the name of a class of
priests (Khors. 157), ^ u sar-mah 'large park' (Esarh. VI 14), ur-
mali-lie plur. 'lions' (Kuj. 4, 21); zag-mu-ku 'beginning of the year'
Neb. II 56 with the explanatory addition res satti (without the
latter Neb. IV 1 and oft., zag-muk-ki Esarh. VI 46, zag-miik III
K 52, 37. 51 b, cf. IV E 18, 23/24 a), im-hul-lu 'ill wind', repeat-

edly with the explanatory addition sdru limnu e. g. IV R 5, 39 a,
egi-zaggu (v. Dicty. No. 58), agargaru (v. ibid. No. 74), sa-gurru
'compassion', prop, 'turning of the heart to one' (V R 21, 55 a),
kihuttfi, 'weeping, lamentation' (Khors. 78. V E 7, 15. 47, 44 b),
Jiegallu, also hengallu (IV R 20 No. 1 obv. 22), 'overabundance'
cf. he-nun (he sign 9 No. 138) = nuhsu, whence the adj. henun-
ndku (cf. 65 No. 39 note).
For the fusion of the noun with the independent
pronouns of the first and second persons to form the
seeming permansives sir tit, sarrdku etc. v. 91.
74. Union of the Substantive (and the participle)
with the pronominal Suffixes (cf. 56, a).
1) The substantive (and participle) in the singu-
lar, a) The sjiffixes except the* first, pp.,, oinpr These
suffixes may be appended either to the construct form
of the substantive or to the forms with case endings.
The former method is the favourite one when the
subst. stands in the nominative ; it is also frequently
found with the accusative; the genitive, however, re-
gularly retains its i even before suffixes. Examples:
Nom.: sumsu 'his name', kabtatsu 'his disposition',
aUatka (Nimr. Ep. 42, 9), Bi-li-it-ni 'our lady'; but
cf. melammusu 'his glory' (Tig. 141), suskallaka or -su,
kabittasa (and kabtatsa), zer-u-ni 'our race' (Beh. 3),
tu-kul-ta-ni 'our helper' (Senhb. V 25). Ace.: sumsu
'his name', sa-pat-su 'his lip', ummdnka (Senhb. V 23),
Mbka, admdnsun (V R 35, 9), maliksunu (Lay. 33, 8),


masakhm, bilatsunu, hubussunu, belutsun /
(Shams. II 49), kullatsin, pu-ud-ni 'our side' (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 181); but cf. bukratu 'his first-born', ta-mar-
tus, 'the king Id pdlihiSu' (V K 35, 17), libbakunu.
Gen.: si-ir biti-m 'upon his house' (I R 7 No. F, 26),
inn kibitisu or -#, ATI, w idiSa, ina asrisina (NR 23),
llb-bi-ku-nu (Tig. I 19. 20); but cf. 'to the kingpdlihsu'
(V R 62 No. 1, 20. 35^ 27). b) The_suffix of thejj>ers.
sing. If the subst. is in the nom., i is appended, al-
most without exception, to the construct state: li-ib-
bi 'my heart', ka-ti (Tig. VI 45), mu-ti, ds-sd-ti (V R
25, 4. 10 a), ma-a-ri 'my son' (also vocative). It was
for this reason that in 70, b um-ma-ni-ia rapsdtim
(nom., V R 35, 24) was taken as ummdne'a (plur.).
When forms like belfa, beltta are found in Babyl.
letters even for the nom., we may apply to them the
remark made at the bottom of p. 180. The suffix also
appears as i, for the jmost part, in the accusative:
a-ma-ti 'my order', bi-in-ti (Khors. 30), ka-a-ti or ga-ti
(Tig. I 51. IV R 10, 59 a), ma-a-ti (Senhb. II 29), but
cf. arda-a 'my servant' (K. 312, 10). For um-ma-ni-ia
rapsdti (ace.. V R 64 col. I 39. 43) see below. The
genitive, on the other hand, again retains its 2, to
which a is added for the suffix ia: dl beliitfa (be-lu-ti-
ia), ana Sarri belfa or eni'a, ina ta-a-a-ar-ti-a (Shams.
Ill 37), ana ma-ti-ia (NR 33). - - What has been said


under a) and ti) applies, as the student will have ob-
served, only to such substantives (and participles) as
end in a consonant when the case endings are remov-
ed; for nominal stems (and participles) ending in the
nom. sing in u I should like, instead of giving rules,
to confine myself to a few examples (it appears that,
with the partial exception of the 1 pers. sing., the
pronominal suffix is appended to the substantive with
the case ending): thus we find not only a-bi-ia gen.
'of my father', but also a-bu-su, a-ba-su, a-ba-ka, cf. also
a-gu-ku 'thy crown' (IV R46, 16 a), bu-sd-su-num (from
busu 'property'), i-ta-sin 'their boundary' (V R 6, 67),
Sadunu and Saduni, Ahimu and Ahuni (prop, names).
For the 1 pers. sing, joined to a substantive in the
nom. or ace. cf. on the one hand kusstfa 'my throne'
(V R 66 col. II 13), dimmi-ir-ii-a 'my god' (Neb. I 23),
abffa 'my father' (Beh. 1), and on the other a-bi, 'my
father' (nom., voc. and ace.). For the part, of the
Qal of verbs tertiae i cf. abu bdnua, malku ba-nu-su-
un 'the prince, their builder' (Khors. 191), but we also
find ilu ba-ni-ia (nom., IV R 17, 24 b), abu ba-ni-ia
(nom., v. Dicty., No. 13); in the gen. of course Hi 'ba-
ni-ia (Neb. I 30), a-bi ba-ni-sun(u).
The whole of the examples given under a) and 6) show that
the nominal suffixes do not draw the tone to the last syllable of
the substantive, containing the case ending. That we must not
infer the contrary from forms like sirussu, panukka, saptukka,

we learn from 80, e; the accentuation, however, may be the
reason of the exceptional position of the tone in cases like kin-
nassu gabbi or Nu-ur-an-ni-ilu 'our light is God' (n. pr. m. II B
63, 37 c, cf. however nu-ur-a-ni Nabu III B 16 Nr. 3, 39), and
Nabu-re-su-u-a 'Nebo is my helper' (n. pr. m. II B 64, 51 c), Nu-
riCa etc.; cf. 53, d, note and for resu'a = resu'a see the ana-
logous cases pp. r25ff. The comparatively few cases in which the
substantive retains the mimation before the suffix are still unex-
plained, cf. za-ku-tum-su-nu 'their freedom' (V B 55, 50), ana
sflzub napis-tim-su(-nu) (V B 8, 38. 43), assu baldt napis-tim-su
(V B 3, 17). There is also much that is obscure in prop, names,
consisting of a subst. with suffix of the 1 pers. sing. There would
be* no great difficulty with the ace. in names like Su-ma-a(-a),
Ap-la-a(-a) (have we perhaps an exclamation, as e. g. 'alas for my
child!'?), but how shall we explain Nur-e-a 'my light' (a variant
of Nu-ur-u-a as a name of the same individual) Ahe-e-a 'my bro-
thtr', Arde'a (written Ar-di-ia, Ardi-ia, just as Nu-ur-ia is to be
pronounced Nure'a), Zere'al Has Aple'a arisen, by change of d
to e, from Aplci'a, which was usually pronounced Apia (cf. 13
end) and which is nothing more than the accus. with the accent
on the case ending = Apia? a (cf.

2) Substantives in the Plural, d) The plural ter-
mination e: ku-ra-di-e-su 'his warriors' (R R 5, 109)?
lak-te-e-su or lak-ti-su (doubtless also read laltesu] 'his
fingers' (Y R 2, 12), kul-ta-ri-e-sa 'her tents' (Assurb.
Sm. 291, n), as-ri-e-ki 'thy temples' (Assurb. Sm. 121,
33), dbe'a 'my fathers' (written abu pl -i, var. e,-a I R 7
No. E, 5, ab-bi-e-a V R 34 col. II 46), ilu^-e-a 'my
gods' (K. 647 obv.8), sise-si-na (Senhb. VI 10). b) dni\
ild-ni-ia 'my gods' (III R 38 No. 1 obv. 38), the only
passage that occurs to me. c) d: kar-na-a-sa 'its

horns' (Nimr. Ep. 42, 11), $e-pa-a-a examples v. 67, a, 4. d) u: se-pu-us-su 'his feet' (V
R 35, 18), ga-tu-u-a (Neb. I 46. Bors. I 14), ar-nu-u-a
'my misdeeds' (IV R 66, 45 a), pa-nu-us-su-un 'their
countenance' (V R 35, 18). e) dti (cite, dtu), the only
plural termination that presents any difficulty as re-
gards the addition of the suffixes. Looking at ortho-
graphical forms like ep-se-ti-e-su (III R 38 No. 1 rev.
22), ep-se-te-e-su (III R 15 col. II 12), i-ta-te-e-Su (V
R 10, 105), si-ma-te-e-sa (var. si-ma-ti-sa V R 6, 109)
and again e-ep-se-tu-u-a (Neb. Bors. II 18 etc.), d-
na-tu-u-a 'my years' (V R 34 col. Ill 43), hi-ta-tu-u-a,
hab-la-tu-u-a (IV R 10, 37 a. 44 b) we cannot help
reading plural forms, written um-ma-na-te-sunu (Tig.
Ill 98 and o.), um-ma-na-te-ia (Tig. II 43), um-ma-na-
ti-ia (I R 7 No. F, 9), ba-u-la-a-tu-su (Neb. VII 29) as
wnmdndte-sunu, ummanate'a, 'bdulatmu. Still, in this
lengthening of the final vowel of the plural termina-
tion I am inclined to trace not so much the influence
of the suffix, which might be credited with having
drawn the tone to the immediately preceding syllable,
as a certain influence on the part of the other plural
terminations in e, d and u. By means of the plural
forms ending in these three vowels the Assyrians
would seem to have become so accustomed to pro-
nounce the last syllable of a substantive in the plural

before the pronominal suffix with a long and there-
fore accented vowel, that they transferred this pro-
nunciation to the feminine plural form in dti. Conse-
quently dte-su, dtu-a etc. now appear like a combination
of two plural terminations. This, of course, is merely
thrown out as a conjecture.
Appendix to the Pronoun and Noun.
Numerals and Particles.
1) Numerals.
The following represents the present state of our 75.
knowledge regarding the cardinal numbers in
Assyrian :
1 isten (from istdn, 65 No. 35) : is-tin (e. g. Khors.
126), always pronounced without an inflexional ending
when a real numeral, and generally written with the
cypher I and the phon. complt. en (e. g. D, 5. F, 11).
The feminine form, which ace. to Assurn. I 118
ended in it must have been pronounced (in the constr.
state) iStenit: cf. is-ti-en-i-ti (sic! V R- 34 col. I 28).
We also find, however, istdttu, from which is derived
is-ta-at 'in the first place' and other forms, v. 77.
For edu and ahadu v. ibid. 2 Sind ( 62, 1): si-na (IV
R 22, 53 a. V R 12, 33 f). 3 [saldsu, seldsu, 6p

No. 11]. Fern, saldltu u. a.: sd-la-as-ti (V R 12, 34 f),
sa-lal-ti (e. g. S t: 124), se-lal-tu (IV R 5, 64 a). 4 ar&^'w
( 65 No. 30, a), also erba'u (irba'u): ar-ba-(-i) (II R
38, 44 a. Sarg. Cyl. 2. 9), * *>-& sVpasw (VR50, 16 a),
fern. erbitti (irbitti, from erba'ti, v. 35): ir-bit-ti (II
R 35, 40 b), irbit-tim, ir-bit (V R 37, 5 c). 5 [tesw,
65 No. 7]. fern, ha-mil-ti (K. 4378 col. VI 22). 6
as is proved by the equation VI = su-du.... (ABK
237), certainly began with s (doubtless in order to be
dissimilar to the third radical s), and brought it about
that 'seven' and, in part, 'eight' followed its example
and also began with s. 7 si-ba (form discussed in 65
No. 6 note)]: si-li, si-ba (II R 19, 14 b). fern, sibitti
(e. g. IV R 2, 31 b), si-lit (IV R 66, 47 a). 8 also began
with 5, as is proved by the equation VIII = su-ma-nu
[-ti?] (ABK 1. c.): [samdnu^]. 9 [#-&, 65 No. 4].
Fern, ti-sit (Sm. 699, ace. to Pinches). 10 [esru,
65 No. 6 and v. note]. Fern, esirtu, also pronoun-
ced esertu (v.. 36): esir-te (II R 31, 45 c. Ill R 51
No. 5, 3), e-se-rit (K. 4378 1. c. 21) and elrit, see below.
11 i-ten-es-rit (K. 3437 rev. 32). 15 ha-mis-se-
rit (K. 4378 1. c. 20).
20 es-ra-a. 30 sa-la-sa-a (V R 37, 45. 50 f), se-
la-ga-a (also sa-la-se-e, IV R 23, 5 a, ?). 40 ir-ba--ia
(var. ), pronounce irbtfa (erba'd), phonetic modifi-
cation of arWd, cf. ar-ba-a (V R 37, 7. 14 c). 50 ha-

an-sa-a (see for these numbers K. 4378 1. c. 16 19;
for a 67, a, 4).
60 (isten) su-(us-)$u or -s/, se, aoiaaoc; II su-si
120, III sii-si 180, etc. 600 ne-e-ru (AL 3 130, 138),
ni-e-ir (VR 18, 23 b), vyjpo?. 3600 sa-ar (S c 79), adpoc.
cf. also su-us-sa-ar (II R 45, 29 f.).
100 doubtless me (v. 9 Appendix 1).
The ordinal numbers as yet met with are: 76.
1. mahru (mahre, mdhra), f e m. mahritu (prop, 'sit-
uated at or in the front, mahru). restu (prop, 'situated
at the top, restu) which is akin to the Hebr. littJK^,
denotes merely 'first in order, or in time' (hence also
'in the beginning'). 2. sanii (sane), written sa-nu (IV
R 5, 15 a), sd-ni-e (IV R 66, 3 b), fern, sa-nu-tu (v.
7,7). 3. sal-su (IV R 5, 18 a, var. -If), fern, salultu
(ina sd-lu-ul-ti satti 'in the third year', V R 64 col. 1 28).
4. re-bu-u (IV R 5, 20 a). 5. ha-as-su (1. 22 a) and
harts' u. 6. ses(sis)-su (1. 24 a). 7. si-bu-u (= sebu),
fern, si-bu-tum (v. 77). 8. The ordinal number ap-
pears in the name of the month arah-samnu, arcih-
samnu as sa-am-nu, and as sa-am-nu, sam-na, but there
was also another form, as we learn from the phon.
compl. e after the cypher VIII (Senhb. V 5. V R 5,
63), which, according to Nimr. Ep. 55, 24 (ha-an-sa
sis-sa u si-ba-a sa-ma-na-a, sc. urna), was pronounced
samdnu. 9. \tesii\. 10. esru. With these ordinals

compare the fractional numbers in 77. The common
view that the Assyrian ordinals from 3 to 10 are of
the same formation as the Arabic Juju and V- ^L=L.
must be entirely given up in the face of the feminine
forms for the 'second', 'third', and 'seventh'. In any
case sessu ( 48 less accurately sessu), if it were really
=$eUu == sddisu, would be the only example of the
change of a to e in the participle of the strong verb ;
we should also expect to find a stray example, at
least, of Jidmisu without syncope. The formation of
the Assyr. ordinals is fdul\
[Umu] XlV-tu 'on the 14th day' v. K. 3567 1. 18.
77. Other numerals. Fractions. V 2 mislu (V R 37,
44 f), plur. misldnu, misldni 'the halves' (V R 40, 51 d.
K. 56 col. I 25). Vs su-us-sa-nu (var. -an, S b 50) ; the
feminine form with phon. complt. appears in Tig. Ill
101 ('a third of a day'). % Si-(i-)ni-pu (e. g. S b 52),
plur. si-ni-pa-(a-)tum (V R 37, 13 c. 40, 57 d), cf. si-
ni-pat (st. cstr. sing., K. 56 col. Ill 45. Nimr. Ep. XI,
73). 5 / 6 pa-rab (S b 54). The last two fractions remind,
one of Hebrew expressions like D?30 ^E (e. g. Deut. 21,
17). All the other fractional parts were expressed in
Assyrian as in Hebrew by the fern, of the ordinal.
As in the latter, V 3 or the third part was rendered by
rvtrboj (sc. Slgbli), so in the former the 'thirds' were
expressed by Zalsdtu ($al-sd-a-tu, sal-sd-ti etc.), the

'fourths' by rebdtu (re-ba-a-fum, re-ba-a-ti), the 'fifths'
by has-sa-a-tum or ha-an-$d-tu(ti), the 'tenths' or the
tithes by esretu (es-re-tum, es-re-ti). For these num-
bers see V R 40, 52 56 d, where we find w-[ri??]-
a-twn given as a synonym of esretu, also K. 56 col. II
16. 2233 and III 48. To these feminine plural
forms is to be added md, according to K. 56 col. II 16.
It is to be noted, also, that in the contract tablets we
occasionally find the masc. salsu used for 'one third';
formed from salsu by the addition of di, seems to
denote a brother who (probably as the third in age)
can elaim only one third of the rank of the firstborn.
- The feminine of the ordinals is further employed
in two other numerical categories: in the first place to
express 'secondly' 'thirdly' and so on for that ll-tum,
Ill-turn etc. up to Vl-toi (Nimr. Ep. XI, 205 f.) are
to be read sanu-tum, salul-tum (cf. 1. 215!) etc., we
learn from si-bu-tum 'seventhly, in the seventh place'
(ibid. 1. 207). What subst. we are to supply is still
uncertain. 'Firstly' is expressed by the fern, of the
cardinal number : is-ta-at (ibid.l. 204) ; istdt(u) = istdntu
(cf. 49, b on'p. 116). In the^second place, the femin-
ine of the ordinals serves in conjunction with sanitu
'repetition, time' (ideogr. 9 No. 88) to denote 'for
the second, third,.... time': cf. sa-nu-te sanitu 'for
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 14

the second time' (Shalm. Ob. 77. 174), Hebr. mra;
in place of which we find in lines 85. 87 etc. the cy-
phers F//7, TAT (etc.) sanitu (which must also of course
be read as ordinals). To express 'for the second time'
and 'for the third time and for these only, special ad-
verbs were formed, viz.Sani'dnu (sani geu. + dnu 80,, c?),
written sa-ni-ia (var. 'a)-a-nu (V R 4, 18), sa-ni-(ia-)
a-tiu (V R 8, 41), sa-nl-a-nu (Assurb. Sin. 215, d), and
sal-si-a-nu (Assurb. Sm. 217, k). Numeral Ad-
jectives, istdnu 'one, only' (ilu is-ta-a-nu 'one God',
IV R 16, 8 a), edu (idu) 'one (with negative, 'none,
nobody'), only, of one kind'; sunnu 'double'. The ety-
mological relationship of edu to ahadu (cf. Assurn. I
81: a-ha-da-a-ta... a-lia-da-at... a-lm-de 'one party
... another party... a third party') is still obscure,
see Dicty., No. 139. The fern, of edu is ettu (= edtu,
idtu), cf. asarittu (ASKT 126 1. 21). 'One' in the sense
of 'in harmony, agreed' is mithdru. For the indefinite
'one' both edu and isten (e. g. V R 3, 118) are used.
The corresponding adverbs are istenis, written is-te-
nis or I-nis, 'each for himself, mutually' (e. g. Khors.
118. II R 65 rev. col. IV 21. 22), also 'in one, together'
(e. g. to mix); edis 'alone, single'; mithdris 'in the
same way, in harmony'.

2) Particles. *
1) Adverbs without a special termination. 78.
a) Those that can stand alone (independent adverbs).
Adverbs of manner: -\ki-a-am 'so, thus' (Beh.
1. 2 and oft.), to be read kVam (cf. 10). ~\ma-a and
jum-ma (prop, u-ma 'this', cf. 55 note) 'thus, as
follows', both introduce direct speech (Assurn. I 102.
Ill R 16 No. 2, 34; Assurb. Sm. 123, 52 and oft.);
the former is also frequently used in communications
extending to some length to remind the reader that
the exact words of the speaker are being continued
(um-ma is much less frequently used in this way).
ki-(i-)ki-i perh. 'in some way', with the negative 'not
at all' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 169).
Adverbs of place: -\a-gan-nu (Beh. 12), -\a-gan-na
(Assurb. Sm. 125, 63. E, 8) 'here' (cf. 57, d), a-na-
gan-nu 'hither'. Cf. the adverbial expressions: ina
libU (written Tib-U or libU 9 No. 259) 'there', also
'thereon' (e. g. I wrote), ana libbi 'thither' (e. g. Tig.
VI 92), ultu libU 'from thence' (Beh. 15). ahanna,
ahen(n)a 'on this side' (v. Dicty. p. 279 f.) ; with ana:
'to this side, to the hither bank', also a-ha-na-a-a

* Particles accompanied by f are of pronominal origin;
the rest are or may be derived from nouns, or present a union
of parts derived from both noun and pronoun.


a-ga-a (H, 9 f. 16 f.); dhul(f)a 'on that side' (v. Dicty.
p. 280 f.), also a-lm-ul-lu-a-a ul-li-i (H, 11, 19).
Interrogative adverbs: \ia-ii (V R 23, 57 d),
usually -\a-a-nu, a-a-na (e. g. K. 823 obv. 5) and f/-
nu 'where?' (V R 23, 57 d; ia-nu-uk-ka, ia-nu-us-su,
ia-nu-u-a 'where art thou?' etc. II R 42, 12 14 g),
also ia-'-nu (cf. 20 note) written (ia-'-nu atta, andku
etc., V R 40, 3ff. a. b); istu ia-nu 'whence?' (II R 42,
15 g); for the reading d\i, dnu= m $ v. 12. 13. -\e-ka-a
'where?' (cf. n:pK, e. g. IV R 15, 20a: e-ka-a-ma), ^a-a-
ka-ni and -\a-a-kan 'where? whither?' (Nimr. Ep. XI,
220. IV R 68, 34b), ^e-ki-(a-)am 'where? whither?'
(e. g. IV R 57, 34 a. V R 23, 56 d). ^a-li 'where ?' (e. g.
V R 23, 56 d. 40, 12ff. b: a-li at-ta, andku etc.), ori-
ginally perhaps like m^/, ^, an interrogative of very
general signification (cf. V R 36, 33 a. c). An ideo-
graphic equivalent of all these interrogatives is me-a^
which reminds one of Hi me-e-es at-ta 'my God, where
art thou?' (K. 143 rev. 7). -\ak-ka-a-a-i (K. 828, 18),
ak-ka-a-i (K. 312, 5) 'how?' (also a-ki-i, perhaps used
as an interrog. adverb in Senhb. Bav. 24), originally
d-kdi (d interrog. particle as in dnu, kdi, of which ki
is a contracted form, origly. 'as, so' then 'how'), ^ak-
ka--i-ki 'how manifold?' (NR 25, cf. fiDD^). -\me-i-nu,
mi-i-nu (V R 1, 122), me-e-nu 'how?' (in an indirect
question me-nu sa, mi-i-nu ^), ana meni (me-i-ni\ am-

meni (am-me-ni, am-mi-ni) 'why? wherefore?' (e. g.
Desct. obv. 43 etc.). mi-in-di-e-ma 'why?' (Nimr. Ep.
65, 13), also written man-di-e-ma (v. p. 143), cf. Hebr.
^Hft. mate, mati, mat 'when?', a-di ma-ti(m), a-di mat
'how long?' (for the 'synonyms' ahuhi, dhuldpi v. Dicty.
No. 144).
Adverbs of time: adu 'now', u-ma-a 'now', i-nu-
su 'at that time, then'. e-nin-na(-ma), e-ne-na 'now 7.
an-nu-sim 'just now'(?). (i-)ti-ma-K 'yesterday', ina
a tii- sat 'the previous evening' opp. ud-di-es 'early in
the morning' (IV R 67, 6 la), ul-tu ul-la(-d] 'from of
old', ina mah-ra 'formerly' (Tig. IV 54), ina pa-na,
ina pa- an (also pa-na-md) do., dr-ki (Beh. passim), ar-
ka (Esarh. Ill 19) 'thereon, thereafter, afterwards'.
ap-pit-ti (and ap-pit-tim-ma, v. 79, a) 'in future', e. g.
K. 95, 9 (cf. Proll. p. 151 f.). matema (ma-ti-ma, ma-
ti-e-ma) and hnmatema (im-ma-ti-ma, 1 Mich. II 1) i. e.
in(a) matema, 'whensoever' ; with negative 'never'.
immu u miisa, urra (u) miisa, urru u musu, mma u urra,
must u iirri, musam u urri and similar forms (v. Dicty.
236 f.) 'by day and by night', ina pit-ti, ina pi-it-ti
'suddenly, at once' (also pi-te-ma K. 486, 10, ina pi-it-
tim-ma Nimr. Ep. XI, 207). Other adverbs of time in
80, a, b (and c).
Demonstrative adverbs: ^en-na^d) 'behold!'.
Adverbs of degree: ma-a-du 'very' (Beh. 20).

ap-pu-na-ma = ma'adis V R 47, 54. 55 a (cf. Proll.
p. 135 ff.).
Adverbs of emphasis: lu(-u) 'verily'; placed be-
fore the 3. m. and 1. c. sing, and plur. preterite, it
calls attention to the actual occurrence of what is
predicated by the verb, but its force in this connexion
was gradually weakened: lu allik 'I went', lu asti, lup-
teMr. More rarely we find this lu with the perm., e. g.
lu saknd sepdka (v. 89).
Adverbs of exhortation and desire: lu (iden-
tical with the lu just mentioned, v. my Proll. p. 134 f.)
serves as optative and cohortative particle. It unites
with the preterite the 3. pers. f. sing, excepted to
form a single word. See details in 93 and 145.
, I 'go to!', e. g. e rid 'go to! go thou down' (to the
wood, Nimr. Ep. 69, 41); for i (i) as cohortative par-
ticle before the 1. plur. pret. see 145. The imper.
al-ka 'go!, go to!' may also find a place here.
Adverbs of negation: /#, la-a; ul (id ul 'nei-
ther nor'); a-a (for the pronunciation see 31), e
'not'. For the various uses and constructions of these
negatives see 143. 144.
79. &) Adverbs appended enclitically.
a) fwitf (identical with met 78; cf. Ethiop. :,
Pognon), the particle of emphasis appended en-
clitically to the independent pronouns, to nouns and

verbs, with and without the pronominal suffix, to ad-
verbs, whether derived from nouns or pronouns, and
to adverbial expressions. For the position of the tone
v. 53, d. Examples: at-ta-ma 'thou' (in opposition
to others IV R 17, 14b. 19, 53a. 29, 2. 4. 6. Sb); kima
ia-ti-ma 'like me' (Tig. VIII 60); for ii-ma (same origin
as nm-ma 78), su-ma (same origin as the conj. sum-
ma 82) v. 55, a, note ; istu us-ma-ni an-ni-te-ma 'from
this camp' (I set out, Assurn. II 65). sar Assiir-ma
(Tig. VII 67), Ilu-ma-damik (prop, name m.); cf, e-nu-
ma 82; ina satti-ma si-a-ti (v. above p. 138) as ina
ta-lu-uk gir-ri-ma su-a-tu (Tig. V 33) ; ana us-ma-ni-
ia-ma (I returned, Assurn. II 75); for ina ume-su-ma
v. 55, a, note. 'on his throne u-sib-ma he took his
seat' (Senhb. V 4), u-pa-hir-ma 'I gathered together'
(Esarh. I 27), lu asibma 'let him, may he dwell' (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 184); ik-l)i-su-ma 'he spake to him' (also, um-
md). Other examples v. 53, d. a-a-ma 'not' (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 116), ekdma 'where?', min-dema 'why?', cf.
also ki-ma 81, c, etc.; kima labirimma, istu or uliu
ullanumma, appittimma (IV R 52 No. 1, 19), etc. Ad-
verbs with enclitic ma, which have been derived from
nouns, as e. g. kdnamma, iimisamma, are specially dis-
cussed in 80, a and b, p. Added to words of a very
general signification, ma lends emphasis to the in-
definiteness, so that ma seems to have the function

of a particle of generalization: sa-nu-um-ma, sa-
nam-ma 'any other (whoever it may be), something
else', ka-la-ma (pron. kaldmd) 'everything possible,
everything' (Senhb. Kuj. 4, 20) note ka-la-mu (V R
6, 8 etc.), ka-la-a-mi (gen., var. ka-la-ma, Nimr. Ep.
1, 4), ka-la-me.(geu., K. 4931 obv. 10) and cf. 55, c,
en( j matema 'whensoever' may also belong here.
Another enclitic ma see in 82.
A really indefinite signification attaches to ma in the inde-
finite pronouns discussed in 60 (cf. 58), viz. manamma, manma
and similar forms minima (mimmu, mimmii, the latter also IV B
56, 38 40 a) and a'umma. Cf. also man-de-ma 'for some reason
or other' Senhb. Bav. 40? The m which is frequently found at-
tached to independent pronouns and pronominal suffixes, e. g. at-
tam ( 55, a), bu-sd-su-num ( 56, a), i-Jci-pa-an-nim and others
( 56, h), was correctly explained in the cited as a contraction
from ma. It has been already remarked ( 66) that the enclitic
ma is the ultimate source of the so called mimation in the masc.
and fern. sing, of the noun (v. 66) and in the fern, plurals in ati
and dtu ( 69), more rarely with the other terminations of the
plur. ( 67, a, 1 and 5). This m is also pretty common with verbal
forms, both in the sing, and in the plur.: cf. ab-nim 'I built'
(Neb.); usamgatim 'he will cast down' (IV K 55, 13 a), hi u-bil-
Icnn 'I brought' (Neb. Grot. II 37), i-ta-ma-am libbam 'the heart
thinketh' (Neb. Bab. I 23); i-bar-rum 'they march forth', is-ta-
(na-y-a-lum 'they ask'. See further 147. I am also inclined to
see a contracted ma in the m of adverbs like Mnam. sattisam,
analogous to the m of the prep, assum (alongside of assu, v. 81, c)
and to the m of hi-a-am 78?; see 80, a, note.
P) fw, rarely nu, especially common with verbal
forms in a relative clause, to which it is enclitically

appended whether they have or have not a pro-
nominal suffix. Like ma, it draws the tone to the
immediately preceding syllable. Examples: 'he that
na-su-ni brings the head of the king of Chidali' (K.
2674, 7), ak-kar-u-ni (rel., IV R 68, 15 a), tadanuni
(rel., V R 53, 56 d), 'may the king ki sa i-la-u-ni lepus
do as it pleaseth him' (V R 54, 61 a), kdldkuni 'I speak'
(IV R 68, 36 b): Set ak-ka-ba-kan-ni 'what I say to thee'
(IV R 68, 17 a, cf. 48 a), 'Achiababa, whom they from
Bit-Adin ub-lu-ni-su-nu (var. ubliini-su-ni) had fetched'
(Assurn. I 82), i-sa-si-u-su-ni (rel., Tig. II 26), i-kab-
bu-su-u-ni 'they call it' (rel., Tig. jun. obv. 10), 'the
Persian sea, which they naru Marratu i-ka-bu-si-ni
(Shalm. Co. 83), usasbitu-su-nu-ni (rel., Assurn. I 103),
'the lands Sei a-pi-lu-si-na-ni' (v. 56 end), ni is less
frequently found after nominal suffixes: cf. Assurb.
Sm. 228, 76: Susinak sa manman Id immaru epsit ilu-
Y) fw, interrogative particle, an-ni-tu-u belltsa
sa 'is this the lady of... ?' (Ill R 16 No. 2, 34), ul
a-na-ku-ii 'am I not' (the daughter of Bel? etc., ASKT
p. 126), i-nak-ki-su-u kakkad sarri Elamti 'do they be-
head a king of Elam ?' (V R 4, 16), uzne'a tu-pat-tit-u
'wilt thou inform me?' (K. 95, 17), a-mat-u sa-Um-tu
si-i 'is such really the case?' (Assurb. Sm. 187, j); see
further 146.

80. 2) Adverbs with special termination (in some
cases, however, the termination is only apparent).
a) We would, first of all, again call attention to
the nominal adverbs in ma and w, which we were able
to discuss along with ma in 79, a, but which we
would here place in a group by themselves. Cf. an-
na-ma (written like ma-na-ma = manammd) prob. 'of
one's own accord' (II R 65 col. I 4. 7), mu-sam-ma
'yesterday'; ka-a-a-nam-ma (V R 65 col. II 20) and
ka-a-a-nam (Neb. I 17 etc.) 'continually' alongside of
ka-a-a-na (IV R 16, 4 b), ka-ia (var. a-ci)-na (var. nu]
(Assurn. I 24) and ka-a-a-an (V R 10, 68), sa-at-ta-kam
do. (Nerigl. II 12) alongside of sa-at-la-ak-ka (V R 34
col. Ill 52), ud-da-kam or lean (Neb. Ill 34. IV R 64,
36 a) 'very early' alongside of ud-da-ak-ku (Neb. Bab.
I 22), origly. an adj. 'matutinus' (v. 65 No. 39).

With regard to adverbs in m one might think it an open
question Avhether perhaps we have not simply the mimation of
the accus. of the corresponding adjective; but the co-existence of
the forms Mnamma and kdnam (cf. under b, [3 umisamma and
umisam} and especially the analogous and unquestionable cases
of the contraction of ma to m which were discussed in 79, a,
note, render contraction in the case of adverbs very probable.
We would in passing hazard the conjecture that the familiar or-
thography of the adv. rabis as ma-gal (sign 9 No. 169) owes its
origin to the adverbs in ma: ma may have been prefixed to gal,
a freak like those we meet with in the ideogr. for apsu (zu-ab)
and others.

b) The adverbial ending is, es, indicates in what
manner, in what degree, in what place, at what time,
or in what direction an action takes place or a con-
dition or state exists; it corresponds, accordingly,
to prepositional phrases containing kima, ma or ana.
a.) Examples of is (es): edis 'only', ad(d)annis, also re-
peated, 'very', malmdUs 'in two (equal) parts' (v. Dicty.
p. 223 f.), abiibis and abubdnis 'like a flood', is-su-ris
'like a bird' (he fled, Senhb. Ill 57), se-la-bis 'like a
fox'; ma'adis 'much, very'; e-lis 'above', saplis 'below';
musts 'during the night'; rukis 'afar' (Khors. 102), sa-
ma-mes 'to heaven, heavenwards' (they mounted up,
I K 49 col. II 8), na-ba-lis uselusindti 'they brought
them (the ships) on dry land' (Senhb. Kuj. 2, 16), 'the
temple la-ba-ri-is il-lik 'had become old' (I R 68 No. I
col. I 20), sallatis (or ana sallati) amnu 'the city kak-
karis amnu\ After long u the termination is or es has in
most cases maintained its independence, cf. da-bu-u-es
'like a bear' (? Senhb. Const. 36), gu'is 'like a rope'
(Senhb. V 77), usdlika na-mu-is 'he brought to ruin,
destroyed' (IV R 20 No. 1 obv. 4) ; we also find, how-
ever, contracted forms like ud-di-es (from uddu), v t
78 on p. 213. Cf. a-ha-is (see Dicty. p. 269 f.) along-
side of a-hi-iS ('on both sides', e. g. K. 481, 13). Ad-
verbs in is may also take prepositions, e. g. ana ma'-
adis 'in great abundance' (III R 5 No. 6 1. 5), ddris

and ana ddris 'ever, for ever' (preferably from daru
'lastingness', not from ddrii 'lasting').
The origin of the adverbial termination is, es is still very
obscure. The adverbs dabu'es, namu'is show us that the termi-
nation is really is, es, and not simply s, which one might have
been tempted to regard as the worn-down pronominal suffix of
the 3. pers. sing, (comparing it with edisSisu or -ka, -ia, 4 he, thou,
I alone'). The Assyrians, it is true, in expressing their adverbs in
is by ideograms, have often treated the s as if it were identical
with the pronominal suffix, but such orthographical methods, in
many cases quite superficial, ought not to lead us astray, espe-
cially as in this case we know that the Assyrians were well aware
of the true explanation, as we may infer from their explaining
the 'postposition e& by ina, ana, and Mma (see above p. 70). The
adv. in as is well worthy of notice, as e. g. ahrcitas, v. 130, as
are also the syntactical peculiarities of the adverbs discussed
in the same section. It must also remain an open question, whe-
ther adjectives in isu and esu like sat-ti-su 'yearly' (HE 33, 18 f),
u-me-u 'daily' (e-dis-su alongside of e-di-su 'only, singly' S b 171.
S c 17 suggests isu) are secondary formations from the correspond-
ing adverbs, or whether, on the contrary, the adjects, represent
the original formation; cf. mar-sa-ku i-[bak-~]ki-ka 'sorely he wept
before thee' (IV B 61, 10 a) where mar-sa-ku, here used quite like
marsis, is also without doubt an adj. (v. 65 No. 39) also kdna,
kdnu, kdn, and sapldnu, sapldn, and similar forms. Pognon (In-
scription de Bavian, p. 38 note) regards is, which he identifies with
the Syriac &~*], as 'une veritable postposition signifiant comme 1.
j3) In adverbs in is, with temporal signification,
we find the termination strengthened by ma or m, the
result being the forms isamma, and isam, e. g. u-mi-
sam-ma and u-mi-sa-am, u-me-sam 'daily', dr-M-sam-
ma (V R 64 col. II 34) and ar-lii-sam (III R 52, 40 b)

'monthly', dd-ri-sam 'for ever' (Senhb. I 62), sat-ti-sam-
ma and sd-at-ti-sam sometimes 'yearly', sometimes (cf.
ana satti 'for ever' Nabon. Ill 36. II R 66 No. 2, 7)
'for ever, eternally'.
The two elements ma and is are found in the reverse order
in the very common adv. a-ha-mis, a-ha-mi~is, ana ahamis 'mu-
tually', itti ahatnis 'with each other', derived from a-J/a-ma (cf.
above a-Jja-is, a-ln-is derived from alju). n-mi-sam-mu 'daily'
(Nabon. I 16) is an adject, which has been formed with -isamma
as a basis. In this note we would also mention in a word the
two adverbs u-mu-us-su 'daily' and arJju-us-su 'monthly': the
, former is found with extraordinary frequency in the beginning of
Assyro-Babylonian letters, for the latter, see K. 700, 7. A con-
jecture as to the origin of these adverbs will be found in 136 note.
c) The adverbial termination dnu, an (also an?).
ar-ka-(a-)nu, dr-ka-nu, arkd-nu 'after, afterwards,
thereafter' (often), sap-la-(a-)nu 'under, underwards'
(Senhb. Rass. 81. Lay. 38, 15 opp. e-la-nis). Cf. the
numeral adverbs in 77, and sapldn(u) 'beneath',
eldnu, elldn 'above' 81, b which are used as prepo-
sitions. Adverbs like ar-ka-nis 'thereafter' (Senhb.
Const. 30) and eldnis should make it clear that the
apparent adverbial ending an originally formed nouns
(cf. also ana eldni Senhb. VI 40) and was, in conse-
quence, originally identical with an in 65 No. 35.
Cf. also ki-lal-la-an and ki-lal-li-en (Hamm. Louvre I
23) 'round about' (? formed in the first instance from
the noun kilallii), ultu sitan (si-tan tan another value

of No. 82 9, si-ta-an)adi sillan (si-la-an, sil-la-an)
'from beginning to end, from top to bottom' or such
like (V R 42, 43. 44 c. d. Khors. 166. I R 7 No. F,
9 etc.), also the common e-bir-tan 'on the other side',
istu e-bir-ta-an (Assurn. II 127) 'from the other side'.
The termination an (an?) seems also to be appended
to a feminine noun in ki-la-(at-)ta-an 'on both sides'
(Esarh. V 54. Neb. V 59, of. Hebr. D^te).
d) The adverbial termination tan (probably tan}
appears to have a collective signification, which ex-
plains its being used to represent plural forms (cf.
V R 35, 19: mi-tu-ta-an 'the dead', kul-la-ta-an 'all').
The principal example is mdti-tan: dadme ma-ti-tan
'the inhabitants of all lands' (Khors. 165), hisib sadi
u ma-ti-ta-an (V R 63, 48 b), malke ma-ti-tan 'the prin-
ces of all lands' (Khors. 177), ma-ti-tan 'through the
whole land' (I had it brought for inspection, Assurb.
Sm. 138, 83), ki-ir-bi ma-ti-ta-an 'in all lands' (Neb.
VIII 26). Cf. also u-ma-tan (from umu 'day' V R 25,
20 b).
e) A substantive with a pronominal suffix, de-
pending on ina, ana or istu, may be changed into an ad-
verb by having a long u inserted between the noun and
the suffix and dropping the preposition. Hence libbua
is equivalent to ina libbia l in my heart' (Neb. VIII
32), ki-bi-tu-uk-ka to ina kibitika 'at thy command'

(often), mu-sd-bu-u-ka to ana mmabika 'to thee for a
dwellingplace' (Desct. rev. 27), kir-bu-us-su to ma kir-
bisu *in it, into it' (often), dlu-us-su to istu dlisu 'from
his city' (Khors. 41. 114). Cf. also el-la-mu-u-a 'be-
fore me, opposite me' (Senhb. II 9. 77 of space, Sarg.
Cyl. 45 of time), ul-la-nu-u-a 'before me' (of time,
prop, 'in the time before me' Senhb. IV 5. Senhb. Rass.
64), ki-(e-)mu-u-a 'in my stead' (V R 1, 38), imnusu
ka-tu-ii-a (Assurb. Sm. 217, i), 'the spear I grasped
lak-'tu-u-a in my fingers' (Senhb. V 60), se-pu-u-a 'to
me' prop, 'to my foot' (I subdued, they submitted),
pdnukka 'before thee', saptukki 'upon thy lip', (0 god-
dess), sirussu 'upon it (I wrote)', eddnussu, edenussu
'he alone', ma-tu-us-su-un 'into their land' (Senhb.
Bay. 39). The key to the origin of these, at first sight,
strange formations is afforded by the cases where we
find this 'postposition' it with a following genitive in
place of a pronominal suffix: cf. lib-bu-ii same 'in
heaven' (K. 81, 11); Tib-bu-u sa andku teme askunnus-
sunu 'in accordance with the command which I com-
manded them' (Desct. 20), 'what I command them,
they do', tib-bu-u sa andku si-ba-a-ka 'in accordance
with my will' (NR 24).

81. The prepositions, whose origin in substantives
may still be clearly recognized, we would arrange in
the following groups:
a) Those that do not unite with another preposition
(which then forms the first member of a compound
expression), or at least that have not yet been found
so united, l-na, ina ( 9 No. 91), and in (Senhb., Neb.),
'in' (of time and space), in signification = Hebr. a.
e-rna 'in' (in such a context as: 'doors, thresholds etc.
I set up e-ma bdbdnisa in the palace gates', e. g. Neb.
VI 14 and oft), a-na, ana ( 9 No. 204), rarely an
(e. g. Nabon. I 23: a-a irsd an hiteti; cf. also p. 116
above) 'after, for', etymologically identical with the
Arab. ^, and in meaning = Hebr. b, which is pre-
served only in lap an (see under b). mala 'for', see
Dicty. p. 222 f. and observe a fresh confirmation of
what is there laid down in ma-la, K 56, col. II 17,
signifying 'over against, in comparison with', is-tu
and ul-tu(tu) to be kept apart etymologically (see
my Proll. p. 132 f. 141 note) ideogr. istu, ultu ( 9
No. 95), 'out of, from, since', a-du, usually a-di, adi
( 9 No. 62) 'during; till, with', ga-du 'along with'
(e. g. Khors. 28). it-ti, itti ( 9 No. 40) 'with' (as friend
and foe), e. g. it-ti-su (also it-te-su) 'with him', is-si,

i-si 'with', peculiar to the language of every day life,
therefore often in Assurn. ; cf. andku is-si-su-nu 'I
with them' (K. 538, 16), is-si-ka addbubu 'I talk with
thee' (IV R 68, 17 b), is-si-ia 'with me' (ibid. 22b), 'the
chariots etc. i-si-ia a-si-kin (asekin=asekan=astdkari)
I took with me' (Assurn. Ill 58. 63); observe Haupt's
acute remark on page 102 f. ku-um 'in place of, in-
stead' (e. g. Assurb. Sm. 264, 43. Ill R 47 No. 11, 1
and oft.), also ke-mu (III R 41 col. II 33). To swear
'by' some person or thing is expressed by nis (constr.
st. of ni-su 'name'); details at the end of 138.
b) Those that are used not only by themselves but
also united with another preposition which forms the
first member of a compound expression, ki-rib ^ ki-ri-
ib (before substs. and suffixes), quite rarely ki-ir-ba
(V R 35, 30, ki-er-ba-su Neb. Grot. Ill 22), and ina
ki-rib (before substs.), ina kir-bi, ki-ir-bi, ki-er-bi (be-
fore suffixes) 'in'; ana ki-rib (ana ki-ir-bi V R 35, 34)
'after' ; istu or ultu ki-rib 'from, out of. libbi (written
libbi 9 No. 259 with or without the phon. complt.
&?'), usually ina libbi 'in, after; among (the number
of), of; through, with the help of; ana libbi 'in, after',
also 'on account of (Beh. 2: ana libbi ago, 'on that
account') ; istu or ultu libbi 'from, out of, of the num-
ber of (e. g. Esarh. V 7. V R 2, 107); adi libbi iime
anne 'unto this day', kabal ( 9 No. 254) and ina kabal
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 15

tamtim 'in the sea', ka-bal-ti, kabal-ti and ina ka-bal-ti
mdti'a 'in my land' etc. (Assurb. Sm. 275, 32. V R 9,
48. I R 27 No. 2, 40). e-li, eli ( 9 No. 189), muh-hi
and ina eli, ina muhhi 'upon, over against, in behalf
of, also 'to' (go to some one etc.); e. g. elisunu, ina
elisunu and ina muhhisunu 'upon them', eli and ina eli
ndri 'on the bank of the river' ; ana eli and ana muhhi
'to' (to bring something to some one etc., Assurn. I
58. II 81); itu eli ndri 'from the bank of the river';
a-di eli tamtim 'unto the sea'. Less frequent forms and
orthographical varieties are: i-li (K. 4931 obv. 16: sa
i-li-sa tabu 'what is well pleasing unto her'), el (e. g.
IV R 12 obv. 16: sa epsetusu el Beli tdbd), e-la (K. 101
rev. 2), e-lat Parsu 'in addition to Persia' (NR8). We
would also mention here e-la-nu, el-la-an, e-le-nu, e-
le-na, e-li-en 'above' (e. g. a town) and its opposite
sap-la-nu (Senhb. Const. 82) sap-la-an 'below'. For
'beneath' (one's feet), e. g. to trample under one, to
fall at anyone's feet, sapal is used (e. g. V R 2, 119).
Sii-ut, su-ut (dental uncertain) 'concerning, regarding'
(e. g. V R 7, 16. 25). si-ir (also written ideographi-
cally with the sign 9 No. 240 in the texts of Assur-
banipal) 'upon, against', e. g. si-ir zukti Nipur (Senhb.
Ill 69), si-ir Utisu 'upon his house', (I R 7 No. F, 26),
si-ir 'against' (Senhb. IV 3); its original signification
is particularly well brought out in III R 4 No. 4, 49:

ul-tu si-ir sise kakkaris imkut. pa-an, pan ( 9 No. 86)
and ina pan 'at the head of, before', also pa-na-at
(Shalm. Oh. 176) and ina pa-na-at (ibid. 1. 142. 149;
ina pa-na-tu-u-ka 'in front of, before thee' IV R 68,
23 a, ina pa-na-tu-u-a 'before me' in time, Beh. 3);
fear, flee etc. 'before' any one: pa-ni, i-na pa-an,
is-tu or ul-tu pa-an, istu pa-na etc., and la-pa-an
(= Hebr. ^sb, e. g. Ill R 15 col. IV 26, a variant of
ul-tu la-pa-an Esarh. Ill 41), la-pa-ni 'from'; defend
'from' something, NR 33 ; rebel 'against' some one
(Beh. 16). ma-har, e. g. ma-har-su-un (Senhb. Bav.
55), ma-har-ka (also mah-ra-ka IV R 61, 41 a) and ina
ma-'har (Tig. V 13) 'before, in the presence of; a-di
mah-ri-ia and ana mah-ri-ia 'into my presence' (they
brought, etc.) ; ina mah-ri-ia V R 1, 71, before a subst.
ana mahar. To these we would add mi-ih-rit (e. g.
Khors. 162. V R 9, 89), mih-ri-it (Tig. jun. rev. 16, v.
65 No. 6 note), mi-ih-ra-at (Neb. VII 61), 'in view
of, over against, before'. Cf. also ina tar-si and ina
tir-si (e. g. V R 3, 23) 4n the days of, ina tar-si 'op-
posite' (a town II R 65 obv. col. II 16), a-na tar-si
'opposed to, against' (e. g. Beh. 50), is-tu tar-si 'from
over against'; applied to time: 'since the days of
(abe'a 'my fathers' Tig. VI 97). pu-ut and ina pu-ut
(dental not quite certain) 'at the entrance (e. g. of a
town), in front of (Assurn. I 62. Ill 84. Ill R 5 No.

6, 46). ar-ki, arki ( 9 No. 245) 'behind, after' (in
space and time), e. g. Tig. Ill 21. Senhb. VI 22; note
also ar-ki-e-su 'close behind him' Lay. 67 No. 1, 9;
68 No. 2, 7 and ana arki-ia 'behind me' (I left so and
so, Esarh. Ill 32). ina beri, ina biri (ina bi-e-ri-su-nu
'between them' Neb. VIII 52, ina bi-ri-su-nu V E 9,
58, ina bi-ri-(in-)ni V R 1, 125 f., cf. 53, d, note);
bi-rit (Assurb. Sm. 130, 6) and ina bi-rit (Khors. 129),
ina bir-ti (Assurn. II 66) 'between, among' (ina bi-rit
'in' Beh. 8. 9. 95); ana bi-rit 'between' (Assurn. II 66);
ultu bi-ri-su-nu 'from their midst' (V R 2, 8). bat-tu-
bat-te (Assurn. I 91) and ina ba-tu- [ba-ti] (Shalm. Mo.
rev. 54), ina (sic) bat-ti-bat-ti (IV R 68, 25 b) 'round
about', iStu ba-ta-ba-ti-ia 'from about me' (K. 513, 7).
ti-ih (Tig. jun. obv. 24), ti-hi (Esarh. II 12) and ina
ti-ih, ina ti-hi (IV R 27, 48 b. Esarh. II 3) 'near to,
close to, at, beside'. Cf. also idd 'at the side of, e. g.
i-da-a-ni iziz 'stand at our side' (Senhb. V 24), i-da-
a-ka nittallak 'we go at thy side' (III R 15 col. I 9),
i-da-a-a ul illik 'she went not at my side' (IV R 67,
58 b). ba-lu (ba-lu Hani 'without the gods', ba-lum te-
me-ia 'without my order' Khors. 84), also ba-la and
ina ba-lu (Assurn. I 3) 'without'.
c) Unter this heading, finally, a place may be
found for the prepositions of pronominal origin:
^ki-i 'as, according to', e. g. ki-i tern rdmdmtu 'of his

own accord' (Esarh. Ill 57), ki-i me 'like water' (1
Mich. IV 8), ki-i U-tu-te 'as hostages' (I took them,
Assurn. I 108 and oft.), ki-i pi-i 'in harmony with, cor-
responding to'; also -\a-ki(-i) 'like 1. In cases like Man-
nu-ki-ilu-rcibu, Man-nu-ki-Rammdn (nn. prr.) the line
between preposition and adverb vanishes. With the
negative Id cf. ki-i Id lilibi ildni 'against the will of the
gods' (Khors. 124), 'whoever shall do anything ki-i
Idmdri u Id sase to prevent men from seeing and read-
,ing' (I R 27 No. 2, 65). ^ki-ma, kima ( 9 No. 197)
'as, like' (passim); cf. for ma 79, a; the following
are less frequent orthographical varieties : kim-ma (IV
R 9, 44 b) and ki-i-ma (III R 43 col. IV 18; ki-i-ma me
'like water', for which 41, col II 31 ki-ma me), -\as-su,
ds-sum 'concerning, for the sake of, on account of, e.
g. as-su epes ardutVa (he came to Nineveh, Esarh. II
36), as-su dandn Asur nise kul-lu(m)-mi (var. me) -im-
ma 'in order to show the people the might of Ashur'.
(I 47), as-su naddn ildnila usalldni (III 7).
The conjunctions most frequently in use are: -\u 82,
(signs 9 Nos. 5 and 267, No. 4 is extremely rare)
'and' doubtless originally ?2, see Dicty. p. 212
note 7 the most usual copula; it is used e. g. in
joining together sentences that have otherwise no in-

timate connexion, in transitions, like our 'and now',
and, in particular, between nouns. -\ma 'and' is the
copula joining verbs together, and is appended encli-
tically to the first of the two verbs or to its suffix, if
it has one (cf. Amharic ^;:, Haupt); for examples
see 53, d, where the place of the tone is also dis-
cussed, ma as copula is never reduced to m. -\ki-i
'as, if, when', e. g. ki-i tam-ma-ri 'when thou shalt see'
(Beh. 106), ki-i 'when' (so and so happened, Senhb. V
15); ki-i sa and ^a-ki-i sa, a-ki sa 'as': ki-i $a akbu
'as I have spoken' (V R 3, 7), ki-i sa ild'u, a-ki-i sa
lieu 'as he will', f sum-ma 'if, hypothetically (prop.
su-ma 'in case that', cf. 79, a), -f as-su 'because,
since', e. g. as-su Id issuru 'because he had not kept';
also as-sa-a (V R 52, 27 a), as-su sa and simply fs#
signify 'because' (v. for the latter V R 2, 51. 112).
\am-ma-ku, am-ma-ki 'instead of with verbs (? Nimr.
Ep. XI, 172175). u-la-a 'perhaps that' (? Ill R 16
No. 2, 33; v. Dicty., No. 112). - - u (signs 9 Nos. 5
and 267, more rarely No. 4), lu (lu, l\i-u, lu-u), u lu
'or' (v. Dicty., No. 104), lu... u, lu... lu, lu... u
lu 'whether... or', 'either... or' (e. g. IV R 16, 16
-22 a. 1 Mich. col. II 5 f. 10 ff. V R 56, 34), with a
following negative 'neither... nor', ultu and i$tu
'since, when, as soon as', ultu elf sa do., is-tu or ul-tu
ul-la-nu-um-ma 'from the moment that (?), after'

(Desct. ohv. 63. rev. 6). a-di 'while, so long as' (V R
56, 60. 3, 93 etc.) a-du, a-di 'till, until' (Assurb. Sm.
125, 67), a-di eli sa, a-di tnulihi sa 'while, so long as;
until' (Beh. 84. 109. Beh. 10. 27. 47). dr-ki sa 'after'
(Beh. 11. 66). i-nu 'at the time that, when' (e. g. i-nu
imbu 'when they called' Nabon. Ill 24), i-nu and i-nu-
um (i sign ni 9 No. 57) do. (whether m is the mima-
tion or is = ma, is hard to say), e. g. i-nu(-um) Mar-
duk... iddina 'at the time when Marduk committed
to me the rule over land and people' (Neb. Senk. I 7;
the follg. words are: i-na var. i-nu umisu 'in those days'
there came to pass so and so ; in Nerigl. II 15. V E,
34 col. Ill 5 we should accordingly read t-nu-mi-$u),
\-nu-um Marduk ibnanni 'when M. created me' (Neb.
Bors. I 10) ; with ma (v. 79, a) : e-nu-ma 'at the time
when, when'.

C. The Verb.
The trilateral verb* in Assyrian forms ten principal 83,
stems or voices, often, but less appropriately,
called conjugations, viz :

* Up to 116 we shall treat only of the triliteral verbs, i. e.
verbs having three consonants in the root.

I l. Qal. I 2. Ifteal. I 3. Iftaneal.
II 1. Piel. II 2. Iftaal.
III 1. Shafel. Ill 2. Ishtafal.
IV 1. Nifal. IV 2. Ittafal. IV 3. Ittanafal.
(= Intafal), (= Intanafal).
There is no Afel or Hifil in Assyrian, and no pas-
sive stems or voices formed by internal vowel change.
Of the stems II 3 and III 3, which are wanting in the
above scheme, the only instances known to me are,
of the former: um-da-na-al-lu-u (Assurb. Sm. 285, 8)
and u-sa-na-al-la-a (=ussanalld, ustanalld) 'he besought'
(ibid. 290, 54); of the latter: the preseritial form ul-
ta-nap-sa-ka (Shalm. Mo. obv. 8); we may also, per-
haps, include us-ta-na-al-liab (IV K 65, 42 d, akin to
The t of stems I 2 IV 2 was originally prefixed, not infixed.
It is still found in Assyrian at least once in its original position,
namely in the permansive form tismur Neb. I 12: 'the untiring
ruler who the restoration of the temples daily ti-is-mu-ru-ma
planned and..' ; cf. Neb. Bab. I 8 : ti-is-mu-ru-u-ma. Here tis-
mur evidently stands for sitmur. Note also the close connexion
in sense between tiduku and mithusu (they are often used together
e. g. Assurn. I 115. II 55) which suggests an affinity of gramma-
tical form (cf. 64 end). Does the adject, tizkaru, briefly men-
tioned when we were treating of the noun 65 No. 40 a, present
an analogous case (= zitMru? st. ipt 'to project upwards')? A
few forms of stems I 2 III 2 are found with ta (te) doubled, e. g.
e-te-te-bi-ra 'I have crossed' (Nimr. Ep. 71, 27); uk-ta-ta-sar (var.
uJdaar) 'he collects himself (V E 5, 76), tu-uh-ta-tab-bil (V E

45 col. I 39) ; us-te-te-es-se-ir 'I erect' (Nerigl. I 19), us-te-te-i-ir
'I set up' (ibid. II 5). For verbs, apparently denominatives, like
ro'HB and FD^SJ, see the quadriliteral verbs 117, 1 ; in the same
section ( 117, 2) are treated quadriliterals like WpttJ and "finilj,
which are derived from triliteral verbs by repeating the last radical.
The signification of these ten principal stems 84,
(putting aside, meanwhile, the permansive and in-
finitive) coincides in the main with that of the corre-
sponding stems in the other Semitic languages:
The Qal (I 1) is sometimes transitive, sometimes
intransitive and sometimes the same verb is both
transitive and intransive : sakdlu 'weigh, count', ra-
pdsu 'be wide'; na'ddu 'be exalted' and 'exalt'.
The Pi el (II 1) has intensive signification: ndbu
'announce' nulbii (numbii) 'cry aloud, howl', kibu 'speak',
kubbu 'scream loudly', sardtu 'tear', surrutu 'tear to
pieces'; and makes intransitive verbs transitive: rup-
pulu 'widen, extend', sahdru, ardku, 'be small, long',
suhhuru, urruku 'diminish, lengthen'.
The Shafel (III 1) has both a transitive and a
causative signification: pazdru 'be hidden', supzuru
'hide', nasu 'bear', sushi 'make to bear', ~barii 'behold',
subru 'cause to behold, show', sumrusu 'strike with
disease', siiduru 'annoy, frighten', sitrdu 'let flow, let
go', susubu 'cause to sit, make to dwell', 'whoever usak-
karu inakkaru shall cause to lay waste or shall him-
self lay waste this field' (IV R 41, 16. 17 c) ; not un-

frequently it has an inchoative signification e. g. sul-
buru 'grow old', bau III 1 'bring' but also 'to fall
foul of one', susmuru 'become angry, be angry with'
(also samdru and sitmuru). The Shafel sometimes
serves as the causative of the Nifal, e. g. ipparis 'he
flew', maprasu 'they caused to fly' (IV R 27, 19 b).
The Nifal (IV 1) has always a passive signifi-
cation: masu 'forget', IV 1 'be forgotten': issakin 'it
came to pass'. An active meaning appears to attach
to nabutu (IV 1 cf. ra^) 'flee'. How is the Nifal in
ippalis 'he saw', ipparis 'he, it flew' to be explained?
Stems I 2 III 2 have strictly speaking reflexive
signification, but it is only in the rarest cases (as e. g.
in mahdsu 'strike', I 2 'fight') that a clearly marked
distinction is recognizable between them and the
corresponding simple stems I 1 III 1. On the other
hand, a passive signification attaches to all these re-
flexive stems, especially to II 2 and III 2.
The If teal (I 2) has pretty much the same mean-
ing as I 1. It would be difficult to state the precise
distinction in meaning between ibtdni 'he built', ittan-
bit 'he shone', itdmar 'he saw', itepus, iterub and ibni,
ibbit, emur etc. A passive meaning appears in lim-te-
is-si 'let him be washed' (IV R 19 No. 1 rev. 16).
The Iftaal (II 2) has sometimes the same mean-
ing as II 1, and at other times serves as the passive of

II 1: uptarris 'he lied' (Beh. 90 ff.), ussabbit 'I took
captive' (Beh. 90), umdaUr 'he quitted, forsook'
(Shalm. Ob. 37), but 'the palaces which umdaserd were
forsaken' (Tig. VI 98); umdallu 'they filled' (V R 9, 45),
but umdalli 'he has been filled' (IV R 16, 28 b), utan-
niS 'he has weakened' and 'he has been weakened', sa
fa ut-tak-ka-ru 'unchangeable' (IV R 16, 6 a).
The Ishtaf al (III 2) has sometimes pretty much
the same meaning as III 1, and sometimes serves as
its passive, thus: ustashir 'I caused to surround'
(Neb. VI 52), ultaspir 'he ruled, reigned' (ispur, ilta-
napar do., what may the distinction be?), ultaksiru
'they assembled' (Tig. IV 85); listaklil 'may he become
perfect' (IV R 19 No. 1 rev. 17), 'the divine command
sa Id ustamsaku (V R 66, 11 b).
The Ittafal (IV 2), like IV 1, has always a pas-
sive signification: ittaskan 'it was done'. For ittapras
'he flew' v. IV 1.
The Iftaneal (13) has always an active (transi-
tive or intransitive) signification: etanamdaru 'they
feared', istanatti 'he drank', ittanaribit ; he shone', atta-
nddu 'I raise, praise' (cf. itta'id 'he raised,, praised').
The Ittanafal (IV 3) without a doubt had origin-
ally only a passive signification; where it now has
an active meaning, the course of its development has
still to be ascertained: ittananmarii 'they are found',

ittanddar 'he rageth' (prop, he has been made mad,
cf. innadir 'he raged'), attanashar 'I turn', ittanabrik
'it has lightened'.
85. Among the stems of the Assyrian verb a peculiar
position is occupied by a Shafel and an Ishtafal
formed from the Piel (which I denote by III 33 1,
III 11 2). I shall give a number of examples to illus-
trate both form and meaning.
III 11 !. Preterite: 'his grave us-rap-pis I caused
to be made so many cubits wide' (I R 7 No. F, 18),
us-nam-mir 'I caused to shine' (I R 7 No. D, 6), u-
malli 'I had (= caused to be) filled up' (Esarh. V 10),
us-ma-al-lam 'I fitted up, had fitted up, handsomely'
(Neb. VI 21), usrabbi 'I enlarged, had enlarged', us-
raddi. Present, u-sa-na-ma-ra 'I will cause to shine'
(IV R 68, 35 c), tus-nam-mar 'thou shinest' (IV R 64,
35 a), iu-m-ka-at-ta-ma (V R 41, 50 d), tu-sa-bal-ta
(V R 45 col. VI 55). (Inf. suparrusu).
III n 2. Present: 'with cries of pain us-ta-bar-ri
is he daily surfeited' (IV R 3, 1 b), kasdti ul-ta-ma-la
(i. e. ustamalld), 'the bows are furnished (prop, fil-
led) with arrows' (II R 47, 59 d). Part, mustabarru
For the forms of the stem III 11 from verbs med. 1 and ^
such as uSmit, inf. Sutubbu, imp. sumtt v. 115; for the corres-
ponding forms of verbs med. X see 106.

In the simple (Qal) and augmented verbal stems, 86.
with their transitive, intransitive and passive meanings,
Assyrian originally, it would seem, distinguished two
modes of existence*, according as the condition
of doing, being or suffering expressed by the verb was
one already existing (erne seiende), that is, completed
and continuing, or one only about to exist (eine wer-
dende), one commencing and therefore still uncom-
pleted, regardless whether this continuance or this
commencement, this completeness or incompleteness
belonged to the present, past or future. These two
modes of existence are clearly and sharply distin-
guished by the fact that the pronominal formative syl-
lables which denote the person or thing concerned in
the doing, being or suffering, are in the former case
affixed (corresponding to forms like sarrdku 'I am
king', v. 91), in the latter prefixed to the theme of
the verb.
To give expression in speech to these two modes 87.
of existence we have the verbal themes 1) of the
Qal: their nature, their original significance and the
gradual differentiation in their meanings shall now
be discussed, a) In the Qal the root, with its original

* I cannot at this moment find a better name; it is justified
in so far, at least, that existere unites the two meanings of en-
tering into existence and existence.

and primitive vocalisation, served from the very first
as the primary theme for both modes of existence.
dan 'he is or was judge', l-nar 'he subdues' and 'he
subdued', tdr-at 'it (the road) turns back', ta-tdr 'she
turns back'; ram 'he is or was a lover', i-rdm 'he falls
or fell in love' (further examples of this species of
permansive forms see in 89 compared with 63
and 64). But just as Hebrew and the other Semitic
languages employ, in addition to the form fdal, the
forms fail and fdul to express states and qualities,
so in Assyrian we find kabit 'he is or was heavy', met
(mit) 'he is or was dead', marus 'he is or was sick'.
In fact these two forms, or more precisely, since kasud
is comparatively very rare, the form kasid exceeded
in frequency the principal and primary theme kasad,
although the latter also served to express states and
qualities (v. 65 No. 6). The form kasid, in short,
gradually took the place of kasad as the theme to
express the continuance or completion of an action
or of a state of being or suffering, that is, as it is
usually put, as the permansive theme in all verbs
with the exception of those med 1, 1, tf and med. ge-
minatae. The form kasad, on the other hand, came
to be used as the theme to express the commencement
or incompletion of an action, or of a state of being and
suffering, that is as the present-preterite theme:

i-kasad 'he is becoming or has become a conqueror'.
From it was developed by syncope at a very early
period iksad (or iksud, iksid)', this form then con-
tinued in use alongside of the older ikasad.
A somewhat analogous case of syncope is found in the per-
mansive theme of the Ifteal, where kitud is syncopated in the
same way from Jcitasud (kitdsud), the two forms continuing in use
side by side (v. 88, b). The reason of the change of vowel which
so often accompanies the syncope is still unexplained: verbs tertiae
infirmae without exception, we may say, retained the vowel a
even in the shortened form, and the same is the case, to a cer-
tain extent, in verbs med. X, but why they said emur 'he saw'
and iksud 'he conquered' but esir 'he shut up' and ipkid 'he en-
trusted' remains a mystery. No law of general application can be
deduced from the nature of the third radical (see especially the
numerous examples in 96). Great freedom in this respect seems
to have been the rule from the outset, a freedom which was only
gradually curtailed to some extent by the pressure of analogy.
b) The theme kasid (kasud) is identical, of course,
with the nominal stem discussed in 65 Nr. 7 (8).
Like the nominal stem fail, the permansive theme
embodies in the first place the idea of state or con-
dition (laUr 'old', labir 'he is or was old') and after-
wards, in connexion with the intransitive signification,
the idea of passivity or suffering (peti 'being opened,
open', peti 'it is or was opened', sakin 'laid, deposited'
- observe mak-kuri sak-na sukutta sa-kin-ta IV R 23,
24 b, sakin 'it is laid, it lies', 'the city sabit is or
was in a state of capture, is or was captured'). The

permansive theme in Assyrian serves in addition to
express continuous action, e. g. pakid 'he superintends',
prop, is continuously in the condition of superintend-
ing, is superintendent. Further details will be given
with the examples in 89. That the principal and
primary theme kasad, which may probably be taken
as the oldest pronunciation of the root, likewise em-
bodied all these ideas of condition, passivity and,
above all, of action, goes without saying; the corre-
sponding nominal stem 65 No. 6 embodies, in parti-
cular, the ideas of condition and quality.
c) In the permansive, as we have seen, no account
is taken of any relation of time, and as little can there
have been originally in the theme inflected by
means of prefixed pronominal elements, viz. i-kasad,
syncopated iksad (iksud), any distinction of time, any
indication, that is to say, as to whether the action etc.
began in the past, the present or the future. At a
later, though still comparatively early, period, how-
ever, such a distinction was made by making the differ-
ence between ikasad and its syncopated parallel iksad
(iksud) one of time. Such a distinction, however, could
not have existed from the first, as is evidenced by a
consideration of the following points. It is noteworthy,
to begin with, that the forms indr and ibd' are still
used indiscriminately for present and preterite; it is

also a fact worthy of special attention that all im-
peratives and the participles of the augmented stems
are formed from the preterite, not from the present;
further, the prohibitive particle a-a is joined to the
preterite, Id to the present, while the optative particle
/w, again, is joined to the preterite (v. 93). The
only conclusion to be drawn from these phenomena
is that the subsequent clearly marked distinctidn be-
tween present and preterite did not exist in the earliest
stage of the language. At a very early period,
however, as we have already remarked, ikasad was
set apart as exclusively the form of the present, as
distinguished from iksad (iksud), which was stamped
as exclusively the form of the preterite (the accenting
of the a in ikasad is possibly another result of this
effort at differentiation). This form of differentiation
was extremely natural and was the readiest means of
accomplishing the end in view, since the permansive
in Assyrian continued to retain its original signifi-
cation and was not, as in the other Semitic languages,
transformed into a perfect.*

* These conjectures as to the origin and development of the
tenses of the verb in Assyrian and in Semitic generally are of
course given with all reserve. I feel myself justified in hazard-
ing them, in the first place, because the Hebr. r^ still presents
unmistakeable traces of the original indifference ' regarding the
commencement of an event etc., whether in the present, past or
future; this is evident from the fact that the present-future theme
Delitzsch, Assyrian Gramrfiar. 16

88. The two themes 2) of the augmented (derived)
stems. While the verbal themes of the Qal discussed
in 87 clearly display their identity with the noun
(the intimate connexion between noun and verb being
otherwise proved by the two numbers, by the simi-
larity in the termination of the feminine etc.), the
points of contact become fewer and fewer as we study
the augmented stems. Even permansive themes like
nukkus, suklul, mithus, for example, although they are

in connexion with ^ conversive, with TS and otherwise sud-
denly assumes an aorist signification. In the second place, because
the Hebrew perfect is intimately connected, not only as regards
form but also as regards signification, with the Assyrian perman-
sive, and that not only in cases like *s%T*,1 arn just' (Job 34, 5)
rb- 'thou art great' (Ps. 104, 1), -ri^'Yam little' (Gen. 32, 11)'
Moreover the transition from the permansive to the perfect signi-
fication would admit of easy explanation, since the completion of
an action must have been preceded by the occurrence of that
action in the past, just as states or conditions are very often the
result of a preceding course of development. From katal l he is a
murderer', labas 'he is clothed', nakar 'he is hostile', ma' ad 'it is
much' there is but a short step to 'he has murdered, put on, re-
belled', 'it has increased'. The Assyrian permansive even, on oc-
casion, assumes involuntarily a perfect or pluperfect signification;
cf. Beh. 17: 'thereafter Cambyses died (miti) by his own hand';
Senhb. V 48 f. : 'in such and such a place sitkunu sidirta pan
maski'a sabtu they had put the battle in array, had taken their
position over against me', and in other passages. The theme "-qr,
which originally was able to denote the commencement of an
action etc. in all the three spheres of time, and which, moreover,
never ceased to denote, under certain conditions, the commence-
ment of an action etc. in the past (like the Assyr. iksud) would
seem to have been more employed with reference exclusively to
the present and the future, from the time when the theme
3BJ3 assumed with increasing frequency, and developed in various
ways, its signification as a perfect.

also used as adjectives, cannot be regarded as strictly
speaking nominal stems ; in contrast to other forma-
tions with the second radical sharpened, with a pre-
fixed s, or with an inserted tf, they rather appear, to
judge by their signification if by nothing else, as
inseparably connected with the corresponding verbal
stems. Compare, for example, with mithusu 'fight'
arnclahis 'I fought', with kitrub tahdzi the common
akterib. sezuzu 'raised', moreover, seems formed directly
from useziz. The relation of the s and t as formative
elements in nominal stems to the s and t in verbal
stems is still very obscure.
a) The present-preterite themes, the mean-
ings of which have been given in 84, may be
represented in a tabular form as follows:
I 2. k a tasad I 3. k a tanasad
II 1. kassad II 2. k a tassad
III 1. sak a sad III 2. S'takSad
IV 1. n a kasad IV 2. n a taksad IV 3. n a tanaksad
In the preterite the a of the last syllable is mostly
thinned to i. In stems I 2, I 3, IV 2 and IV 3 of
the strong verb, however, we find in many cases for
pres. and pret. but one form with a in the last syl-
lable; in the strong verb a present with i after the
second radical in the augmented stems is extremely
rare: cf. i-ta-na-ar-hi-is. For details see 97.

b) The permansive themes, the meanings of
which may be learned from 89 are as follows:
I 2. kitdsud, kitsud 1 3. wanting


III. kussud lll.kutassud
III 1. suksud III 2. sutaksud
IV 1. nakdsud, naksud IV 2. wanting IV 3. wanting.
All these permansive themes serve at the same
time as infinitives of the corresponding stems, and
the greater part, especially those of stems HJjJDLI I
and I 2 V we also find employed as adjectives. Thus
ulihuz, for example, signifies 'it (the stone) is or was
set', uhhuzzu 'to set' and 'set' (e. g. in gold) ; suklul
'it is completed', suklulu 'complete' and 'completed,
perfect'; sitrnur 'he is or was full of anger', sitmuru
'to be angry, anger' (also susmuru) and 'angry'. It is
moreover the recognition of the identity of these per-
mansive themes and the respective infinitives which
proves that kitsud, the permansive theme of the Ifteal
is syncopated from kitdsud: just as in the inf. I 2 git-
pulu changes with sitdlulu (v. 98), ithuzu with itetuku
( 104), Utru with Utdku ( 110), so in the perm, there
must have existed alongside of kitsud the more primitive
form kitdsud (the form mi-tah-hu-ru cited in 98 is
a fresh proof of what has just been said!). The same
holds good of the permansive theme IV 1 as is shown
by the two infinitives naslulu and nasalulu ( 98). For

a parallel case of the syncope of an accented a, v.
94. We would further remark in passing that, hav-
ing regard to this existence side by side of two in-
finitive forms of I 2, having regard, also, to italluku
(104 note) and itaributu ( 101), we cannot for a moment
doubt that itappusu and itakkulu, which are placed in
the vocabularies alongside ofitpusu and itkulu (v. 101.
104) are merely bye-forms of the latter. A point in
favour pf the Semitic origin, and at the same charac-
teristic of the frequently meaningless and deluding
freajks of the Assyrian ideograms is the circumstance,
that although there was not the least shade of differ-
ence of meaning between itkulu and itdkulu, the longer
or fuller forms were rendered by fuller ideograms;
this, as is well known, is also the case with italluku
and with the present of the Qal.
In our treatment of 88, b we have taken for granted that
the three forms with respectively permansive, infinitive and ad-
jective significations are really identical. This, however, is open
to doubt and it may be objected that their identity may be only
apparent and that the vowel u may not be short in all three.
For the permansive forms, it is true, no one will seek to main-
tain that the vowel (u) of the second radical is long: a glance at
the examples adduced in 89 and afterwards among the 'note-
worthy miscellaneous forms' of 98. 101 etc. is sufficient to place
beyond a doubt the accuracy of the readings kussud, suksud,
naksud, kitud. The only instance known to me where the third
radical is written double, viz.: kabtassu na-an-kul-lat-ma 'his
spirit is darkened and' (IV B, 61, 11 a read nankuldtma) is power-

less, for reasons that are sufficiently evident, to alter this con-
clusion. Besides this, the transition of na'kul, na'huz (IV K 61,
12 a) to nankul, nanhuz points conclusively to the accentuation
of the first syllable, and therefore to the fact that the u of the
second is short. But the forms used as adjectives, correspond-
ing to these permansive forms, are certainly identical with them ;
for even as regards signification the permansive and the adjective
are intimately related (nalbusdku 'I am clothed' like kabtdku
'I am respected' might, per se, be equally well regarded as a
permansive as classed with the formations mentioned in 91,
such as karraddku, for example), so intimately related, in fact,
that in certain cases it is difficult to decide whether we have be-
fore us a perm, or an adj. ; cf. e. g. I B 7 No. E, 5 : 'the asnan-
stone which in the days of my fathers sukuru (var. akru) was
found valuable as an amulet'. Moreover what we learn from the
signification is confirmed by the orthography: thus the forms
uhhuzu, suklulu, etc. when employed as adjectives are found in
the overwhelming majority of cases with the third radical written
but once : cf. the variety of examples given in 65 in connexion
with Nos. 24. 33. 31. 40, also kussudu 'captured' (Senhb. VI 19),
Suklulu 'complete', supsuku 'hard, steep, laborious', Sunuhu 'la-
mentable' (Assurb. Sm. 123, 46) and many others. A few rare
cases like sa asarsina sug-lud-du (Sarg. Cyl. 11), Su-zu-uz-zu (K.
246 col. I 6) are to be explained ace. to 53 c. For the ortho-
graphical form nam-kur-ri-su-nu from namkitru 'property' prop,
'something earned, earnings', see 53, d, note. The u of the in-
finitives II l. 2. Ill 1. 2. IV 1 is also confirmed by a number
of examples; a series of references will be found under the head
of 'noteworthy miscellaneous forms'. In these circumstances there
is little to favour the giving of the inf. I 2 as kitsudu, all the less
that the ground-form kitasudu had without a doubt the accent
on the ta, thereby excluding a long ft, and that all these infini-
tives I 2, with the single exception of mithusu 'to fight, a fight'
for which Assurb. Sm. 89, 27. 175, 45. V R 8, 16 (= Assurb. Sm.
261,20) gives mit-hu-u-si in addition to mit-Jtu-si, are written in
every case with the third radical single. In fact the suspicion

forces itself upon one that mitJjussi is owing to a faulty edition
of the text (so Haupt); or was it that the writer meant us to
lay special stress on the word? Whatever may be the true ex-
planation of the anomaly I am at present of Haupt's opinion
that formations like mithusu are to be read with short u. The ques-
tion as to what was the original signification of the permansive
themes adduced under b), whether they had originally an ad-
jective-perm ansive or an infinitive signification had better not be
raised at present the transition from the adjective or participle
to the abstract infinitive signification is at all events noteworthy
(cf. hVia), In the cases where the above-mentioned permansive
themes appear as feminines with nominal signification we may,
with equal justice, regard them as feminines (neuters) of an ad-
jective or participle or as feminine infinitives. To the examples
of these fern, permansive themes already given in 65 above
(cf. 65 No. 11 note) we would here add: suhJjurtu 'to put to
flight' (Senhb. V 66), tubtu 'friendship' (tu-ub-ta II E 65 obv.
col. II, addition), fern, of tubbu (= tubbatu, St. S h B), as is shown
by the plur. tu-nb-ba-a-ti 'what is friendly, friendliness 5 ( V E 3, 80),
(kuttenu ace. to this, is a formation in enu, dnu from kuttu
kuntu = kunnatu fern, of kunnu 'true, genuine'), susubtu 'little
seat'. Sometimes with masculine forms, however, both explana-
tions are admissible, e. g. in the case of nddusu 'fresh, green
herbage' (v. Dicty. p. 202) and sutdbsu (III 2) 'turban, head-dress'
(v. Dicty. No. 45). In this category I would also place namurru
st. cstr. namur, namurratu st. cstr. namurrat and namrurat
'anger, terror, horror'. The most of what has been laid down in
this note applies to the quadriliterals as well, and in fact re-
ceives from them additional confirmation; cf. for the identity of
the forms used as adjectives and infinitives la naparku 'not to
cease' and 'unceasing' ; for the quantity of the vowel u, suharruru
and supdrruru (likewise infins. and adjs.); of feminine forms cf.
napalsuJjtu (alongside of napalsuJju). For full details see 117, 1
and 2.
Considering the importance of the permansive for 89.

Assyrian grammar we feel justified, before passing to
the meaning of the permansive in the augmented
stems, in illustrating the meaning of the permansive
of the Qal by a few additional examples by way of
supplementing the short remarks of 87.
I 1. Verbs med. gemin. (cf. 87 and 63): 'the
town da-an (written dan-an, phon. compl.) dan-nis
was exceedingly strong' (Assurn. I 114. Ill 51, va-
riant of marsi dannis II 104), 'who ha-as-su remem-
bered not', ellci, ebbd 'they are bright, pure' (3. f. plur.,
V R 51, 36 b). Verbs med. 1, i (cf. 87 and 64):
Sarru-lu-ddr(i) 'may the king endure for ever', lu kdn
'let him, it be' (written ka-ia-an IV R 45, 42, ka-a-a-an
K. 246 col. IV 45), 'the road m alaktasa Id ta-a-a-rat
goes not back' (Desct. obv. 6), Asur-da-a-an 'Ashur
is judge' (Tig. VII 49. 66), 'my greeting lu ta-ab-ka
(or ku-nu-si) do thee (you) good' (often), dnu 'it is
or was not' (written ia-a-nu Beh. 19 etc.); 'thy com-
mand ki-na-at stands fast' (e. g. kenat, K. 3258), diktu
ina llWimnu ma-a-da di-e-ka-at 'many of them were
killed' (IVR54 No. 3, 25 f.), mi-i-ti 'he died' (Beh. 17).
kasid: a) Condition, sa-lim 'he is safe and sound',
na'id 'he is or was exalted', 'Auramazda ra-bi is great'
(H, 1), Sa 'a-ad-ru 'who is in trouble, is troubled'
(IV R 5, 60 b), 'the city which sak-nu lies in such and
such a place' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 11), plur. saknil (Tig.

III 57), sa-ak-nu-ii-ni (Assurn. Ill 98), bal-tu- 'they
live' (H, 3), lab-sit 'they are clothed (Desct. obv. 10),
hi sak-na Sepdka 'may thy feet rest' (IV R 17, 10 b),
as-ba-ak 'I tarried' (Assurb. Sm. 119, 18), 'the palace
sa eli mahriti maadis su-tu-rat ra-ba-ta u nak-lai 1
(Senhb. VI 44 f.), anntfa ma'idd raM Mtdttta (IV R
10, 37 a), ma-la ba-su-u. b) Passivity, '-a-bit 'it was
destroyed', 'the city sab-ta-at was taken' (C b rev. 31),
(')~al-du 'they were or are born' (IV R 15, 22 a. 2 b),
kat-ma-ku 'I am overpowered' (IV R 10, 4 b). c) Action
continuing or already completed. 'The god sa kippdt
same irsitim kdtusu pakdu who holds the ends of the
heavens and of the earth in his hand' (Assurn. I 6),
Adar-pa-ki-da-at (name of a king, VR44, 37 d), tarsdt
'thou stretchest out', 'Ishtar entered, right and left
tu-ul-la-a-ta ispdti tam-ha-at pitpdnu ma idisa salpat
namsaru.... she had quivers hanging (v. under II 1),
a bow she held by her side, from the sheath she drew
the sharp sword of battle' (Assurb. Sm. 124, 53 ff.),
ahzu 'they have', nasuni 'they bring', 'which na-su-u
carry' (NR. 18. 27), sikndt napisti mala suma na-ba-a
ina mdti ba-sa-a (IV R 29, 38 a). kasud. ma-ru-us
'he is ill' (K. 524 1. 13), 'over door and bolts sa-pu-uh
epru dust is spread' (Desct. obv. 11), 'whose face ta-
ru-su was directed' (Assurn. Ill 26), l man-nu-um-ma
ba-ni man-nu-um-ma sa-ru-uh among men' (Nimr. Ep.

49, 201), epuS 'it is made' K. 63, i. e. IV R 25, col.
II 25), sa asarsu ruku 'whose place is afar off'; ruku
might, per se^ be considered as an adj. (cf. 147), but
the feminine form sa kibitsu ru-ka-at (K. 3258) sug-
gests the permansive as the better explanation (cf. ibid.).
II 1 kussud has an active and a passive (or in-
transitive) signification, a) 'Fear etc. kud-du-sum-ma
have humbled him' (= kuddudu, IV R 61, 9 a), tu-ul-
la-a-ta ispdti 'she had hung quivers, had quivers hang-
ing' (around her) (v. under I 1, c; for the termination
dta cf. 53 p. 125). b) 'how long, lady, su-uli-lm-ru
pa-nu-ki has thy countenance been turned away?', 'in
which treasures nu-uk-ku-mu were heaped up' (Assurb.
Sm. 225, 51), 'on rain turrusd mesun were their eyes
directed' (Senhb. Bav. 7), ussusdku 'I am vexed' (IV R
10, 4 b).
III 1 suksud has as an active and a passive (or
intransitive) signification, a) 'Sargon, who for the
subjection of his foes Sutbii kakkusu sent forth his
arms (weapons)' (Lay. 33, 3. Sarg. Cyl. 7), '[who ?]
more than his fathers arna su-tu-ru sur-l)u-u MtuSu
kahiii let evil gain the upper hand, multiplied sore
transgression' (III R 38 No. 2 obv. 61). b) 'lofty slopes,
on which ur-ki-tu Id su-sa-at no green thing had been
produced, had sprung up' (Sarg. Cyl. 35), 'on firm
gro'und ul sursudd isddsu its foundation had not been

laid' (Lay. 33, 14), 'a flood, which by night sur-da-at
is made to flow, breaks forth' (IV R 26, 20 a), 'that
which suk-lu-lu is completed' (IV R 9, 20 a), su-tu-ga-
ta 'thou art magnificent' (IV R 30, 7 a).
IV 1 naksud has a passive signification, na-al-
~bu-sa-ku 'I am clothed' (K. 3456), 'cedars which na-
an-zu-zu stood (prop, were placed) concealed on the
mountains of Sirara' (Senhb. Kuy. 4, 11).
I 2 kitsud has ati active and an intransitive (oc-
casionally passive) signification, a) 'who sit-pu-ru
had sent troops', 'who like a fish sit-ku-nu subtu had
set up a dwelling-place' (Esarh. Ill 55. Assurb. Sm.
76, 28), 'they put their trust in the mountains and
Id pit-lu-Jm belut Assur (Assurb. Sm. 81, 7). &) 'who
pit-ku-du gives heed to' (ana, Assurn. I 24), 'who kit-
nu-su submitted not to my yoke' (this and similar
expressions are very common), 'whose dwelling sit-
ku-na-at was situated like the nest of an eagle' (Senhb.
Ill 70), 'Ishtar isdtu lit-bu-sat was clothed with fire'
(V R 9, 80), hi-it-pu-su-nik-ka 'then have asked for
thee' (IV R 17, 11 b).
Ill 2 sutaksud has a passive signification. 'Ni-
neveh, whither every kind of artistic work sii-ta-'bu-la
was brought' (Senhb. Rass. 63), mi-lam-me sit-la-as-Jiur
'with glory is he surrounded' (K. 63, i. e. IV R 25,
col. Ill 11, cf. su-tas-hur IV R 18, 51 a).

Further examples of the permansive will be given
when we come to treat of the precative ( 93, 2); also
among the 'noteworthy miscellaneous forms' of 98.
101 etc.
I have not yet met with permansive forms of
stems II 2. IV 2. I 3. and IV 3.
The fact of the permansive themes II 1 and III 1 possessing
both an active and a passive meaning reminds one of the employ-
ment of the infinitives, see 95 end.
90. Conjugation (inflexion for person and number)
of the two verbal themes: 1) the present-pre-
terite theme a) in the Qal
Sing. Plur.
3. m. i-s(d)bat i-s(a)bat-u(m, nu)
3. f. ta-s(a)bat i-s(a)bat-d(ni)
2. m. ta-s(a)bat ta-s(a)bat-u
2. f. ta-s(a)bat-i ta-s(a)bat-d
1. c. a-s(a)bat ni-s(a)bat
m is to be assumed as the original preformative
in the preterite of verbs primse X (except aldku)
and primse 1, *: ekul=iekul=idkul ((akul)\ itsib=iusib
=iausibj isi=nsi=iam (for the loss of the initial I
see 41, b; for other details see the sections devoted
to these weak verbs) ; but in all the other present and
preterite forms both of the strong and of the weak
verb, as well as in the corresponding forms of the

Nifal, Ifteal and Ittafal the original preformative is
a, which in 41,b was assumed possibly incorrectly
to have arisen from ia.
The uniformity of the scheme given above is of course de-
stroyed by parts of the verb formed by analogy, which are
very frequent in the present of the Qal. In the strong verb the
vocalisation of the second radical is greatly influenced by the pret.,
the original a of the present in many cases, and i, it would ap-
pear, in all cases, being displaced by the corresponding vowel of
the preterite, cf. in 96 ibdlut, isdgum, itdrur-, ildbin, inddin,
isdkip, iidbir (these younger forms are occasionally found along-
side of the older forms in a, cf. izdnan and izdnun, iddbab and
iddbub, like ima'ad and imftid, ibliaz and ihhuz). In the weak
verb, in the same way, the whole of the present, preformatives
included, is not unfrequently formed from the preterite, the older
forms, in this case also, being sometimes found side by side with
the younger. I refer to such presents as izzaz, iddan (v. verbs
primae 3, 100); ennah (from pret. enah) alongside of innah =
i'dnah, eppus, errub, 2 m. terrub (v. verbs primse X, 103); urrad
(from pret. urid, v. verbs primse 1, 112); iturru 'they become'
(from pret. itur) alongside of itdru (v. verbs med. 1, ">, 115).
Verbs med. IS present formations by analogy in pres. and pret.,
e. g. in rCimu and belu', for these see 106.
V) The present-preterite themes in the
augmented stems. The afformatives do not call
for special remark, they are the same as in the in-
flexion of the Qal; for the preformatives it is suffi-
cient to adduce the form ikkasid, takkasid, akkasid,
nikkasid', iktd$ad, taktdsad, aktdsad, niktdsad\ ukassid,
tukassid, ukasSid (1. sing.), nukassid (1. plur.). It is
worth noting that the preformatives take u if the

permansive has u in the first syllable, but, if the
permansive has a or i in the first syllable.
Here too, as a matter of course, the formations due to
analogy take their own way: for eteli and etepu see 34, a,
note, and also verbs primse X, 103; for ittubil, ittnsi (alongside
cf. ittdsi) v. verbs primse % 112; for presents like issanunduv. verts
mediae 1, 115. For the vocalisation of the 2. radical, first ad-
verted to in 88, a, see 97.
c) Additional remarks on the preceding
scheme. The 3. m. sing, is very often used promis-
cuously for the 3. fern. ; e. g. i-ra-an-ni 'she conceived
me', ul i-ri-man-ni Is-ta-ri (IV R 67, 58 b), Simtu ubilsu
'fate carried him off' (Esarh. Ill 19), kabittaki lips ah,
rebitu litbal 'may the road take away', Istdr usarhisanni
libbu^eic. etc. The plural forms of the 3. masc. in
nu are much less frequent than those in m', but cf.
ul-te-bir-u-nu (K. 823 obv. 11), ik-ta-bu-nu 'they said'
(K. 82, 16), isbatunu, i-tab-su-nu, i-kab-bu-nu etc. (K.
831), lu-u-ter-ru-nu 'let them bring back', i-na-as-su-nu
'they bring' (NR 10). It is by no means rare to find
the 3. and 2. m. plur. ending in a instead of u\ cf.
side by side V R 64 col. Ill 49 ff.: 'the gods li-im-gu-
ra, lil-li-ku, li-sa-am-ki-ta > ; tu-kin-na 'ye have ordered'
(Tig. I 22), 'which ye tu-up-pi-ra-su have covered'
(Tig. I 21). The same remark applies to the impera-
tive, v. 94. Plural forms in i (==?), on the other
hand, such as: 'may the great gods libbika H-ti-ib-bi

rejoice thy heart' (V R 65 col. II 19), are very rare
exceptions (cf. for the perm. 91).
For the adverb lu, very frequently prefixed, for emphasis,
to the 3. m. and 1. c. sing, and plur. of the pret., see 78.
Conjugation 2) of the permansive theme. 91,
The following scheme will serve to show the conjuga-
tion of the permansive in Qal and the augmented
Sing. Plur.
, 3. m. kasid kasd-u(ni)
3. f. kasd-at kasd~d(ni)
2. m. kasd-d-t(a) kasd-d-tunu (?)
2. f. kasd-d-ti vacat
1. c. kasd-d-k(u^ kasd-d-ni, -nu
The 3. m. sing., like the 3. m. sing, of the perf.
in the other Semitic languages, is not expressly dis-
tinguished by any pronominal element. The forma-
tion of the 2. m. and f. sing, and 1. c. sing, and plur.
is in all respects the same as we find in the case of
substantives and adjectives, that unite with a pro-
noun serving them as subject to form a single word;
cf. atta si-rat 'thou art exalted' (IV R 9, 54 a), sar-
rdku beldku na'iddku... asareddku karraddku etc.
(Assurn. I 32 f.), si-ih-re-ku 'I am small' (K. 4931
obv. 18). The d inserted between the last radical of
the permansive theme and the afformatives (ka$d-d-ta,

dann-d-ta, ban-d-ku) recalls the Hebrew perfects ni
ntopS. For the 2. f. sing. cf. sak-na-a-ti (IV R 63,
54 b), for the 1. plur. na-i-da-a-ni 'we are exalted'
(IV R 68, 39 b). The form of the 2. m. plur. of the
permansive, as usually given and as inserted in the
paradigms at the beginning of the book, seems to be
very suspicious : the passage generally adduced in
support of kasddtunU) viz. IV R 34, 61 (ba-na-tu-nu),
the context of which is still obscure, is at variance
with ku-us-su-pa-ku-nu (IV R 52 No. 1, 26, cf. 1. sing.
ku-us-su-pa-ku 1. 10). a is also found in the 3. m. plur.
of the permansive (v. 90, c end), cf. as-ba 'they sit,
dwell' (Desct. obv. 9), while i (i) is extremely rare,
cf. Nimr. Ep. XI, 119: 'the gods as-bi ina biklti sat
there in tears'. For the syncope of the vowel i in
kasdat, kasddku etc. v. 37, b.
92. The Modus relativus and the supernumerary
final vowels of the Assyrian present-preterite and
permansive. Every form of the present and preterite
that ends in a consonant, and in verbs tertise infirmse
every form that ends in a short vowel (the plural
terminations uni, unu, dni of course excepted) may,
when standing in the principal clause, assume one
of the three short vowels, without any change of
meaning being associated with the change of form.
ft occurs most frequently, more rarely ', and still

more rarely u. For a cf. illika uruh muti (Khors. 118),
ubil or ub-la 'he brought', 'his army idka he summoned',
isdira mihrit ummdni'a (Assurb. Sm. 39, 16), tassuka
'she bit', simta tasdma 'thou determinest the fate',
usabbita 'I caused to seize', upattira 'he opened', as-
takkana 'I made' (V R 3, 133), at(t)arda '1 went down'
(esp. frequent in Assurn.), usebira 'I poured out'
(Senhb. IV 32), nindagara (V R 1, 125), etc. This
final a is very common with verbs tertiae 1 and >,
e. g. akka 'I poured out', irld 'he laid hold', uselld
'I brought hither', usalld 'he besought'. It is also
found in many cases with forms of the precative, e. g.
lu-us-ba-a 'I will take my fill' (Neb. X 8 etc.); also
with the imperative (v. 94). For the employment
of this a in copulative sentences v. Syntax 150.
I do not recollect any permansives with a final a out-
side of relative clauses. For i cf. esidi 'I reaped,
harvested', aksiti 4 I cut down' (Sams. IV 18), uzakip
and uzakipi 'I impaled' (Assurn.), 'his heart ir-ti-si
rejoiced', uUribi 'I brought in' (V R 35, 34), usatrisi
(V R 62 No. 1, 15), usdlidi (Lay. 44, 14. 17). Also in
precative forms: lihnubi (III R 41 col. II 33); and in
permansive forms: ma~si-hi ka-ni-ki (III R 43 col. Ill
16. 17), 'the city mar si danni? (Assurn. II 104), mitt
'he died', U-e-di 'he was struck down' (Epon. Canon),
na-(a-)di 'he was high', aSbdti 'thou (0 Merodach)
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 17

dwellest' (K. 3426). For u cf. ardmu 'I love' (Neb. I
38), unakkilu 'I formed artistically' (V R 64 col. II 8).
Also in precative forms: lusbu 'I will take my fill'
(I R 67 col. II 34).
Every form of the present, preterite and perman-
sive, however, must assume a vowel when standing
in a clause introduced by a relative or a conjunc-
tion. This vowel is mostly w, though many ex-
amples of a are also found; to find neither the one
nor the other is extremely rare. See full details re-
garding relative clauses 147, and for clauses with
a conjunction 148.
Cases are by no means rare where there is the further ad-
dition of an m to the final vowel now discussed; such cases are
found both in principal and in subordinate sentences. Examples
in 79, a, note, and in 147.
93. From both preterite and permansive Assyrian
forms a precative by means of the adverb lu 'verily'
(v. 78). With the forms of the preterite that begin
with a vowel lu unites to form a single word, but be-
fore the t of the feminine and before all forms of the
permansive it preserves its independence.
1) From the preterite precatives are formed for
the 3. m. and f. sing, and plur. and the 1. c. sing.
a) 3. pers. m. sing., m. andf. plur. With i of thepre-
formative in stems I 1. 2. IV 1. 2, lu unites to form It:
likhid, Ukhidu, li k sudd, limmir, lissur, illikuni 'may they

come', limsi 'may he wash', limsu, litur 'may he return';
litabbib, Ut-tal-lak 'may he walk' (IV R 61, 41 a); lip-
pakid 'let him, it be ordered', UttaUk, lippatir\ litta-
pras 'let him flee, escape'; with i and e of the Qal
in verbs primae X it becomes H and U: li-kul 'may he
eat', li-ru-ru 'may they curse', li-lil, li-bi-ib (doubtless
=lekul, leruru etc.); cf. HSir (itn, IV R 64, 6b); with
u of the stems II 1 and III 1 it becomes lu, although
li is also found: lu~(u-) hal-li-ik 'may he annihilate*
(Tig. VIII 88), lu-sab-bi-ru 'may they break in pieces'
(Tig. VIII 80), lubbibu, luddis 'let him renew', lu-u-tir
'let him bring back', and li-hal-li-ku (IV R 64, 64b) T
U-pat-ti-ru 'may they release' (IV R 59, 52 b), U-ma-'-
i-da (III R 41 col. II 23), lu (var. uybal-lu-u 'may they
destroy' (Tig. VIII 79); luSekniSu (Tig. VIII 33), and
H-sa-li-sa 'may he cause to shout for joy' (Khors. 194),
li-se-si-bu-su 'may they cause him to remain' (Sarg.
Cyl. 77, but lu-se-si-bu-su Tig. VIII 83), li-sam-'-i-da
'may she increase'; with it of verbs primse 1 (Qal) it
becomes #, and sometimes lu: li-rid, U-ri-du, /i-fc'/and
lu-bil 'may he carry off' (IV R 66, 49 a. 14 b).
b) 1. pers. sing. With u of the preformative it
becomes lu: hiblut 'would that I might live', 'whom lu-
us-pur shall I send ?', lu-zi-iz 'I will take my stand', lullik
'I will go' (but littik 'let him go'), lu-um-id 'would that
I might increase' (K. 2455), lu-uk-bi, lu-ub-ki 'I will

weep' (Desct. obv. 34. 35) observe the orthography
lu-u-up-te 'I will open' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 252) ; lu-ul-
ta-ti 'I will drink' (Desct, rev. 19). Likewise with e:
lubib '0, that I were pure', lu-ru-ba 'I will enter' (Desct.
obv. 15); cf. lusir 'would that I might prosper' (w).
In the same way with u of stems II 1 etc : lu-sa-an-ni
'I will announce'. Cases in which a or a is retained
are rare: cf., e. g., la-su-ta 'I will draw' (V K 2, 125)
and the masc. prop, name Pan- Alur-la-mur 'may I see
the face of Ashur' (C a 136. 153). A very difficult form
is la-ta-am which occurs in an unpublished text in a
clause of which the meaning is quite certain: la-ta-am
nar-bi-ka ana nise rapsdti l l will announce thy great-
ness to the peoples that are afar off' (cf. the variants
Mar-la-ar-me and Mar-la-rim C a 244?). c) 3. pers. f.
sing, 'Ishtar kakkesu lu-ii tu-sa-bir kussdsu lu te-kim-u
break in pieces his weapons, take from him his throne'
(Assurn. Balaw. rev. 20 f.).
Forms with i like lihallik, liali$a are no doubt occasioned
by the effort to differentiate the 3. and 1. persons. There are
no precatives formed from the present: lindr is only an apparent
exception (v. 114), and the same is the case with the precatives
IV E 7, 46, 48 a, which, of course, are to be read likkalip, lippa-
sir. For the 1. pers. plur. with cohortative signification v.
Syntax 145.
2) Precative forms from the permansive I have
as yet found only for the 3. and 2. persons. 3. pers. lu

atib 'may he dwell', lu balit lu sa-lim (III R 66 rev.
23 c), 'may his rule ina dumki lu bullul be crowned (lit.
poured over) with favour' (V R 33 col. VII 15), 'may
hill and valley lu na-sii-nik-ka biltu bring thee tribute'
(Nimr. Ep. 43, 17), lu emit kima Hani 'may they be like
the gods' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 183). 2. pers. atta aganna
lu a-ba-ta (Assurb. Sm. 125, 64), lu ta-mat 'be cursed';
fern, lu sak-na-a-ti, lu na-sa-a-ti (IV R 63, 54 f. b). -
Note finally the concurrence of the two sorts of pre-
catives in V R 33 col. VII 12 f.: umesu lu ar-ku sand-
tesu lerikd.
The imperative is formed from the preterite by 94,
suppressing the preformative, the first radical, which
has thus been rendered vowelless, being supplied with
a helping vowel. The vowel of the second radical is
preserved unchanged. This explains, in the augmented
stems, the relation of the imper. II 1 kassid to the
pret. ukassid, I 2 kitdSad (and with syncope - - cf.
88, b kitsad) to iktdsad, III 2 sutaksid to mtaklid,
likewise of IV 1 naksid to ikkasid (i. e. inkasid). The
form kassid of the imper. of II 1 is at the bottom of
all the impers. of verbs med. ^ and, hence ka-in, ken\
elsewhere, however, this form has been gradually sup-
planted by the form kussid, which is to be explained
by the influence of the u of the preformative. In fact,
in the case of the imper. Ill 1, so far as the strong

verb is concerned, we no longer find a single instance
of sakSid, which must be also assumed as the original
form of this imper.; we always find instead the form
sukSid, and only verbs primae 4 5 and primae 1 the
latter in this respect following the analogy of the
former take (as we might expect from the pret.)
sezib (pret. usezib) and sebil (pret. uSebil), sometimes
suzib and subil. The imperatives of the Qal in verbs
primae 1 reject the whole of the u of the pret., that
is, the first radical as well as the preformative, hence
Sib, bil. The strong verbs and verbs tertiae infirmae
take for their helping vowel the vowel of the second
syllable: kusud, pikid, sabat', misi, piti, siti, munu. So
too verbs primse 5, which in addition allow their 3 to
disappear in the spiritus lenis: usur, idin. Only verbs
primse tf in order, perhaps, to differentiate them
from verbs primse 3 take a, sometimes modified to
, as the vowel of the first radical, hence akul, amur\
alik', etik, epu$\ erub.
The imper. is inflected for gender and number in
precisely the same way as the preterite. We also find
in the imper. the 2. m. sing, used promiscuously for
the 2. fern. : kiddki su-hi-ir-sum-ma 'incline (0 goddess)
thy side to him' (K. 4623 obv. 19), sullim alongside of
tibbi, usur alongside of kinni (V R 34 col. Ill 46. 47);
the 2. m. plur is also frequently found in a: a-ku-la

'eat ye', 'ye great gods, di-ni di-na grant me justice 1
(IV R 56, 14 a), us-ra-a-ma su-ub-bi-ta-nis-su-nu-tu
'give heed and take them prisoners' (K. 82, 22), etc.
The vowel a is the favorite ending of the 2. pers. m.
sing.: al-ka 'go to!' ir-ba 'enter', pi-ta-a 'open' (Desct.
obv.Uf.), subsd 'leave alone' (Neb. I 71), suptd 'cause
to open' (E. M. II 339), sul-U-ma 'let... succeed,
success to! (ibid.), su-sa-a 'bring out' (Desct. rev. 33);
also strengthened with m: su-ur-kam, m-ur-ka-am 'pre-
sent' (I R 52 No. 4 rev. 22. Bors. II 22 etc.).
For the formation of the participles the para- 95.
digms may be consulted; in the augmented sterns, they
are always formed from the pret. by means of the
preformative mu, the second radical, however, being
everywhere pronounced with i (cf. muktasidu notwith-
standing iktasad). For the infinitives of these stems?
see 88 b and note. The infs. sebum (primae K 4 ) and
sebulu (primae 1), alongside of siizubu, siisubu, are
doubtless due to the influence of the corresponding
forms of the pret. and imper. The part, of the Qal
has the form kdsidu; the inf. is kasddu (cf. 65 No. 11
and the note appended to No. 19). All the infs. have
both an active and a passive signification (cf. 89) ;
accordingly Soldi Hani, for example, 'the gods' carrying
off' may also denote their being carried off.

Strong Verbs*,
i. c. verbs with three strong radicals
including verbs mediae geminates not beginning
with X or 3 **
(See Paradigm B, 1).
96. Summary of the most common *** verbs with their
pronunciation in the preterite and present Qal (I 1)
and in the preterite of the Ifteal (I 2) :
Prel. u. a) Pres. a: Dpi 'cut off, tear', TQA*
'complete'! pato 'tear, rend in pieces', bjft 'gaze on',
bVi 'be subject, submit one's self, "IDT* 'name, an-
nounce, call', pT 'fill, equip, furnish thoroughly', qpT
'erect', DOrt* 'be mindful of, reflect', DID 'tramp down,
tread', n*o* 'bless (with ana, I 2 c. ace.), pray',

* The conjugation of the strong and weak triliteral verbs
is to be learned from the paradigms B, 1 12; 96116
are simply intended to serve as remarks to supplement the para-
** These are taken up with the verbs primae s and a, to which
they properly belong.
*** In 96. ff. and in S9. 102 etc. we have set down as
'the most common verbs' only such as are found in the Qal ; the
others find their place in the two sections respectively devoted to
the various classes of verbs. 'Verbs' that appear only in nominal
derivatives are excluded.
f The Assyrian verbs of which the first radical is marked by
an asterisk have the vowel of the present in the preter. of the
Ifteal as well; the same indication is given by the asterisk in 99
and 102. In other cases, where the pret. I 2 is found to have a
different vocalization from the pres. II, or where the latter is
still unknown to me, the vowel of the pres. I 2 is added in par-

'reach, capture, conquer', oro 'cover, overcome', YTa
'measure', ?HD ^overthrow', nbc 'sprinkle', ]BO (also
written ]Bflj) 'cover, overcome', IBS* 'cleave, tear in
pieces, release, etc.' o*)S* 'break, keep back, hinder',
ms 'release', OS and ono (very rarely ttho) 'be angry
with', BTO 'flay, tear in pieces', 1I3E 'write', pt>* 'lay.
make', bbtt* 'carry off, plunder', C]btJ 'tear out', -iSID*
'send', bptj 'weigh, pay', tpflj* 'burn' (act.), plft 'pre-
sent, lend', msn 'sieze, hold', *pn 'escape', -pn 'set
up, 'put or lay straight'.
b) Pres. : lib 'grow old', nm* 'bow, fall, lie
c) Pres. u: tsbn* 'live', 1SD* (^Bp?) 'reflect, plan',
nptt* 'fall, befall', nn& 'assemble', pm 'trust to',
'pour out', DE*i 'roar, thunder', "nn* 'lie down',
'howl, roar', Tin 'tremble'.
'cut through, cut off, separate', Tft 'run', nitl 'plunder,
boot' (pret. I 2: a). tDtan *cut into, dig', nttJn 'desire,
covet', bm 'break in pieces', rat: 'slaughter', into 'drive
away', ttJSD 'submit (one's self)', nsb 'surround; turn,
touch, overturn' (pret. I 2: ), npb 'take, take away',
"fttt 'be agreeable, obedient, gracious' (pret. 12: ), intt
'accept; go to meet, make up to, etc.' (pret. I 2: a),
'be sick', TOtt 'measure', nma 'set up', bnc 'pierce',
'turn' (verier e and 5^ verier e, pret. 12: w? see

98 under 1 3), HBO 'lay low, throw down', Ipo and
'talk, command etc., swear', p& 'tell lies', pB w break,
break into', pfi 'order', tJt&B 'rub in', 5p "colour, dye',
TTp 'bend down, bow' (pret. I 2 : w? see 98 under I 3),
ISp 'bind, unite firmly, collect', lip -offer', T"n 'per-
secute', OD1 'bind, unite firmly', ~ntD 'draw', 11SJ 'com-
mand', "JBTB 'pour out, heap up' (pret. I 2: #), qptJ 'set
up, plant', BITE 'make an incision, tear in pieces',
'pour out' (pret. I 2: #).
e) With a twofold pronunciation in the present:
'speak (secretly), talk, reflect' (iddbab and iddbub),
J5T 'rain' (izdnan and izdnuri). See also the 'Supple-
mentary Remarks'.
The follg. are known to me in the present only:
D-D" 'lament', Ttt 'oppress, press upon, be straitened',
]pn 'be firm, constant'; the vowel of the present in
all these verbs is u and points with certainty, in my
opinion, to u in the preterite as well.
Pret. i. a) Pres. /: boi 'cease, hold holiday', btt}
'keep perfect, unhurt; do good, grant (life)', tpn k be
or become strong', OftD 'bow, prostrate one'sself, *iDD
'fence round, divide off', pb 'to fall on one's face;
make bricks', ^jbtt* 'advise, take counsel, resolve',
'arrange, put in order, range in order of battle,
'throw, cast down', pDD ^squeeze, press together', IpB*
'take care; commit, entrust; appoint', "jliJB 'destroy,

*N -

blot out', n^ip* 'draw near, approach (to battle)',
'break in pieces', DbiE 'be well, be uninjured', (applied
to money:) 'be paid', also 'be carried to completion'.
V) Present as yet unknown: p*Q 'lighten', bran
'boil', Dtth 'be good; beautify, set up', pbn 'perish;
flee' (pret. I 2: /), ]nft 'protect, help', *QD 'be or be-
come large', ODD 'cut in pieces', T3ttb (D, A, p?) 'cut
down, fell', 5]ttb 'employ charms, bewitch one', *oo
'close, stop', abo 'turn towards, take pity on', -pfc
'bar, bolt', pn& 'form, create, build', Tas 'harness,
yoke', pin 'encamp, lie in wait', fm 'overflow, flood',
qn 'join, arrange, etc.', tOptJ 'ruin, destroy, slay'.
The follg. are known to me in the present only:
bit 'bring, carry', bin 'destroy', DDfi 'understand', n^tt
'cover, hide, bury', *ap 'bury', ^0^ 'strike, break in
pieces', tsntJ 'strike, kill', rTlttJ 'walk' (pret. 12: i): the
vowel of the present of these verbs is i, from which
we may best infer that the preterite was also in i.
Pret. a. a) Pres. # : ^rab 'learn', -fTTH 'strike, break
in pieces' (pret. I 2: /, more rarely ; cf. im-ta-ha-as
III R 4 No. 1, 29 etc., ?w-tf-g-[sw] Assurb. Sm. 89,
28), fibs* 'be afraid', TO5 u caltn one's self, niS* 'take',
'mount, drive, ride', bin* 'take away'.
&) Present as yet unknown: bbs 'lie down'.
The follg. are known to me in the p resent only:
'compete with, be equal with one' (pret. I 2: a) ;

from a being the vowel of the present we may infer
that the pret. had either a or u.
A twofold pronunciation is found in the pret.
Qal of the follg. verbs: u and *, TZJDD 'submit one's self
(iknus, v. supra, but V R 65 col. II 45: iknis)\ a and
u: ras 'sieze' (isbat, v. sup. but, especially in Assurb.
and Shalm., isbut)', i and a: bDln 'trust' takes at-kil
(e. g. V E 3, 127) and at-kal (e. g. I R 49 col. IV 2).
[Among those known to me in the pret. I 2 only
are istdmar 'he kept', iStdpil 'he was lowly'].
97. Pret. (Qal): For imkut and ikkut v. 49, a. For
forms of the 1. pers. sing, like eptik for aptik v. 34, a.
In the imper. an exception to the rule given in 94
is found in li-mad 'learn' (IV R 17, 44 c, cf. lim-di, fern.,
and Jim-da, plur., IV R 56 obv. 14); we should expect
lamad: has a perhaps been modified to i as in the
comparatively rare permansives niksu ni-ki-si =
nekisi, nakisi, V R 53, 14 a, or as in lemnit 'she is wicked'
(v. sup. p. 164 and cf. 35)? For in fins, with um-
laut in the 2. or in the 1. and 2. syllables, like nameru,
sekeru v. 32, y (p. 83) and 34, p. Presents with
modification (umlaut) of the accented d, like tekebir
mentioned in 34, a, are rare; other two examples
will be found in 98 (cf. 101). On the other hand
the interchange of a and e is very common in the
augmented stems: for ukas&d as a variant of ukeUd

(ukesid^), and for the forms II 2 ustepil, luptehir see
33, for utaksid, useksid, muSaknisu, musekniSu, also
for the forms III 2 ustashir, ulteshir 34, a. For the
accenting of the syllable ta in I 2, and of na in I 3
see 53, a, and for the accenting of the 2. syllable of
the present in IV 1 v. ibid. For forms like iptekid v.
34, a, for assabat, akterib, agddmar, amddhar 48,
for attahar 49, a, for asakan = aslakan (also III 2
ussibila = ustebild) 51, 2. For the vowel of the se-
pond radical in the pret. I 2, which is in most cases
0, but which, like the a of the pres. Qal, is in many cases
influenced by the vocalisation of the pret. Qal, 96
(also 99 and 102) must be consulted in each in-
dividual instance. As to the vowel of the corresponding
syllable in the pres. 12, I do not as yet venture to
formulate a rule for those verbs which have a vowel
other than a in the preterite, notwithstanding ibta-
lat, V R 53 No. 4 rev. In the pres. I 3 the second
radical has mostly, while the vowel of the pret. I 3
seems to follow the pret. I 2; this vowel is then oc-
casionally retained for the pres. which in this way
becomes completely identical with the pret. Examples
will be found in 98 (cf. also 101). The pret. II 2
takes i with the second radical, the pres. takes a:
uktaSsid, but uktaSsad. I fail to see the reason why
the tablet V R 45, which confines itself to 2. pers.

sing. masc. of presents, should place tu-uh-ta-bal along-
side of tu-uh-tan-ni-ib, tu-uh-tar-rib etc. (col. I): in
other texts I have not met with a single thoroughly
attested present II 2 with i after the second radical.
It is, however, worthy of note, that the form we should
naturally expect, viz. tuhtabbal begins the series of
forms from the stem II 2: is it the case, perhaps,
that a single slip in line 20 has caused all the subse-
quent forms to be written with i after the second
radical? The vocalization of stem IV 1 calls for no
remark : just as in II 1 and III 1 a preterite signifi-
cation attaches, without exception, to ukaSSid, usaksid
and a present signification to ukassad, usaksad, so
we find it the case with ikkasid on the one hand and
ikkdsad on the other. The only exception is with the
stem ms 'rage, be in a passion', which has issarih
and issaruh in the pret. IV 1 (III R 15 col. I 2. II 13:
is-sa-ri-ih, VR 1, 64: is-sa-ru-uh). The pret. IV 2, has
as a rule, an a after the second radical: ittaskan 'it
was done, came to pass', it-ta-ad-lah 'was disturbed'
(IV R 11, 2 a), littapras 'let escape'. Forms like it-
tah-kim (III R 51 No. 9, 25), and it-tas-kin (IV R 52,
19 b) appear to be less common; so with i-ta-am-gur,
which is a present, it is true ('is graciously received,
is courteous 1 IV R 67, 55 a), but points to a pret. it-
tamgur. For infs. IV 2 like itaktumu = nitaktumu v.

49, b, end. The vocalization of the pret. and pres.
IV 3 may be learned, meanwhile, from the examples
in 98 (cf. also 101): a appears to be the ordinary
vowel in the pres., a form like ittanarhis being rather
Verbs mediae geminatae are, in general, con-
jugated quite regularly, like the strong verbs (cf. 63).
Even in the permansive of the Qal, which otherwise
has its peculiar inflexion (v. 87 and cf. 89), we
find, after the analogy of the strong verbs, forms like
sa-lil 'he lies' (IV R 23, 28 a; in the relative clause,
however, we find immediately thereafter sa sal-lum,
ibid.) It is to be expected that, in cases where the
two identical radicals are separated merely by a short
vowel, contraction should frequently take place, ac-
companied by the syncope of the intervening vowel.
To the examples given in 37, b, viz. sa i-da-bu 'who
will speak' (III R 43 col. Ill 5) and astattum add a-
sa-la (= aMlala, Shalm. Ob. 129), i-za-an-nu 'they
fulfil' (=izdnanu, Nerigl. I 27 etc.), it-tar-ru 'they
trembled', at-ta-ri 'I trembled' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 87), lit-
tar-ri 'let (him etc.) tremble' (V R 65 col. II 44), ir-
tam-ma-am-ma 'he thundered' (= irlamumamma, Nimr.
Ep. XI, 94), kud-da-a-ta (= kudduddta, cf. kuddu 89
under II 1), 'the eastern canal which with heaps of
dust iz-za-an-nu-u-ma imlu (= izzaninu-ma, I R 52 No. 4

obv. 17), ip-pa-as-$u 'they were anointed' (= ippa&Su,
V R 6, 21), uhtassi 'he is cut off' (== uhtasasi, IV R 3,
6 a), etc.
98. Noteworthy miscellaneous forms:*
I 1. Perm, lit pa-as-sa-a-ti (IV R 63, 63 b), la-an-
na (3. plur. f., IV R 27, 17 a). Pret.-pres. lil-ku-tum
L inay they snatch away' (IV R 41, 37 c), ni-ip-kl-dak-
ka, ta-pa-kid-da-na-U (Nimr. Ep. 20, 18 f.). a-da-bu-bu
'I am talking' (IV R 68, 18 b), i-dib-bu-ba (prop.idebuba)
'he speaks' (IV R 67, 69 a), i-hi-ib-bil 'he will bring to
shame' (IV R 52 No. 1, 42). Imp. ku-su-ud 'subdue'
(V R 2, 99), ma-ha-as 'break in pieces' (Desct. rev. 31),
pi-kid-su 'command him' (IV R 4, 45 b), pi-ik-dan-ni
'command me' (Sm. 949 obv. 4), pi-sit 'destroy' (IV R
12, 35), hu-ub-ta-a-nu 'spoil ye' (K. 10 obv. 11).
II 1. I m p. lu-(ub-)bi(V. be)-ir 'let... become old'
(V R 65 col. II 24), ku-di-da-an-ni 'incline me', ru-ub-
bi-si 'increase' (fern., E. M. II 296), suh-hi-ra-ni pa-ni-
ku-nu 'turn (0 ye gods) your face' (K. 143 obv.), but
also ra-am-me-ik 'pour out' (Desct. rev. 48), ra-si-pan-ni
'strike, pierce me through' (V R 7, 35). Inf. rupputu
III 1. Pret. u-tim-kit'l threw down' (Tig. V71etc.;

* The forms of the permansive and preterite in this and the
follg. are to be compared throughout with 89 and 93 re-

kit sign 9 No. 11), usazin 'I caused to rain' (u-$a-
za-nin do., Assurn. II 106. Shalm. Mo. rev. 68, must
be III 11, cf. 85), Hsaznin 'may he fill up'; Imp. Sub-
til (IV R 16, 35 b), sur-si-di 'establish firmly' (fern.).
Inf. suknusu 'to subdue', suklulu 'to complete'.
IV 1. Pret. v. 97 and note it-ti-kil 'he entrusted'
(Assurn.) alongside of ittakil, ih-hi-kim (III R 51 No.
9, 20). Pres. 'the land ik-kas-sad will be subdued'
(III R 65, 22 a). Imp. nag-mir 'be carried out, com-
pleted' (IV R 13, 43 a), natkil 'entrust' (I R 35 No. 2,
12). Inf. na-gar-ru-ru, na-lal-lu-lu (II R 27, 1,3. 16b;
for namurratu, which presupposes an inf. form namurru,
v. 88, b, note), but more usually (cf. 88, b)
nalbubu, naplusu 'see', napsuru 'be released', nashuru
'inclination, favour'.
12. Pret. in-da-kut 'it fell' (IV R 53 No. 2, 20),
ik-tan-su-us 'they fell down before him' (K. 133). For
asuhra 'I turned back' v. 101 note (on 12). Pres.
ap-tal-la-hu 'I worship' (rel., Assurb. Sm. 103, 46). Is
is-tam-da-hu (i. e. istddahu, Shalm. Mo. obv. 10) pres.
or pret. ? The latter elsewhere appears as istamdih (cf.
e. g. Senhb. Ill 76). Imp. sitakkam (Nimr. Ep. XI, 200)
and pit-lah (Assurb. Sm. 74, 17); on the existence side
by side of such forms cf. 94. Part, mug-da-dl-ru
'strong' (IV R 21, 60 a), mu-un-dag-ri 'obedient' (IV
R 20 No. 1 obv. 6). Inf. si-tah-hu-tu (K. 4329), M-
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 18

tan-nu-bu, pi-tas-su-lum (V R 19, 37 d), sitamduhu (i. e.
sitdduhu) 'go (on foot), go' (of chariots, Esarh. IV 59),
si-tar-ru-ru 'shine', si-ta-du-du (V R 42, 48 d), mi-tan-
gu-gu (II R 20, 53 d) and (cf. 88, b) git-pu-lu (II R
38, 3h), sitnunu 'rival'. Perm, 'which mi-tah-hu-ru he
received as price' (IIIR 41 col. I 30). 'Nebuchadnezzar
who, for the purpose of giving battle, kit-pu-da emu-
kdsu collected his forces' (V R 55, 7).
II 2. Pret. uptattir 'was burst' (Neb. Bors. II 3),
uptarris 'he tolcf lies' (Beh. 90 ff.), also uptassitu (rel.,
V R 56, 33). Pres. uktassar 'he collected himself
(circumstantial clause, V R 5, 76), uktannasu 'I gather,
collect' (rel., Neb. Grot. Ill 30). Inf. pu-tal-lu-su
(Zurich. Voc. col. IV 35).
III 2. Pret. us-tam-M-ir 'he went to meet' (IV R
26, 12 b). Inf. si-tap-ru-su 'spread out (Assurn. Ill
26), the only occurrence known to me. The infs. su-
tesuru etc. would lead us to expect sutaksudu as the
form of the infinitive.
IV 2. Pret. v. 97. Part, muttaprisu 'flying, that
soars'. Inf. itaktumu (V R 41, 58. 61 d), i-tap-lu-su
'see' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 88), i-ta-as-lu-ru (II R 20, 23 d),
cf. i-tag-ru-ur-rum (II R 62, 17 d) with peculiar ac-
13. Pret. ihtanabbat 'he plundered', istanappara
'he had sent' (V R 2, 111), im-da-na-ah-Jia-ru 'they

received' (Senhb. Bell. 38) ; i-ta-na-ku-tu-ni 'they felP
(Shalm. Mo. rev. 73) ; from ik-ta-na-ad-du-ud 'he bowed
down' (V R 31, 26 h or pres. ?) may we conclude that
u was the vowel of the pret. 1 2 and also of the pres. II?
Pres. is-ta-na-kan (IVR26, 63 b), ip-ta-na-la-hu 'they
worship' (V R 6, 37) ; i-ta-na-ar-ra-ru 'they tremble' (IV
R 28, 10 b), but also is-sa-na-ah-hu-ru (rel., IV R 16,
45 a, cf. Ill R 54, 30 c) this surely points to pret. I 2
and to pres. I 1 in w? id-di-nl-ib-ltu-ub (i. e. idde-
, nebub, iddandbub) 'he thought' (V R 35, 6).
IV 3. Pret. idd-a-a it-ta-na-as-ha-ru (sic) 'they
declared themselves on my side' (III R 15 col. I 26) y
but also it-ta-nab-rik 'it has lightened' (IV R 3, 4 a),
Pres. at-ta-na-as-har 'I turn' (IV R 10, 6b), it-ta-nap-
ras 'it flies', it-ta-nag-ra-ra 'he roams about' (IV R 3,
I8&),it-ta-na-as-ra-tu (Assurb. Sm. 127,81), ittanaUal',
rarely i-ta-na-ar-hi-is 'will inundate' (III R 61, 11 a).
Verbs primae D.
(See Paradigm B, 2).
Summary of the most common verbs with the 99.
characteristic vowel of the preterite and present Qal
(I 1) and of the preterite Ifteal (I 2) :
Pret. u. a) Pres. a: bt:D* 'behold, regard*), HOD

*) For the meaning of the asterisk with the first radical see
note f to 96 on p. 264.

'pull out, remove forcibly', f&3 'overwhelm, destroy',
12D* 'keep, watch over, protect', npS* 'demolish, lay
V) Pres. u : "pi 'set, lay, do', EJBD 'widen, expand;
breathe' (pret. 12:0), tni 'restrain one's self (?, II 1
'restrain, hinder, impede, etc.').
c) Pres. as yet unknown: blD 'destroy' (pret.
I 2: ), JIBS 'come up, come out', fi&D 'kindle, fan'
(pret. I 2: ), ^Ei 'bite'.
The follg. are known to me in the pres. only:
HOD 'scream, call (indgag}, ntJi 'tear to pieces' (indSar)
and DOS 'lament' (indsus, from which we may infer-
especially as regards ODD that the pret. was in u).
Pret. i. a) Pres. i: pi* 'give', pt&i* 'kiss' (I 2 'to
arm for battle').
V) Pres. as yet unknown: t3M 'shine' (pret. I 2:
t), DTi 'weep, lament', bDi 'be treacherous, cunning',
ODi 'cut down', iDi 'be different, hostile, rebel' (pret.
I 2: e), *VBS 'be or become bright, shine' (pret. I 2: i),
bro 'lie' (pret. I 2: e). Cf. also TTi 'stand, rise, tread'
(pret. I 2 : ?), for the pres. of which, izzaz, compare
The follg. verb is known to me in the pres. only:
DDD 'heap up' (indkim).
Cf. also the follg. doubly weak verbs: ^i 'be
exalted, raise, praise'; b 2 i 'lie down' (cf. 105); 8^3


'announce', fc^ttJD 'take, bear'; 2 M 'shine, rejoice'; K 4 OD
'remove, take one's departure'; n"ft 'throw, lay, do',
np3 'empty, pour out, offer (in sacrifice)' (cf. 108).
For the hollow verbs primse D se'e 114.
The pres. (and the same applies to the perm., 100.
part., and inf.) of the Qal, as likewise the stems II 1
and IV 1 present no peculiarity. For the assimila-
tion of n in the forms issur, ittdsar, usakkar (=usan-
kar) etc. v. 49, b; orthographical varieties like akis,
.abul, akur, asuh, a-ki (I R 27 No. 2, 10) instead and
alongside of akkis, abbul etc. are to be explained ac-
cording to 22. For the loss of the n in the spiritus
lenis in the imper. I 1 and in the inf. I 2 (II 2), v. ^
49, b (p. 117). For a variety of other points see
the quotations in 97. A series of forms from stems
pa and TTD which are due to analogy deserves special
notice. From pD we find in the pres. Qal. the regular
forms, inddin, inamdin, but alongside of these we often
find the form iddan, formed directly from the pret. ;
in the case of TT5 this metaplastic form is the only
one in use (cf. 90, a, note). Cf. ta-ad-dan-na-ma
'thou wilt give and' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 246), 'the goddess
who ta-da-nu-u-ni bestows' (V R 53, 56 d), a-da-an-na
'I bestow', a-da-na 'I give up' (IV R 68, 22 c. 33 a),
a-dan-nak-ka 'I will bestow on thee' (ibid. 58 c) it is
very striking that in Beh. and NR iddan is also used



as pret.: id-dan-nu 'he has bestowed' (Beh. 4. 11,
cf. NR 21), in-da-na-as-su-nu-tu 'he gave them' (Beh.
96) ; cf. also izzaz 'he stands, advances' (oft.), i-za-
zu-u-ni 'they stand' (Assurn. I 105). The pret. Ill 1
of TTD is usdziz (Assurb. Sm. 224, 46) and useziz,
from which we get usziz (v. 37 end) and ulziz (v. 51,
3); usdziz may be explained as a form due to the
analogy of verbs primae tf, but the conjecture men-
tioned in 52 seems to me preferable. Then from
useziz there seems to have been formed an infinitive
u-zu-zu 'stand' (e. g. S 309, u-zu-uz-zu IV R 5, 67 a)
and a participle muzziz, cf. mu-uz-zi-iz mdh-re-ku 'who
stands before thee' (V R 65 col. II 32). Very difficult
to explain is the infinitive and permansive form
u$uzzu, usuz, which cannot, in my opinion, be separ-
ated from nazdzu : inf. u-su-uz-zu 'be placed' (V R 66
col. I 27); perm, u-su-uz 'he stood' (IV R 34, 44),
u-su-uz-zu 'they were set up' (Beh. 34), 'so long as they
u-su-(uz-)zu remained in Assyria' (V R 3, 94). The
same is true of the following forms, resembling the
Ittafal, which are derived from those just mentioned:
Ittilu it-ta-si-iz-zu 'they have placed themselves on his
side' (K. 10 rev. 20), it-ta-si-iz (3. m. sing., V R 55, 42),
itti bel daMbi'a ta-ta-si-iz-za 'ye have placed your-
selves on the side of my calumniator' (IV R 52, 32 a) etc.

Noteworthy miscellaneous forms: 101,
I 1. Pret. ni-id-din 'we gave', ta-zi-iz 'she stood'
(III R 15 col. I 23), lu-ut-tul 'would that I might see'
(IV R 66, 55 a). Pres. inamdin 'he gives', a-nam-sar
'I keep watch' (IV R 53 No. 2, 22 f.), ni-na-sar (V R
54, 15. 16 b), ul i-nir-ru-ta (i. e. ineruta) sepdka 'shall
not restrain thy feet' (Assurb. Sm. 125, 69). Imp. usuh
'be off!', us-ra-a-ma 'keep ye watch and' (K. 82, 22),
i-zi-zi 'halt!' (fern. Desct. obv. 23), i-ziz-za-am-ma 'Up!
(0 Shamash', IV R 17, 22 b), i-zi-za-nim-ma 'Go to!
(0 ye gods, IV R 56, 13 a).
II 1. Pret. u-na-kip 'she pushed, threw down'
(with her horns V R 9, 78). Part, munarritu and mu-
nirritu 'impeding, opposing' (V R 6, 72; also in the
name of the rampart of the city of Ashur: Munirriti
kibrdti, Shalm. Throne Inscr. Ill 7).
III 1. Pret. u-sa-as-si-ku 'he put on' (rel., Fragm.
18 obv. 14). Pres. u-sa-az-za-ka 'they will bring to
shame' (fern., Ill R 61, 52 a), tu-sa-an-mar (V R 45
col. VI 49). Inf. sii-uk-kur diirdnisu (III R 60, 84),
sumkuru (v. 49, b on p. 117).
IV 1. Pret. U-in-na-pi-is 'let it be pulled to pieces'
(IV R 7, 35 etc.). Pres. in-na-ga-ru 'they will be laid
waste', in-na-as-sa-ah 'it is freed from chains' (IV R
4, 6 b), innamdaru 'they rage' (v. 52). Inf. nanduru
'to rage'.

12. Pret. lit-tan-bit 'may he shine' (IV R 4, 41 b,
cf. 52), lu-ut-ta-mir 'may I shine' (IV R 64, 14 b),
ni-(it-)ta-sar, lit-la-at-ta-la 'may they behold', it-ta-kir
'he rebelled', it-te-ik-ru- (plur., Beh. 30), ni-it-te-ki-
ru-us. Part, mut-ta-ad-di-na-at (fern., II R 55, 6 d),
muttakputum 'wandering, roaming' (plur.). Inf. it-
pu-su and(i;. 88,b) i-tap-pu-su (K. 4386 col. Ill 43. 44),
itaributu 'to shine' (VR42,45d), itanpuhu (ibid. 1. 47 d).
The form so often occurring in Assurn. and Shalm., a(t)-tu-
mus, a(t)-tu-mus, a(t)-tum-mus, at-tum-sa 'I set out', 3. pers. it-iu-
mus, is derived from the stem ^ED (II 1 pres. u-nam-mas, cf. V R
45 col. V 43) from which are also derived namwassu 'worms' and
nammastu 'every living thing' (IV B 19, 4 b, where it is repre-
sented by the ideogram for human beings!): attumus stands for
attamits, which is also found (Assurn. Ill 14); the vowel of the
third syllable has found its way into the second. Attuma is =
attumusa; precisely the same Ifteal form is found from the stem
"iMO, viz: a-su-uh-ra 'I turned back'=assii/mr, and, like the pre-
ceding, occurs in Assurn. (Ill 31. 45). As we may infer from
the pres. I 3: isscwahur, the pret. I 2 of "ittb was originally issd-
hur (issahra, issahruni theiefore=issahura, issahuruni), which,
in the language of every-day life became issuhur.
II 2. Pret. ut-ta-as-si-ih 'he has torn off' (Nimr.
Ep. 9, 10). Pres. uttakkar 'it is changed' (e.g. Assurn.
1 5), uttappas 'it will be wide, extended' (II R 47, 18 a).
For the forms utul (perm.), utidu (inf.) v. 104 on 112.
13. Pret. 'his horns are like the rising of the
sun, which it-ta-na-an-U-tii has risen in glory' (IV R
27, 22 a, cf. 52). Pres. it-ta-na-za-zu, it-ta-nam-za-

(az)-zu 'they advance' (IV R 2, 56. 17 b), Id ta-at-ta-
nam-za-az 'advance not' (IV R 30 No. 3).
IV 3. Pres. 'lions it-ta-na-da-ru will rage' (III R
60, 64), it-ta-nam-da-ra-nin-ni 'they are angered at me,
rise up against me' (IV R 66, 54 b, cf. 52), also
written i-ta-nam-dar 'he rages' (II R 28, 11 a).
Verbs prinue gutturalis.*)
(See Paradigms B, 3 and 4; for altiku in particular No. 5.)
Of verbs primae K 2 the most frequently occurring, 102.
viz. aldku 'go', with its various peculiarities, is to be
learned from paradigm B, 5, compared with 47
(for forms like illik, allik, ittdlak), 38, b (for ittak)
and 42. For a few of the more important references
see 104 note. The other verb primae $ 2, eru 'be
with child', as also the verbs primaa tf 3 in regard to
which, especially as to the nature of their s, there is
still considerable uncertainty, are found so rarely,
comparatively speaking, in the Qal, that we may deal
with them here by anticipation: rntf 2, pret. i-ra-an-ni
'she conceived me' (prop, 'was pregnant with me')
(III R 4, 57 a), inf. eru. thx 3 'be new', pret. edis,
inf. edesu (only Nimr. Ep. XI, 235 cf. 241); t&K 8? 'to

*) In the case of verbs primae and mediae s, primae and mediae
i and, and those tertise infirmse we have departed in the follg.
, for good reasons, from the division carried out in the paradigms.

harvest', pret. esidi 'I harvested' (Assurn. II 117 etc.),
inf. esedu\ 1K 3? 'bring together 1, also 'to take in', esp.
by means of the sense of smell, hence 'to smell', pret.
Ssin, isin, also written e-si-en (Nimr. Ep. XI, 77 ff.),
inf. esenu; *ntf 3 'be hot, be dried up', pres. irrur (III R
64, 9 bete.), *\W$ 3? 'collect', pret. e-sii-ra 'he brought
together' (Senhb. V 30), inf. asdru (=sanaku, Frgm.4
obv.); tJtOX 8 '^ e sorrowful, troubled, bring sorrow
upon', pret. i-su-us (K. 3657 col. I 9), pres. 'the sick-
ness which i-as-sa-su brings sorrow upon the land'
(IV E 1, 42 c), inf. asdsu. The Piel, Shafel etc. from
these stems do not call for special notice since they
are identical with those of the other primse tf verbs ;
a few other verbs primee 8 S, found almost exclusively
in the Piel etc., will be mentioned in 104, especially
bD 3 'be troubled, sad'.
Summary of the most common verbs primse ^
and tf 4>5, with the characteristic vowel of the pret. and
pres. Qal (I 1) and of the preter. Ifteal (I 2):
K! (including a few verbs, of which it is not ety-
mologically certain whether the tf = tf or T\ or fii):
Pret. u, pres. a,\ ra^* 'to destroy'*), Tltf? 'be afraid,
fear; be oppressed; be darkened', TH^j 'sieze, take',
j 'eat', bb^j 'bind', "itt^i* 'see', bs^j 'answer, retort';

*) For the meaning of the asterisk with the first radical see
note f to 96 on p. 264.


of *p8 ? 'turn, reverse', -Q^ 'be strong', ^K ? 'be irri-
tated, angry', IJ^ 'hire', n^ 'curse' (pret. 12 itdrar)
the present is unknown to me (presumably likewise
pronounced with a). Pret. i 9 pres. i\ ^^ 'clothe,
cover over', tha^* 'ask, request'; of lltf? 'be bright,
shine' (pret. I 2 itdbiV), bbtf ? do., tD5i 'be or become
weak', 10^ 'shut up ; enclose, overlay', ^pfc^ 'be long',
the present is unknown to me (presumably likewise
pronounced with i). Pret. a 9 pres. a: nD^ 'decay,
fall off, become weary'.
tf 4-5 : Pret. u, pres. u: tJ5tf 4? * 'make' (pret. I 2
takes both u and a, just as we find here and there epas
in the pres. Qal, I R 27 No. 2, 46. 55); ma 5 * 'enter'.
Pret. if pres. i\ *QK 4 * 'cross, set across, pass', nt&C
'leave, leave behind', It]tf 4 'cover, protect, preserve in
safety', ^tifc^* 'stand; place, lay upon', pfitf 4 * 'march,
derange, advance'; of blX 4? 'to bolt, bar' (pret. I 2
e-te-dif), DDK 4? 'take, take away', pbtf 4 'rejoice' (pret.
I 2 /te'fe), -Chi*? 'smell', TD^^g 'plant', the present is
unknown to me (presumably likewise pronounced
with i).
A twofold pronunciation is found in the pret.
Qal of TTK 4 'be angry, irritated': pret. ezuz (izuz) and
eziz (iziz), pres. izzuz, I 2 pret. iteziz.
Cf. also the doubly weak verbs rn3tf 5 'be clouded,
dark' (inf. etu), nb 4 (^b 4 ) 'go up, mount', nttX 4 'be,


make equal', H2tf 4 'bend, oppress, do violence to' (cf.
108). For the 'hollow' verbs primse X see 114.
In the case of verbs primae X it must be kept in mind that
the vowel of the pret. and pres. I 1 (and I 2) may, ace. to 35,
have arisen by modification (Umlaut) from a.
103. For the general treatment of the breath (ffauch-
laut) in verbs primae tf see 47; on the fact that
verbs primae tf 4>5 are more inclined to the modification
of a to, and of a to e than are those primse x x (td-
kul, dkul, but tepus, epus\ akdlu, dkilu, but epesu, episu\
imp. akul, but erub', perm, abit, but epus, etc.) v. partly
32, p and 7. 34, p and y, partly 42. That verbs
primse X x are not complete strangers to this phonetic
change, and that, on the other hand, even verbs primse
tf 4. 5 on occasion preserve the d pure, we may learn
from the paradigms and from the examples in 104.
Pret. Qal. For ekul*=iekul=i&kul (ia'kuT) v. 90, a
and 41, b. For the interchange of e-gug and i-gu-ug
'he was irritated' (V R 1, 64. I R 49 col. I 19), e-bu-uk
'he reversed' (Khors. 79) and i-bu-uk (Khors. 122),
e-zi-bu and i-zi-bu 'they quitted', i-mur, i-kul, i-ni-su
'he had become weak' (VR 62 No. 2, 55), i-ru-bu (VR
55, 48) etc. v. 30; e remains, however, in the ma-
jority of cases. Pres. For the interchange of i-'a-ab-
ba-tu (I R 27 No. 2, 57, without ' V R 62, 28) and
ib-ba-tu (V R 10, 116) v. 38, b. The orthography

Id te-zi-ba a-a-am-ma 'leave none in life' (M. 55 col.
I 21) points to tezzib, 3. m. ezzib\ for this reason ep-
pus (ippus), errub (irrub) etc. were adopted for the
paradigm. They are all formed directly from the
pret. (v. 90, a, note), the vowel of the preformative
being sharpened in consequence of the now suppres-
sed but originally accented a after the first radical.
We also find similar forms among verbs primse fc^;
cf. en-na-Jiu (Senhb. VI 67), e-na-hu (IV R 45, 11. Tig.
VIII 55) alongside of the regular and usual innaJi ; in
addition to ihhaz 'he takes' we find once (K. 183 1. 18)
ilihuz (ehhuz). Note also the curious form 'whoever
e-ma-ru shall see the tablet' (Assurn. Balaw. rev. 18.
21). (For orthographical varieties like ta-kal 'thou
wilt eat', IV R 68, 62 a, v. 22). For the imp er. see
the examples 104. For the infin., which is some-
times amdru, abdku, agdgu, addru 'fear', akdlu fa and
K 3 ), ardku 'be long', apdlu, sometimes eresu fa), eseru
'shut up', enesu (^ x ), edesu ( 8 ) and practically with-
out exception epeSu, erebu (^ 4>5 ) v. 32, y (p. 83).
34, p. Augmented stems. Pret. and pres. II 1 : for
the interchange of the forms u'abbit and ubbit, u'abbat
and ubbat v. 38, b. For sezib (imp. Ill 1) alongside
of Suzib, seburu (inf. Ill 1) alongside of the more
frequent suzubu (cf. 94. 95), see the references in
104. For the forms of the infinitive and perman-

sive IV 1 nanduru = naduru^ nankullat = ndkulat and
related forms v. 52 compared with 11. For the
te of the second syllable of the stem I 2: itebir, itepus,
iterub, etetik 'I marched' alongside of etdpus, etdrub,
etdtik (Lay. 43, 1) and in contrast to itdmar, along-
side of which, however, we also find eteris, v. 34, a
and cf. 42. For the third pers. pret. I 2 of verbs
primae K 4 5 there are two forms: one with i in the
first syllable (cf. iktdsad], e. g. i-te-pu-us (Beh. 49),
i-tep-pu-$u (III R 15 col. II 21), i-te-ip-$u 'they have
exercised' (Beh. 3); i-te-ru-ub 'he went in' (IV R 28,
24 b), i-ter-ba (K. 562 1. 20), and one with e in the
first syllable (a few examples of this form were given
above, 34, a, note), e. g. e-te-zib 'he left behind'
(Nimr. Ep. XI, 281), ettti 'he ascended', plur. etelu,
e-tab-ru 'they crossed', e-te-it-ti-ku 'they marched' (V
R 8, 86), etepus 'he made' (also e-tap-pa-a, Shalm.
Mo. rev. 63). The latter form appears to have been
the only one in use in the first (and second, in my
opinion, exx. 104) person sing.: cf. e-te-ti-ik 'I
marched' (Tig. II 77), e-te-bir 'I crossed', e-te-el-la-a
'I ascended' (Senhb. IV 1 1), e-te-pu-u, 0(var. i)-te-ip-
pu-su (rel.), also etappas (Assurn. II 6, e-tap-as III 29);
the form a-tap-pa-as, as already remarked 34, a,
note, is quite unique. These forms with e in the first
syllable re-appear in the present of I 2 and in I 3

(v. 104). In the. third person one might be tempted
to regard e as incorrect orthography for i (v. 30),
but the cases where it occurs are too numerous for
such a supposition; in the 1. pers. sing., again, one
might regard e as modified from a under the influence
of the 84.5. It seems better, however, to explain the
e of the 3. and 1. persons by one and the same mo-
tive, namely a tendency on the part of the Ifteal to
adopt the corresponding forms of the Qal (v. 90 b,
note). The e of the pret. and pres. I 2 would then
have further influenced certain forms of the impera-
tive and infinitive 12 (v. 104) with e in the first
syllable. It is, moreover, remarkable that without ex-
ception, so far as my knowledge goes, the t in these
reflexives is written but once, e. g. : itdmar, itebir,
iUli, nitdmar, never ittdmar, ittebir etc. No attempt
was made to indicate whether the initial e was long
or short.
Noteworthy miscellaneous forms: 104.
II. Perm, 'so many ina muhhisu amruni are at
his command' (V R 53, 7 a); Ba-u-el-lit (prop, noun
f., V R 44, 19 b); sa Id e-nu-u mil-lik-su 'whose decision
is unalterable' (Assurn. I 17), en-de-ku 'I stand' (Sin.
949 obv. 16). Other examples in 89. Pret. and
Pres. Exx. in 103 above; note further: ta-ru-ur
'thou didst curse' (V R 2, 124), a-bu-ut 'I destroyed'

(Ill R 38 No. 1 obv. 53), ni-mu-ur. 'we saw, found'
(Nabon. II 56), sd e-ri-su-ka 'for which I entreated
thee' (IV R 65, 33 b); ta-gu-gi 'tbou wast angry' (fern.,
K. 4623 obv. 21), a-bu-uk 'I forgave' (Khors. 51), a-
bu-ka 'I carried off' (Esarh. I 26) ; e-zi-ba, also written
iz-zi-ba (ez-zi-bci), 'I left over', te-di-li 'thou didst bar,
shut' (fern., Nimr. Ep. 65, 21). Assurn. II 84 is quite
unique: 'the city which so and so i-a-ab-ta had de-
stroyed'. Pres. 'whose knees Id in-na-ha weary not'
(IV R 9, 39 a); Id ta-ad-da-ra 'fear not', mind tir-ri-
si-in-ni 'what desirest thou of me?' (Nimr. Ep. 44,
71); ib-bir 'he will cross' (Nimr. Ep. 67, 23); erruba
(ir-ru-ba) 'I shall enter' (Desct. obv. 16). Imp. a-kul
'eat',, a-ku-la 'eat ye' (IV R 21, 53 a), a-hu-uz 'sieze',
tfw-n 'see' (fern., Nimr. Ep.XI, 192), en-di-im-ma 'stand'
(fern., K. 3437 rev. 3); ir-ba 'enter', ir-bi (fern.)- Inf.
v. 103.
II 1. Pret. ussis 'I founded', tu-ub-bi-ti-in-ni
'thou (fern.) hast destroyed me' (IV R 57, 51 b);
ubbib and uttil 'I purified'; uddis 'I renewed'. Pres.
tu~ub-bab, ullalu. Imp. u-ri-ki 'prolong' (fern., V R
34 col. Ill 43). Part, mu-ab-bit (Assurn. I 8), mu-ur-
rik 'prolonging' ; mu-ub-bi-ib. Inf. ussunu 'smell' (Tig.
jun. rev. 76), ubburu 'curse' (st. "Q^).
III 1. Pret. u-Sa-Ml 'I caused to eat' (V R 4, 75);
u-sa-li-sa 'I caused to rejoice' (Khors. 168), usebira 'I

had (caused to be) sent across'; userib. Pres. u-se-
ba-ar-ka 'I will make thee cross' (IV R 68, 45 c) ; u-
$e-rab-an-ni 'he will bring me in' (Y R 6, 115). Imp.
surik 'prolong'; su-ti-ka-an-ni (IV R 66, 54 a) ; su-ri-
ba-an-ni (IV R 66, 59 a), but sezib (also suzib) in nn.
prr. like Nabu-se-zib(-a-ni). Inf. su-pu-ul 'make, build'
(Lay. 38, 10), suzubu, su-lu-u 'take away', but also
seburu 'bring across'.
IV 1. Pret. innamir, innabit; lu-un-nl-tir 'may I be
preserved' (K. 254 rev. 54), in-nen-du (= innemdu]
'they stood (V R 63, 26 a) ; they took up a position'
(Senhb. V 42 etc.), U-in-ni-pu-us (V R 63, 1 b). Pres.
in-na(rri)-mar 'he is seen' (III R 51 No. 8, 52 etc.); 'as
this onion is no more in-ni-ri-sii, in-nim-me-du planted,
hidden' (IV R 7, 53. 54 a), 'till he kaspa in-ni-tir-ru
(elsewhere in-ni-it-ti-ru) is made secure as regards
his money', m-nin-ni (rel. in-nin-nu-u) 'he is bowed
down'. Part, munnabtu 'fugitive'. Inf. na-d-bu-tum
and ndbutum 'flee', ndmuru 'appearance'; na'duru and
nanduru 'tribulation, distress; eclipse'. Perm, na-an-
kul-lat(-ma) fern., v. 88, b, note.
12. Pret. i-ta-bat 'he destroyed' (M. 55 col. IV
25), a-ta-mar 'I saw', ni-ta-mar 'we saw' (III R 51 Nr.3,
11), li-ta-am-mar 'let him see'; U-tab-bi-ib 'let him be-
come clean' (IV R 4, 39 b); for verbs primse &* 4 5 see
103 above; cf. also te-te-bir (Nimr. Ep. 67, 26), te-
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 19

te-la-a 'thou didst march up' (K. 823 obv. 7), also
(from tthtfi) te-tir-sd-an-ni 'thou hast desired of me'
(Desct. rev. 22) ; ni-te-bi-ir 'we crossed' (Beh. 35), ni-
te-pu-us (D, 16). Pres. e-te-ri-iS 'I entreat' (N R 34);
e-te-it-ti-ik 'I come' (Neb. Grot. Ill 17). Imp. e-tel-li-i
'mount upwards' (fern.), al-ki it-ru-bi a-na biti-ni
(Strassm. 3399, Ishtar is the person addressed), itrubi
= iterubi. Part, mu-tal-lu (Assurn. 15), mut-tal-lu
(Shams. I 5) 'exalted'; mu-ter-rib-tum set Utdti (IV R
57, 2 a). Inf. it-hu-zu 'learn' (Khors. 158); it-ku-lum
(K 8 ) 'be sorrowful' (K. 4386 col. Ill 40); ina i-te-it-tu-
ki (IV R 17, 12 b), e-te-ig-gu-gu (st. ekeku, K. 4309
obv. 16), etelu 'mount upwards'. Attention has al-
ready ( 88, b) been called to i-tak-ku-lum which is
named in K. 4386 col. Ill 41 alongside of it-ku-lum',
it was then shown to be a bye-form of the latter and
at the same time to be the older infinitive form, from
which itkulu (so ithuzu) has arisen by syncope. Cf.
also it-mu-lu (II R 35, 51 c) on the one hand, i-ta-as-
su-lum (st. eselu, II R 27, 42 d) on the other.
II 2. Pret. u-tan-ni-sa-an-ni 'he made me weak'
(K. 4386 col. II 31), and u-te-en-nis 'he weakened' (IV
R 29, 22 c) ; u-te-id-[di-iS] 'it was renewed' (Nimr. Ep.
XI, 239) ; i-ni-su u-ta-at-tu-u 'his eyes were darkened'.
Pres. ut-tah-haz (IV R 61, 12 a. Ill R 54, 14 b), u-ta-
sa-ar 'he will be shut up'; utabbabu 'they make clean,

wash' (their faces, V R 51, 40 b). Inf. u-te-bu-bu, u-
te-lu-lu (S 1 b, 14. 23); u-te-tu-u 'darkness, faintness'
(K. 246 col. I 19). It is as yet uncertain whether u-
tu-lu 'rest, sleep' (S b 376) and its permansive u-tu-ul
'he slept' are Iftaal (II 2) of btf 2 tfj or (as now seems
to me more probable) of

As to the derivation of ut-ni-en 'I besought' (Neb. 151), ut-
nen(-ni)- sum-ma 'I besought him' (V E 62 col. I 26), inf. ut-nen-
nu (K. 133 obv. 22) for the part. cf. mu-ut-ni-en-nu-u 'one who
prays' (Neb. I 18 etc.) from "3X 3, probable as it is (cf. 65, No. 37
note), I should not like at present to pronounce decisively; nor is
the equation tenintu 'sigh' (? prayer?) = tisrto jfiJi**^ altogether
above suspicion.
III 2. Pret. us-ta-M-iz 'I taught' (IV R 67 No. 2,
52 a), 'the fire us-ta-ak-ka-al-su consumed it' (the
building, S. 11). Pres. 'the fire which I us-tah-ha-zu
apply' (K. 257 obv. 28), us-tan-na-ah 'he sighs' (IV R
27, 35 a), ustdnah 'I sigh' (K. 101). Part, mu-us-ta-
mu-u (from fratf 'speak'); mustemiku. Inf. su-ta-nu-hu
'a sigh' (V R 47, 31 a), $u-ta-mu-u\ sii-te-mu-ku 'im-
plore'. Perm, adrdku u sii-ta-du-ra-ku 'I am in terror
and am terrified' (K. 3927 rev. 9).
IV 2. Pret. it-ta-bit 'he fled', e-ta-am-ru (for it-
tamrii) 'they were seen' (e. g. K. 481, 14). Pres. it-
tdbat 'he flees', it-tan-mar (= ittdmar, III R 64, 1 a).
I 3. Pret. e-ta-nam-da-ru 'they were afraid' (Lay.
43, 2); i-te-ni-ki-il 'he was sad' (II R 28, 14 a); e-te-

ni-ip-pu-su var. e-ta-nap-pu-su 'they made, did' (V R
3, 111), i-te-ni-ki-ik (st. ekeku, II R 28, 13 a).
IV 3. Pres. it-ta-na-an-ma-ru (== ittandmafu, v.
52) 'they are found' (IV R 66, 21 b).
For alaku I 1 pret. cf.: ni-il-li-ka 'we went' (IV E 57 36a);
for I 2 pret.: at-ta-lak 'I marched' (Senhb. Bav. 4), at-tal-lak
(Esarh. ]II 36); pres. : iddka ni-it-tal-lak '\ve go at thy side' (v.
above p. 228); inf.: i-tal r lu-ku (S c 301); for I 3 pret.: 'the chaiiots
which rdmamissin it-ta-na-al-la-ka went about of their own ac-
cord (without charioteers)' (Senhb. VI 12); pres.: i-ta-na-a?-lak
'he walks' (V B 31, 12d).

Verbs medise guitar all 3.
(See Parad : gm B, 6 and 7).
105. Summary of the most common verbs:
^S 'fetch out, catch' (pret. and pres. a), -jfc^B 'be
or become many' (pret. and pres. ?'), bfc^ttj 'decide, de-
mand, ask' (pret., pres. I 1, and pret. I 2: a), [tj^l
II 1 'make to stink', "j^B II 1 'adorn']. 1^ 'rage,
attack violently' (pret. u). h 2 ia II 1 'send; rule'].
DX 3 1 'be gracious, love' (pret. and pres. originally #),
nK 3 T2? 'flee' (pret. origly. a). btf 4 l, very often, espe-
cially in Tig. and Assurn., written bfc* 4 5D, 'overcome,
take possession of, rule' (pret. origly. a), tJ&5 4 1 'shout'
(pret. origly. #); p^ 4? T 'storm, press hard'.
Cf. also the doubly weak verbs "fe^s (pres. ; pret.

I2:/); bK 2 3 (v. 99); n^b 'wish, will'; n 4 1 'feed, herd,
rule', n^tEJ 'gaze, look intently on something' (cf. 108).
For the treatment of the breath (Hauchlaut) in 106.
verbs mediae tf see in general 47; for the fact that
verbs mediae tf 4 are more given to the modification
of a to 0, and of a to e than are the other verbs mediae
tf (inf. ma'ddu or madu, Mru, rdmu, but belu', part.
ncfidu 'exalted', Iffitu 'burning, consuming', st. t3X 2 ^,
but re'u 'shepherd') v. partly 32, j3 and y, 34, (3,
partly 42. The conjugation of the pret. and pres.
Qal follows, in some cases, the conjugation of the
strong verb, e. g. i-al, is-a-lu, is--a-lu, zr'wfr; ilu ta-
na- -ad 'God shalt thou praise' (K. 2024); in others,
in consequence of the weakness of the guttural breath,
it follows the analogy of the 'hollow' verb. The latter
mode of inflexion (cf. what was said in 65, No. 31
regarding ma'alu and naramu) is that always adopted
by verbs med. tf 3 and X 4 : irdrn^ with umlaut irem, 'he
loved', iram 'he loves' ; ibel 'he ruled' (= ibal for itfal)
and 'he rules' (= iMl, ibtial or = iWil). That the
pret. irem is really derived from the older form iram
is shown by li-ra-mu 'may they love' (precative, Tig.
VIII 25), lii i-ra-man-ni 'she became fond of, loved me'
(III R 4 No. 7, 64). The derivation of iUl, also, from
ibdl still admits of demonstration : cf. Assurn. Stand.
Inscr. 5: 'Assurnasirpal who i-pe-lu subdued all moun-

tains', var. i-pa-lu\ The verb fN 1 l a takes sometimes
im'id, sometimes i-mi-id\ whether the latter form is to
he understood as immid, as imid or as imid, is inten-
tionally left undecided in the paradigms. The same
remark applies to forms like a-lar 'I issued forth'.
The perm, bel also stands, without a doubt, for Ml
and is on a par with the permansives of the 'hollow'
verbs, kdn, dan (a corresponding form of a verb med.
Kj would be found in lu sal 'let him decide' AL 3 96,
27, if the latter should really be derived from Sa'dlu)
while ni-il 'he lies' (IV R 17, 52 b) is perhaps to be
placed alongside of the intransitive permansives ken
and mit ( 89). Of the augmented stems the cau-
sative calls for special notice. Like the 'hollow' verbs
(v. 115), a few verbs med. tf form, in place of the
stem III 1, a stem III 11 1 ( 85). The forms of the verb
btf 2 D are particularly instructive in this respect: Pret.
us-na-il 'I, he threw, lay' (Tig. II 20), more frequently
uS-ni-il (e. g. V R 7, 40), plur. 3. m. m-m-il-lum (V R
47, 50 a) ; pres. m-na-al-ka 'I will give thee rest' (Nimr.
Ep. 15, 36); imp. su-ni--il (IV R 15, 17 a) and m-ni-il
(IV R 27, 48 b). From pelu, belu 'overpower, offer
violence to, etc.', observe the pres. uspel (alongside of
u-sa-pa-a-la, V R 45 col. VI 52): 'her command sa Id
us-pi-e-lu that they do not oppress' (III R 38 No. 1
rev. 10); part. mus-pi-e-lu(m) (Sarg. Cyl. 56), mus-pe-lu

(IV R 16, 8 a), mus-pil (Lay. 17, 3); inf. h'l-bi-e-lu (Neb.
Bab. II 30). A stem III 11 2 is also found: cf. ul-te-pe-lu
(V R 65 col. II 31), elsewhere us-te-pi-el-lu, both pre-
sents in a relative clause. From Dtf 3 1 we have a form
III 11 1 in Neb. 169: belutka sirti su-ri- -im-am-ma 'make
bright thine exalted rule and'; m-ri--im precisely
like su-ni--il.
Noteworthy miscellaneous forms: 107.
I 1. Perm, re-sii-nik-ka mdtdti 'the countries hail
thee' (IV R 17, 11 b). Pret. (v. 106 above), i-mi-du
'they multiplied, increased' (Beh. 14), li-mi-da sandti'a
'let my years be multiplied, be many' (V R 66 col. II
12), lu-um-id 'let me increase' (K. 2455), a-bar-su 'I
brought him forth, took him away' (Esarh. I 18. 46);
ir-'u-ub (fern., Desct. obv. 64); irensu 'he presented to
him' (v. p. 114), isetuni 'they fled' (V R 4, 60); i-be-el
'he ruled', li-bi-e-lu 'let them rule' (often), so too i-ris
'he shouted, hailed', pronounced ires; a-zi-ik 'I storm-
ed'. Pres. i-bar-rum 'they bring out' (IV R 27, 15 b),
ildi and ile'i 'he wishes'; a -ni- el-lam-ma (Nimr. Ep. 71,
22); tar dm 'thou lovest'; i-sa-ar 'he rages' (st. *W 4 0,
V R 55, 32), 'Adar who tukmatu i-pe-lu overcomes
opposition' (Assurn. I 6), te-re-i uldla 'thou rulest over
the weak' (K. 3459); izakka (IV R 3, 2 a) and i-zik-ku.
i. e. izekku (rel., IV R 16, 57 a). Imp. sa-'-al (K. 483 r
9); rim 'have pity', in prop, nouns like Ncibu-rim-an-ni,

Marduk-rim-a-ni (C a 133), Rim-an-ni-ilu often written
with the ideogram for rimu ( 9 No. 190). Inf. ma-
a-du (S c 69), ma-du (Beh. 14).
II 1. Perm, 'the daughter of Anu nu--u-rat is
like a lion' (IV R 65, 41 d). Pret. usa'in 'I adorned',
umtfir 'I, he sent'; nu-ba--i 'we sought' (st. ntf 5 3,
Nabon. II 56). Pres. u-ma--a-ru and u-ma-a-ru (cf.
p. 127), u-sal-lu 'they called up' (III R 15 col. I 19),
elsewhere u-sa-a-lu, Id tu-ba--a-sa 'does not render
malodorous' (IV R 52, 22 a). Imp. nu--id 'praise'.
Part, muma'iru, mu-la-it 'burning up' (Assurn. I 19).
Inf. bu--u-rum, bu-u-ru, bu-u-ru (v. p. 112), mu--ur
'mission' (Tig. VI 57).
III 1. Pret. An example from "T&^B v. 93, 1, a,
Cf. for III 11 1 106. Imp. su-mi-di 'let (my years,
goddess) be many', V R 34 col. Ill 43.
I 2. Pret. ittifid, attd'id 'he, I praised', i$-ta-(na-)'-
a-lum 'they asked' (V R 9, 69) ; ir-ti-si '(his heart) re-
joiced', aste'i (aste'ema) 'I looked out, cared for, etc.'.^i 'he feeds, herds'. Imp. si-ta-al-su (IV R61,
6. 8b). Part, muste'u. Inf. &-te-'M-w(K.4341 col. I 12).
II 2. For utul, utulu v. 104 under II 2.
III 2. Cf. for III 11 2 106.
13. Pret. see under 12. Pres. a-ta-na-a-du 'I
raise on high' (Neb. I 32). Cf. iSteni'i, asteni'i (pret.
and pres., st.

Verbs tertise infi rinse.
(See Paradigm B, 8 10).
The most common verbs, all originally pro-
nounced with a in the pret. Qal (1 1), are the following :
fc^ttn 'sin', K^D 'shut off, keep back, refuse', tf.bfc
'be full', KjSti 'find', x^p 'call'.
K 3 pb 'take', tf 3 n> 'open'.
fc* 4 p-| 'collect, assemble', 4 BH 'break in pieces',
^ 4 -in 'dig', tf 4 St: 'dip, immerse', K 4 np 'order, speak',
K 4 m 'strengthen, set up', K 4 lt0 'be sated', K 4 Ett 'hear',
tf 4 in 'come'.
The only verb tertise X known to me, which is pronounced
with u in the pret. Qal is X*i3 'cut, cut off, cut through' : apru 1
(V E 4, 135), imp. puru\ part, part' ; II 1 pret. uparri 1.

Ol 'weep' (ibki) *, "nn 'behold' (i&n), ^t&a 'be' (iUi),
''DD 'bind, fetter, join firmly' (iksi), ^n 'throw, found,
dwell' (irmi), ^*\ 'take hold of, receive, possess' (//&),
^Dttj (whence the numeral two) II 1 'relate, announce',
i 'scream, call, read' (ilsi), *pttJ 'give to drink, water'

* I have expressly put clown with ^ or i as the last radical,
and first in order, those stems which are proved to a certainty
to be verbs tertise "^ or ", by the form of the corresponding no-
minal stems (v. esply. 65 Nos. 9. 10. 31, a) and which at
the same time leave no doubt, in the majority of cases at least,
as to the identity of their radical in the verbal forms as well,
especially in pret. and imper. Qal. All the others are put down,
as in Hebrew grammar, as verbs n"V with the addition of the
preterite, wherever it is known to occur.


(tiki) ins? 'drink' (isti). iVi 'create' (pres. iddlu),
'rejoice' (ihdu), 1D 'number, count' (imnu)^ ibp 'burn'
(pres. ikdlu), Tap 'burn' (ikmu). nbl 'fade, be ex-
tinguished' (pres. ibeli), S151 'build, beget' (ibni), nil
'be bright, shine', JTto 'challenge to battle' (igri), JiDT
'be pure, free', nntD 'approach' (ithi), fiED 'bind, take
captive' (pres. ikdmi), nttb 'hem in, besiege' (ilmi), Jittha
'disregard, forget' (imi), nno 'rebel' (also IV l), nbo
'throw off' (a yoke), nfiS 'shut' (ipty), JllS 'wish, be
willing', ntnp 'finish', fa*! 'be or become great' (?>&/),
n^ 'flow, go' (artfj), doubtless identical with n^l^i 'lead,
govern', rm 'fall off, become loose' (irmu), HSC 'be
different, change' (iritrans.), II 1 'change' (trans.), npl
'be high', ntth (see below).
Uncertainty still attaches to the last radical of
daku 'overturn, cast down' (idki^ tertise X : or n?),
zinii 'be angry with', misu 'wash, cleanse' (imsi), radii,
(or ridul) 'persecute' (pret. irdi, pres. iredi IV R 67,
47 b), and also to the Qal of ruddu 'add'.
Cf. also the follg. doubly weak verbs: XjM,
X!D; 2 ^5 (inf. nigu)\ 4 DD; n^iD (iddi), np5 (Mi) (v.
99); nt3 5, nb 4 (-b 4 ), ni2K 4 (c A if), n5K 4 (eni, v. 102) ;
n T b (pres. wV); n^n, n 4 tj (v. 105); ^i; nil, n^ii;
>ttT (w. 111). For K^I ( 4 Ti) v. fWrf.
Although it is now beyond all doubt that Assyrian
originally distinguished verbs tertiae 1 from those

tertise 1, yet one class passes so frequently into the
other especially verhs tertise 1 into the class tertise
n_that we are quite justified in treating them together
as (following the nomenclature of Hebrew) stems n"b.
Even among the best attested verbs tertise 1 and 1
occur instances of this uncertainty as to class, as e. g.:
am-ni-i-ma 'I counted, allotted and' (Senhb. Bav. 47),
lik-mi'ki 'I burn thee' (IV R 57, 28 a), lik-mi (IV R 7,
6.16 etc.), and, on the other hand, as-ku-ma ; I watered'
(with emphatic ma, Senhb. Bav. 8). Cf. also ridutu,
but ardi\ abitu and abittu 'decision, sentence', nabnitu
and binutu (cf. the imperatives bi-ni and bi-nu, Nimr.
Ep. XI, 20,?). The verb msn 'talk, speak, swear, con-
jure', for which ta-mi-tu, ta-me-tu (also ta-mi-a-tu) ^word,
speech' probably points to > as the third radical, forms
in the pret. it-ma (K. 4350 col. Ill 20), in the pres.
i-tam-ma (ibid. 1. 26), i-ta-ma (III R 54, 8 a), i-ta-me
(ibid. 1. 2 b) and i-ta-mu (K. 700 1. 3. IV R 61,
26 a).
While itdma (and itma) must be read as itdmd (and
itma) cf. i-tam-ma-a Assurb. Sm. 124, 57 we find
the same interchange of tertise i and 1 forms in i-ta-
me (also IV R 32, 33 a etc.) and i-ta-mu. The Hebr.
terminology (verbs n"b) is particularly welcome in all
those cases where no instance is found of the pret. or
of the pres. Qal (not in a relative clause), and where

there is no corresponding nominal formation to give
us the clue to the last radical.
109. For the contraction of the permansive stem in
the Qal: mall fern, mal-at, tebi, teb-at, bani, ban-at, ban-
dta etc. v. 39; the permansives of the other verbal
stems suffer the same contraction e. g. susat (v. 89).
The third radical is preserved in a couple of forms
in III R 4 No. 4, 37: 'where huge wild vines se-ru--
u-ni grow', and Tig. Ill 62: sa-al-'u-ni (sing, sa-li,
Assurn. Ill 12. 15. 16); the first of the two is a per-
mansive of the form jJLs. For forms of the 3. sing,
fern, like nasdta for nas-at(a) v. 53, c on p. 126 f.
Permansives from verbs tertise i and 1 with umlaut of
the a of the first syllable v. 110. In the Pret. Qal
which was originally, in all cases, pronounced with a
the various classes of verbs tertise infirmae assume
very different forms: for this short a with tf becomes
, with *> it becomes ai and then e, with 1 au and then
u. Since, however, the a of verbs tertiae tf is without
exception modified to e and then shortened to e and
, like the e which arises from ai being reduced to a
monophthong, it results that the preterites of verbs
tertise X and tertise 1 have one and the same form in
the Qal: imsi, ipti, ibni. For this and for the more
thorough-going and less frequent contractions like
lu-uslusi see 39. For forms written with e, as e. g.

lu-up-le (Nimr. Ep. XI, 9) v. 32, y; we would also
mention here ir-me 'he threw' (V R 62 No. 1, 9) along-
side ofir-mi (No. 2, 48), lu-ur-me, al-me 'I besieged'. The
original final e maintains itself in all cases before the
enclitic ma (v. 32, y. 39. 53, d above): ad-ki-e-ma
'I summoned' (Esarh. V 11), ah-ri-e-ma (Senhb. Bav.
52 etc.), ir-me-ma (IV R 5, 79 a); eld (ila) i. e. Hi- a
'he went up' (v. 38, a) with ma naturally forms ilamma
(so ih-ti-tam-ma etc.). For uncontracted forms like
ik-M-u-ni v. 38, a. Ail that has been said regard-
ing the pret. Qal applies also to the present: thus
imasi 'he will find', ikabU 'he speaks' like i-bak-ki 'he
weeps'. For forms with final e, see 32, y; for i-se-im
'he will hear', 39. For the e of the second syllable
of ipete (ipeti), ileki, 'deme, isesi alongside of isdsi
v. 34, a; for the e of the first syllable in forms like
te-lik-ki-e i. e. teleki (K. 101 obv. 6) v. 34, p end.
For the pret. and pres. of the augmented stems
there is nothing to add, as regards the final vowel,
to what has been said of these tenses in the Qal: the
original long final vowel is shortened as in the Qal
ubanrii, uSabm, ibtdm like ibni\ before ma it remains
long (cf. umaUima 53, d). In the final a of many
presents of the Piel and Shafel, such as u-nam-ba
(variant of u-nam-bi) 'she calls aloud' (Nimr. Ep. XI,
111), u-pat-ta 'let him open', viz. uzna (K. 95), u-sam-

sa-su 'he will cause him to find' (Assurn. Balaw. rev.
26), u-sab-la 'he removed, put an end to' (Khors. 113)
etc. cf. the follg. from the list V R 45 which com-
prises only the 2. pers. sing, of the present of the
augmented stems: tu-mal-la (Col. Ill 19), tu-pat-ta (I 1),
tu-$al-ka (VII 27), tu-$ar-sa (V 18) etc. it is hardly
likely that we have a mere shortening of the original
final d\ it is more probable that they include the a
so often added to verbal forms ( 91) like tu-ba-an-na
(III 6), tu-sal-la (II 1) from verbs tertise i. They there-
fore come under the same category as Id ta-kal-la
'cease not' (K. 2674 1. 18), ik-te-ra 'he summoned to
his presence' (Senhb. V 39; ik-te-ram-ma Khors. 127).
We can easily understand how, in V R 45, this par-
ticular form receives the preference. The defective
orthography of the auslaut in these forms (to which
is to be added the perm, as in: 'since in Babylon a
suitable site Id su-um-sa was not to be found' Neb.
VIII 30) is to a certain extent an exception to the
rule given in 10; it is better to write, for example,
i-na-as-la-a 'he will carry' (his weapons, III R 58, 42 c).
We should naturally expect the present to be in i,
and examples of this form will be found in 110.
For the e of the second syllable in musemsu (musimsu)
'causing to find' (Tig. I 12) and in ikterd, ilteki, alteme
etc. v. 34, a; for the same vowel in utebbi 'I sank,

let down', alongside of utab(b)i see 33. The im-
peratives Qal follow the pret. as regards the vowel
of the second radical, which, however, is content with
repeating the vowel of the first: hence Si-mi f si-me
'hear', bini 'build', munu 'count' (v. 94 above). With
ma appended: li-ki-e-ma (masc. V E, 64 col. Ill 19).
For the orthography of the feminine forms li-ki-e 'ac-
cept' (K. 101 rev. 4), pi-te-ma (fern.) cf. p. 78 f. The
infinitives and participles Qal, when furnished
with case-vowels, are identical as regards their final
vowel sound (auslaut) in all classes of verbs' tertise
infirmse ; for the first syllable of the inf., as in main,
banu on the one hand, and in nigu, petu (pitu), leku,
semu, kebu on the other, see 34, p (and cf. 42) ; for
the older forms patu etc. see a few references in 110.
We find, also, in the inf. Qal of verbs tertiee i and 1
the change (umlaut) of a to e\ see examples in 110.
For the first syllable of the participles, as in ndSi f
bdni on the one hand, peti, semi (with the nominative
termination petu, semu) on the other, v. 32, [3 (and
cf. 42) ; for the loss of the last radical, which ap-
pears m ndsi, bdni and makes itself distinctly felt in
the construct state, e. g. nas, ban, and in feminines
like bantu, cons, state bdnat, (so also musamsatv. 68)
which are in use alongside of the longer forms
bdnitu etc. see 39 (loss of the final vowel) and

cf. 47 and 41, a. b (loss of the last radical, tf, i
or 1).
110. Noteworthy miscellaneous forms.
1 1. Perm, ma-lat 'she, it is full' (IV R 18, 57 b),
na-sa-ku 'I carry' (II R 19, 54. 56 etc.), nasat 'she car-
ried', in pause nasdta (v. p. 126); hi-bi (hebi) 'it is ex-
tinguished', 'kings sd ni-is-sa-at subatsun whose dwel-
ling was afar off' (Khors. 146), 'a maid whose hands
(kdtdsa) Id mi-sa-a are unwashed' (IV R 26, 14 b); 'the
city sa.... na-da-ta (var. at) htbatsu lies so and so'
(V R 9, 116), Sandta 2. m. sing., sand 3. f. plur. (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 4. 3), ba-la-ak 'I am mindful (Neb. I 47, cf.
Targ. ibl) ; with umlaut: si-hi i. e. sehi 'he revolted'
(cf. si-hu-su-nu-tu 'they revolted from them' IV R 52
No. 2, 22), 'whoever was not willing si-bu-u (Sarg.
Cyl. 52), si-ba-a-ka (!) 'I am willing' (NR 24). For
other examples see 89 and cf. 109. Preterite
and present. Examples in 109 above; note also:
'thine eyes im-la-a dimtu filled with tears' (Assurb.
Sm. 123, 48); Uk-ba-nik-kim-ma 'let them (fern.) say
to thee' (IV R 56, 55 a); im-nu (I R 28, 22 a), am-nu
(Senhb. IV 50 etc.), ak-mu, 'his heart ih-du-ma was
glad and' (V R 61 col. IV 38), ta^-kab-bi 'thou speak-
est', a-ta-ab-bi 'I come' (IV R 68, 28 a), i-seb-bi 'he
will take his fill' (K. 196 obv. col. I 3), i-se-me 'he
will hear, grant (requests)' (IV R 45, 14), 'whatever

ta-Sim-mu-u thou shalt hear' (K. 562 1. 11); ta-sat-ti
2. m. 'thou wilt drink', i-red-di, 'he goes' (V R 55,
23), la te-ti-ih-hi 'approach not' (IV R 2, 25 b); a-kal-lu
'I burn' (IV R 56, 27 b). i-kal-lu 'it (the door) shuts
out' (IV R 1, 30 a) is peculiar; have we transition of
tf^D to JibD? Imperative: i-Si 'lift up', i-bi 'command'
(fo-W Neb. Bab. II 28);j?i-tf, li-ki-su 'take him' (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 229); si-mi 'hear' (Neb. Grot. Ill 46); Si-ti
'drink', Uki 'give to drink', i-di 'lay, put in', ri-si-u
Yemu 'conceive love for him' (IV R 61, 31 c); ku-mu
'burn' (IV R 56, 8 b), mu-nu-ma (V R 50, 64 b). Part.
'Lands na-(a-}a$ Ulti u madatte (Tig. I 65), na-si hatti
ellite', ra-a$ emuki 'possessor of might' (Shams. 1 21).
Infinitive. Alongside of pitu etc. we still find patu
'open, consecrate'(Senhb.Bav.27), la-ku-u 'take' (S b 107),
kdbu 'speak, word' (e. g. K. 245 col. II 58 ff.), ha-ri-e
ndri (Senhb. Bell. 40). But also, on the other hand,
tehu (K. 2486 obv.) alongside of tahu (S b 312), pihu
'shut' (V R 36, 45 d).
II 1. Pret. /i-w-/t, li-mi-la-a (III R 43 col. IV 4. 5)
li-mil-la-a (V R 56, 42), 'may he fill up'; u-ma-si and
umes(si)i 'I cleansed'; li-$e-en-ni 'may he change' (III
R 43 col. IV 2.) Pres. rdmdnkunu Id tu-hat-ta-a 'you
shall not make yourselves sinners' (IV R 52, 24 a);
u-sal-li 'I entreat', usanni 'he will change' (III R 65,
61 a). Imp. mul-li 'fill thou'. Inf. nubbii, numbu 'call
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 20

aloud'; kubbu 'cry aloud' (ku-bi-e a-kab-bl 'I cry aloud,
scream' IV R 10, 2 b, ina ku-ub-bi-e marsuti IV R 26,
55 b); hud libbi nummur kabitti (Esarh. VI 42, hud con-
tracted form of huddu like lib in tib tahdzi'a from
tibul). Perm, 'whose entry zu-um-mu-u nura is cut off
from the light' (Desct. obv. 7), 'the temple sa su-uh-
ha-a us-su-ra-tu-su whose walls were destroyed' (V R
65, 18 a).
Ill 1. Pret. usalku 'they caused to take, delivered
up' (Assurb. Sm. 108, e); u-sa-as-U 'she has removed'
(IV R 57, 16 a) ; uSabri and uSebri 'I caused to see',
u-sar-me, u-sal-me 'I surrounded' (Senhb. I 59, note the
e notwithstanding the ground-form uSakSid), sanu-$ab-
su-u (Sa nibnu IV R 65, 21 d). P r e s. uSelld 'I bring up'
(Desct. obv. 19), Imp. $u-us-si 'remove' (IVR 61, 33 a);
subra-an-ni 'let me see' (IV R 66, 55 a). Part. muSarbu
'enlarging'. Inf. Sussu 'cause to carry'; su-ub-nu-u 'cause
to be built', SuSfcu 'raise, heighten'. Perm, see 89.
IV 1. Pret. 'let the gates Up-pi-ta-\a\ be opened'
(Desct. rev. 14) ; innadi 'he was thrown' ; is-si-hu 'he
has rebelled' (Senhb. V 5). Pres. 'whatever ik-kab-ba-
a-su-nu is commanded you by me' (NR 10), 'a plant
sa la-la-su Id es-se-bu-u of whose abundance one is
never satisfied' (IV R 9, 23 b) ; in-nak-ku-u, 'are spilt'
(IV R 19, 49 b, cf. p. 123 above). Imp. na-an-di, 'be
cast off' (IV R 13, 43 a).

I 2. Pret. ina ta-at-ta-si-sum-ma '(thine) eyes thou
didst lift up to him and' (Nimr. Ep. 44, 67), ihtdti,
ihtatu and ihtittu 'they have sinned'; al-te-me 'I have
heard', il-te-bu-it 'they marched' (K. 82, 14), im-ta-si
'she washed'; ar-ta-si remu, ar-te-di, ar-ti-di 'I marched',
li-ir-ta-du-su and li-ir-te-id-du-su 'let them lead him'
(I R 27 No. 2, 51. Ill R 41 col. II 37), lu-ul-ta-ti 'I will
drink' (Desct. rev. 19), lil-ta-si 'let him read' (Sarg. Gyp.
II 59). Imp. Si-tam-me ka-ra-bu name of a deity
(III R 66 obv. 7 e). Part, mur-te-du-u 'leading, ruling 1
(Shams. I 28 etc.). Inf. bitakku 'weep', sitassu 'read',
(ana si-tas-si-hi V R 37, 55), syncopated (v. 88, b)
bitru 'gaze on'.
II 2. Pret. umdallu 'they filled up' (V R 9, 45),
cf. um-da-(na-)al-lu-u (Assurb. Sm. 285, 8); tuh-tap-pi
(Nimr. Ep. 69, 38); ut-te-ih-ha-a 'he approached' (Nimr.
Ep. XI, 248), 'whoever us-te-nu-ii shall alter the words
of my writing' (I R 27 No. 2, 47, 56, and cf. Sunne
1. 74).
III 2. Pret. us-te-li, ul-te-la-an-ni, 'he made me
come up, brought me up' ; 'its course us-te-es-na-a
I changed' (Lay. 38, 15). P&rt.multahte 'rebels'. Perm.
sii-te-es-na-a (III R 65, 42. 43 b).
IV 2. Pret. ittahsu and ittehsu 'they took refuge'
(st. Pion, Nimr. Ep. XI, 108), i-ta-ad-da-a (i. e. ittdddd)
3. fern. plur. of n^5 (IV R 67, 50 b).

I 3. Pret. im-ta-na-al-lu-u 'they filled' (IV R 56,
9 a); baldtu is-te-ni-ib-bi 'he was sated with life' (V R
31, 26 f.), is-te-nim-me (Nimr. Ep. 8, 29), it-te-ni-ib-bu-u
'they came, advanced' (K. 145 1. 12); it-ta-nam-di 'she
uttered' (ta-a-U, K. 3437 rev. 8), is-ta-na-at-ti 'he
drank', 2. fern, tal-ta-na-at-ti (IV R 63, 40. 44 b), er-te-
ni-id-di 'I went' (Neb. I 29). Pres. ta-at-ta-na-as-si
Id le-am-ma 'thou (Merodach) sustainest him that has
no strength' (K. 3459).
II 3. v. 83.
IV 3. Pres. 'whoever it-ta-nak-lu-u makes of him-
self a bar for the door' (IV R 16, 49 a).
Verbs primae 1 and i.
(See Paradigm B, 11.)
* Summary of the most common verbs with the
characteristic vowel of the pret. and pres. Qal. (I 1)
and pret. Ifteal (I 2):
bll 'lead, bring, carry off' (pret. ', pres. a, pret.
I 2: ), bDI 'can, be able' (pres. ), "ibl 'bear, beget'
(pret. 2,- pres. #), D01 'be distinguished', II 1 'distinguish,
make beautiful', Tfi 'go down' (pret. i, pres. 0, pret.
I 2: 0), nth 'settle, sit, dwell' (pret., pres. a, pret.
I 2: ), ^tjl 'lower, demean, humble one's self (pres. #).
'be dear, precious, respected' (pret. i) and p^l

'become yellow, pale' (pret. ?, pres. a) are different
from the other verbs of this class, v. 112.
pD^ 'suck' (pret. f), w 'form' (? pret. ), 1^ 'in-
crease' (pret. ), itri 'be straight, succeed, etc.' (pret. i).
Cf. also the doubly weak verbs, which of course
follow the corresponding weak verbs in the charac-
teristic vowel of the tenses: tfjSi 'go out'; tf 4 Ti (or
fcVf?) 'know'; fiYl 'appoint, decide', mi 'lead, bring';
- ii 'have, be' (cf. 108).
For the conjugation of verbs primse 1 in general, 112,
for the inf., part., and perm, of the Qal in particu-
lar, as well as for the Shafel forms usdsib (usesib)
v. 41, a; for the e of III 1 (and III 2) v. 32, p.
For the pret. iirid (= iiirid = iaurid) see 90, a,
also 41 b and 31 (for urduni from and alongside of
uriduni v. 37). For the pres. urrad see 90, note.
The two verbs *ip1 and pTi follow in the pret. Qal
the analogy of verbs primae 1 : cf. e (var. i)-kir 'it was
precious' (V R 1, 32), fern, te-kir (V R 4, 57); li-ri-ku
pdnuki 'make pale thy face' (IV R 57, 44 b), pres. re-
gularly urrak. Whether the verb for 'know' should
receive 1 or i for its first radical is hard to decide:
much might be said even for tf 4 "H. First of all there
is the derivative mudii 'reasonable, sensible'; then it
has been observed that the transition of verbs primae
1 to primae i has its analogy in Assyrian, while the

reverse process has not. Finally the conjugation of
84*71 appears to me to have its exact parallel in 8 4 M,
if so be that the two forms about to be named, re-
garding whose meaning there is no doubt, are really
to be combined with the Hebr. y$\ Looking at the inf.
egu 'weary, be tired' (II R 20, 49 d, prop, agu, but
egu on account of the K 4 ) and the pret. egi 'I ceased,
withdrew' (V R 64, col. I 38) we see no difficulty in
deriving idu 'know' (prop, edit, cf. e-du-tu II R 39,
77 d), pret. idl from a stem B 4 "7l. For the impers. rid, sib
v. 39 and 94. In regard to the If teal (pret. and
pres.), on account of the double it (ittdrad, ittdsi\
I would not say that it follows the analogy of verbs
primse tf (cf. 103) ; the u in the second syllable of
ittiibil, ittusib, ittiisi (alongside of ittdsi) is occasioned
by the u of the Qal ubil, usib etc. (cf. 90 b, note).
For other instances of the same kind, where the
impers. and infs. of the Shafel follow the analogy
of the pret. (cf 94. 95) see.the reference in 113.
- For the conjugation of verbs primse * it is as
yet impossible to lay down precise rules applicable
to all cases. The preterites enik and isir (interchange
of e and i as in egi and idi) present no difficulty; for
e = ie = ial v. 90, a and 41, b and 31. It is un-
fortunate that no inf. Qal has been found which
throws light on the question as to whether the ia,

which we must assume for the first syllable, became
a or i. i-sa-ru S c 33 is probably an adj. ; in the inf.
isu, however, (although even this inf. is not alto-
gether beyond doubt) the i may easily have arisen
from an original e (= a) cf. the infins. pihu etc.
110 - - just as we find in the permansive now iSi
'he has', now esir (see below). Cf. also the note to
65 Nos. 69 on p. 166.
Noteworthy miscellaneous forms. 113.
I 1. Perm, zikndsu a-si-a 'his beard is budding'
(III E 65, 20 b); e-sir 'he is pictured' (K. 2674 1. 8),
i-si 'he is', i-sa-a-ku 'I possess' (Tig. I 58). Pret.
tirid, ubil etc. (passim), u-ra-a-su, u-ras-su and similar
forms, 'I brought him' (often); e-ni-ku 'they sucked'
(V R 9, 66), /-&>, i-si-ra 'it prospered, succeeded'
(e. g. Senhb. Const. 79), li-sir (prec., IV R 64, 6 b),
esir 'I formed' (Lay. 33, 18), erib in Sin-ahe-er-ba.
Pres. tuk-kal 'thou canst', ur-ra-da-ni 'they (the
women) descended' (IV R 57, 33 a), nu-ur-rad ^we
shall go down' (K. 647 rev. 11), imeru atdna ul u-sa-
ra (= ussara, Desct. rev, 7, cf. J^?). In the verbs
idu 'know' and isu 'have, be' the pret. and the pres.
are identical in pronunciation: i-di 'I, he knew', and
ti(-i)-di 'thou knowest'; i-Si 'I, he had' and ti-Si
'thou art'.

II 1. Pret. u-us-si-im, u-si-im 'I adorned, made
magnificent' (Neb.), u(s)-se-ru 'they tore down' (Assurn.
II 113), uttir 'I made enormous' (^fil), u-ad-di 'he ap-
pointed', plur. u-ad-du-ni. Pres. tu-at-tar (V R 45
col. IV 13), tuf-ra-ki 'thou makest pale' (fern., IV R
63, 3 b), tu-us-sa-am (V R 45 col. IV 32), tu-ur-ra
(ibid. col. Ill 41). Part, mu-al-li-da-at, mu-ad-du-u
Sarruti 'who establishes the kingly power' (IV R 55 h
13 b). Perm. Id (u-)ud-da-a 'they (the walls) were not
recognizable' (Neb. Senk. I 16).
III 1. Pret. u-sd-pa-a (Neb. Bab. I 29) and u-Se-
e-bi (II 11) 'I caused to shine' (st. K 4 61), li-se-pa-a
'let them glorify' (IV R 66, 62 a), tu-sa-id (K. 828, 5)
and u-se-'i-du-us (K. 13, 59), st. ^fc^l ; u-se-si-ru 'they
blessed' (Senhb. Bav. 30). Pres. tu-sa-a-tar, tu-Sa-
a-kar (V R 45 col. VI 31. 32), tu-ses-sab (VII 17), tu-
Se-e-Sa (VIII 38); u-se-nak 'she suckles' (IV R 65, 35 d),
u-se-se-ru 'he leads' (rel., Senhb. Kuy. 2, 31). Imp.
su-sib (Desct. rev. 33), su-bi-la 'cause to carry, have
carried' (E. M. II, 339), but also se-U-la 'deliver up'
(K. 359, 8). Part, mu-se-nik-tu plur. mu-se-ni-ka-a-te
(VR 9, 66). Inf. susubu 'plant a colony', sum 'cause
to go forth, announce', but also sebulu 'to deliver up'
(V R 7, 25 etc.).
I 2. Pret. attarad,atarad, at(t)arda. 'I went down',
it-ta-su-ni 'they are sprung from...' (IV R 15, 68 a),

littasi 'let him drive off' (IV R 7, 7 etc.), at-ti-si I
came out' (Assurn.) and ta-at-tu-si 'she (Ishtar) has
gone forth' (IV R 68, 69 b), ittarru 'they brought',
littarru 'let them bring' and it-tu-ru-nu, 'they brought'
(tribute, Beh. 7: cf. in a similar connexion Tig. H 96:
littarruni), it-tu-sib 'he sat down' (C b rev. 25 b ), it-tu-
bil 'he brought' (often); li-tas-si-ir 'may it go well,
change for the better' etc. (IV R 17, 2 b). Pres. at-
tasab 'I sit down, seat myself (Nimr. Ep. XI, 130),
It- 1 a- as -si 'he goes out'. "P&rt.muttabbilu 'bringing' also
'portable', muttdru 'bringing'. Inf. ittarru 'lead, guide'.
(Senhb. Bav. 2).
II 2. Pret. tu-ta-at-tir (2. m. sing., IV R 11,
40 b), 'his troops, whose number like the waters of a
river Id u-ta-ad-du-u was unknown' (V R 35, 16). Do
the preterite and infinitive forms u-ta(-ak)-ku (Neb-
Grot. I 11. V R 34 col. I 15) and u-tak-ku-u (V R 29
8 h) also belong here?
III 2. Pret. uttaW 'he brought', us-si-W-ka 'I
have delivered up to thee' (K. 359, 8), ultesib (ina asri-
sina) 'I restored (the countries) to order' (NR 23);
us-te-(es)-se-ra 'I directed', tu-us-te-es-se-ir 'thou hast
guided aright' (Neb. I 59). Pres. tul-te-si-ra 'thou
rulest' (IV R 67, 12 b). Imp. su-te-U-ra (IV R 17,
26 b). Inf. m-ta-bu-ul tereti 'to give laws' (Sm. 954
obv.) ; sutesuru.

13. Pres. at-ta-nab-bal-su-nu-si 'I bring as an
offering to you' (V R 63, 22 a), it-ta-na-as-sa-bu, 'they
dwell' (IV R 15, 26 a).
Verbs mediae 1 and ">.
(See Paradigm B, 12).
114. Summary of the most common verbs (includ-
ing those that are also primse tf or D, and a few other
doubly weak verbs):
YH 'kill', TIT 'divide, allot', pD 'be firm, stand fast',
ma 'die', ma 'rest', tihD 'quake, shake, tremble', pio
'be narrow', IIS 'hunt', Vip 'scream', fcpp 'decay, be in
ruins', "pp 'flay', 1T1 'sink, settle (of a foundation), etc.'
(II 1 'get the better of, overcome'), talti 'pull', *ntt
'wander about', *rin 'turn (se verier e), turn back; be-
come', fc^l! 'come, go' (pret. I 1 and I 2 : a) is pecu-
liar, v. 115.
T^ 'go forth', 1*1-1 'judge', w*i 'tread down' ^T 'hate,
resist', ta^ti 'see', b^n 'tremble, quake', ^n 'gaze,
choose', tfffn 'make haste', a^ta 'be good', tj->tt 'despise,
do away with', tf*>5 'hinder, oppose, make war upon',
Cpp 'hand over, grant full powers to', tjip 'present', ^tj
(more rarely KTO) 'fly', mtj 'sprout, grow', D^tt? 'set,
appoint, decide'. *T^ 'overcome, subjugate' (pret. and
i) is peculiar, see 115.

Of the verbs med. 1 and "> properly so-called a few appear
in Assyrian as 'hollow' verbs, thus PPX 'scream' (whence silitu,
'cry of pain or grief, cf. fir^X.) and """P ( c ^- ku, n l? 'string') II 1
'wait' (rup): M-fca (Tig. I 72)7wfc-H (III R 15 col I 10) 'I waited',
ukd 'he waits' plur. uka'u, written u-ka-a-a-u and u-ka-'u (the
latter Assurb. Sm. 134, 52; cf. 13). Others appear as verbs med.
m or v (see 44), so especially tamu 'spin, weave' = inia; there
also seems to be some connexion between la-mil 'shut in all round,
surround' and mb. The existence of u in Assyrian is of course
not proved by the verbs just mentioned.
, In 61, 1 the conjecture was hazarded that verbs 115,
med. 1 and * have their origin in a root consisting
of two consonants with a for their medial vowel,
airl in 64 an attempt was made to prove this
theory from the permansive forms of the Qal.
Another proof we are inclined to see in nominal for-
mations like makdnu, in so far as the explanation of
such forms from makuanu etc. is as impossible as
that of the adj. tabu from taiabu, or of the infs. tdru,
tabu from taudru, taidbu is unnecessary (v. 64), not
to mention turru = tuuuuru. Into these stems with
medial #, internal vowel change must also have pene-
trated at a very early period (observe kan and ken in
the perm, even), in consequence of which they grad-
ually expanded to stems with medial u or, following
a tendency to triliteralism ; this explains how a noun
like the Assyr. suru can only be explained from a hypo-
thetical taur, and how verbal forms like kain (imp. II 1)

betray a formation on the model of the triliteral verb.
All this, however, must not lead us to explain all
the derived forms of these stems on one and the same
plan. - - The two verbs tf"il and TD occupy, as has
been remarked, a position peculiar to themselves: the
former takes the same form ibd' in the pret. as in the
pres. Qal, and in the pret. I 2 ibttf\ the latter in the pret.
Qal has sometimes mar, andr (e. g. Ill R 15 col. II 19.
Esarh. II 31. Neb. II 25 etc.; in fact it is much the
more common form of the two) sometimes inir, anir
(I R 35 No. 3, 13, a-nir V R 9, 122); since elsewhere
in Assurb. mar is the favourite form (e. g. V R 4, 49),
it is possible that we should give to the sign nir the
phonetic value nar. For ibd* and mar as forms of the
pret. and present, see 87 above. Alongside of the
regular forms of the present Qal, such as imat,
isdm, we find an interesting series of presents which
are formed from the preterite, retaining the vowel of
the latter, but sharpening the final radical (cf. 90 a,
note). The following passages may be noted, in which
there can be no doubt that the forms in question
have a present signification: 'Sin without (?) whom
city and country cannot be founded nor i-tur-ru
asruUu restored' (V R 64 col. II 27), i-sur-ru 'they
wander about' (IV R 5, 39 a, also e. g. 1, 25 a), ultu
libbasa i-nu-uh-hu 'as soon as her heart will calm

itself (Desct. rev. 16); i-tlb libbasu 'his heart is glad'
(Nimr. Ep. 9, 41), 'Nebuchadnezzar who di-in mi-sa-ri
i-din-nu? (V R 55, 6), 'Ishtar who, like Shamash, the
ends of heaven and earth ta-hi-ta surveys' (II R 66
No. 1, 3 cf. 8), i-hi-lu mdtdti isddsina 'the foundations
of the countries shake' (Shalm. Mo. obv. 8). The same
has been observed in the case of the Iftaneal (I 3)
no examples of I 2 occur - - thus: is-sa-nun-du 'he
drives away' (IV R 5, 32 a), it-ta-nu-ur-ru, 'he returns'
(rel. IV R 16, 42 a), im-ta-nu-ut-tu 'they will die' (K.
196 rev. Ill 7); cf. 90, b, note. The place of the
Shafel in these verbs is taken by the form III n 1
(v. 85), as was the case with the verbs med. tf dis-
cussed in 106. Cf. pret. tul-mit 'thou didst kill'
(IV R 30, 12 b), us-U(-) 'he, she broke out' (Desct.
obv. 65. IV R 20 No. 1 obv. 4); uslib 'I made good,
beautiful, joyful'; pres. tu-sa-za-a-za (V R 45 col.
VI 54); imp. su-mit 'kill' (M. 55 col. I 20), su-U-i-ma,
'bring and' ; part, musmitu 'killing' (e. g. V R. 46, 41 b) ;
inf. sutubbu 'make good, joyful' (Assurb. Sin. 121, 38.
IV R. 12, 22).
Noteworthy miscellaneous forms.
I 1, Perm, see 89. Cf. also 'the forest whose
trees (i-su) $i-i-hu are lofty' (IV R 18, 60 a). Pret.
iduk, i-ku-us 'he set snares' (IV R 16, 6b, surely from
TDIp, though akin to a-ka-lu fljpl II R 35, 52 e) ; ifib,

isih, written i-si-hu, but also i-si-e-hu (Sarg. Cyl. 38).
In the same way from fljifc, alongside of i-mi-sii, a-mi-i$
we find i-me-su, and even e-me-is (Assurb. Sm. 37, 4)
and I 2 im-te-es (IV R 58, 35 a), all written with e.
Cf. also a-ir 'I went forth' (III R 38 No. 2 rev. 63),
'i-ram-ma 'he went and' (IV R 15, 14 a), i-se-, a-se- 'he,
I fled', also i-sii-. Pres. i-dak (III R 65, 59 b), i-kan,
i-ka-na (III R 58, 10. 16b), a-ma-a-tu 'I die' (K. 31,
48), 'Nergal who i-na-ar-ru ga-ri-e-su subdues his
foes' (III R 38 No. 1 obv. 4), ni-na-a-ra (III R 15 col.
I 9); ta-sa-ma, tar and 'i-ir-ru (rel.), i-sa- 'he flees'.
Imp. nu-uh 'rest', ku-ti 'present' (fern., V R 34 col.
Ill 44), du-u-ku 'kill ye'; si-i-mi si-ma-tus 'appoint him
as his portion' (E. M. II, 339), ki-sim-ma (II R 66
Nr. 2, 9). Part, sa-i-du 'a sporting dog' (II R 6, 28 b),
'hunter' (IV R 27, 23 b), da-a-a-ik-tum i. e. dd'iktum
(IV R 57, 52 a) ; ha-a-it, ha- -it 'seeing', da-(a-)i$, ka-is
'presenting' (Assurn. I 9). Cf. 64 p. 156.
II 1. Pret. u-si-ik, u-si-ka 4 I oppressed', u-ka-a-
a-is (ukffis = ukd'is) 'I presented' (Senhb. Bav. 29),
elsewhere u-ka-i-sa, u-da-i-su. Pres. u-ka-a-sa 'I
butchered' (IV R 68, 20 a), tu-na-a-ha, tu-ta-a-ra,
tu-na- etc. (V R 45). Imp. ka-in in the masc. prop,
name A$ur-bel-ka-in (C a 55), elsewhere contracted, as
in ter 'bring back', fern. ki-in-ni\ ti-ib-bi sere a 'keep
in health my body' (V R 34 col. Ill 46). Part, muniru,

musim, mu-ni-i* i-rat Kakme (Lay. 33, 9). Inf. turru,
nuhhu, also tubbu st. cstr. tub 'being in health, to be
kept in health', which, therefore, must not be taken
as a noun from a st. ITB ; cf. passages like Esarh. VI
42: tu-ub sere hu-ud libbi nu-wn-mur kabitti.
Ill 1 or rather III 11 v. 115. Here cf. also us-id
'he solemnly established' (st. ^Titf^ V R 55, 49).
I 2. Pret. im-tu-ut^Q^ she died'. \nLki-ta-a-a-u-lu
'screaming' (V 1147,32. 33 a). For tiduku cf. 83 note.
II 2. Pret. uk-tin 'I laid, placed' (Khors. 67), ut-
te-ir-si 'he returned to her' (Desct. rev. 39 ff.).
I 3. Pres. see 115.
Quadriliteral Verbs. In addition to the prop- 117.
er quadriliteral stems mentioned in 61, 3, stems,
that is, composed of four consonants such as robn
(primitive signification: rumpere) and Ttths, we have
here to consider certain quadriliteral stems which have
been developed from roots of three consonants ; such
are the quadriliterals derived from nominal stems in
it by the retention of u as the final radical, as, for
example, robs III 1 'make wide' from palku 'wide',
nD^is IV 1 'cease' (cf. "pa 'shut, bolt') and a few
others. In the case of ?-n& IV 1 'be bright', ?lbD (or
?BbD, syn. it would appear of eberu, Hebr. *\y$) and
others, it is possible that we may have proper quadri-
literal stems with an tf as the final radical. The

future must give us more light on this point. None
of these proper, or primary, and secondary quadri-
literal verbs is found in the Qal; the stems as yet
met with are - to keep meanwhile for shortness'
sake to the terminology employed in the triliteral
verb a Piel (II 1), a Shafel (III 1), an Ishtafal (III
2) and a Nifal with its t and J-w-stems (IV 1 3).
II 1. Pres. 'whoever shall deface and uh-ha-ra-
am-ma-tu destroy the image' (I R 27 No. 2, 86).
III 1. Pret. usbalkit 'he caused to revolt', u-sa-
~bal-kit do. (Assurb. Sm. 284, 97), us-har-mH (1. sing.,
V R 3, 69. Senhb. Bav. 54), utparzih (Neb. Grot. II
38), 'Tiamat us-pal-ki opened wide (her mouth' K. 3437
rev. 17), uspardi 'I caused to shine' (Senhb. Bell. 61),
cf. also u-se-kil-bU'U (3. plur., Senhb. Sm. 91, 62).
Pres. usharmat 'he will destroy' (I R 27 No. 2, 39),
u-sa-bal-kat 'I break open' (the doors,, Desct. obv. 18);
or should the sign kat ( 9 No. Ill), as in tu-sa-bal-
kat (V R 45 col. VI 53), be here read kut, as is sug-
gested by u-sa-bal-ku-tu 'they will break open' (V R
54, 19 c) and by the remark made below on the inf.
IV 1? Part, musharmit (Assurn. I 35), muspardu
(Assurn. 18). Inf. suparku 'cause to cease' (Tig. V41),
The same form occurs as an adjective (v. 88, b, note),
or perhaps better as a permansive, in sii-pal-ka-a
MMniSu (V R 65 col. II 15).

III 2. Pre t. us-ta-bal-ki-tu (3. plur., IV R 57 57 a).
IV 1. Pret. ipparsid 'he fled' plur. ipparsidu(ni),
ibbalkit 'he rebelled' plur. ib~balkitu(ni), abbalkit 'I cross-
ed'; ippardi (ippirdi) ( was merry, joyful', ikkilmanni
'he hath looked upon me' (IV R 10, 49 a), lik-kil-
mu(-$u) 'may they look upon him' (e. g. Tig. VIII 75;
li-ki-el-mu-su IV R 45, 32), i-kil-bu-u (3. plur., Senhb.
Sm. 92, 69). Pres. ip-pa-ra-as-sid 'he flees' (IV R 26,
45 a), ibbalakkit 'he penetrates' (IV R 16, 32 a) ; ippiriddi
'is merry, joyful' (Desct. rev. 16. Ill R 61, 10 b), ap-
pa-ra-ak-ka-a 'I cease' (V R 63, 20 a). Part, mup(p)-
arku 'ceasing' (Id 'everlasting'). Inf. naparsudu
'flee', nabalkutu 'be rent asunder'; naparkii 'cease',
whence Id naparkd 'unceasingly, perpetually' (Neb.
Senk. II 25), ni-kil-mu-u (e. g. II R. 38, 10 f. h), ni-
kil-bu-ii (K. 64 col. Ill 9 12). The same form, used as
an adj. (v. 88, b, note), occurs in napardii, nepardu,
nipirdu 'bright, merry', me Id na-pa-ar-ku-ti 'perennial
waters' (Nerigl. II 10), napalsuhu and napahuhtu 'low
seat' (S c 270. II R 23, 8 a); we ought, accordingly, for
the fern, na-bal-kat-twn (kat sign 9 No. Ill) to read
na-bal-kut-tum 'rebellion' (V R. 20, 44 f); cf. under
III 1 above and see 65 No. 35 end.
IV 2. Pret. it-ta-pal'Si-ih (Nimr. Ep. XII col. IV
11. 12), ittapardi (ittapirdi, V R 47, 29 b), it(t)a-bal-
kutu 'they rebelled' (Assurn. I 103. Ill 27), so too it-
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 21

ta-bal-kat 'he rebelled' (Assurn. I 75, /cat second sign
9 No. 121) and a(t)-ta-bal-kat 'I crossed' (kat some-
times second sign 9 No. 121, sometimes No. Ill) are
better read ittabalkut, attabalkut. Pres. it-ta-pa-ar-ka
'he ceases' (V R 25, 18 b). Part. muttaSrabitu (IV R
2, 5. 42 b), Inf. i-tab-lak-ku-tu 'be rent asunder' (IV
R 67, 49 b); i-te-ik-Um-mu-u (V R 16, 45 d), i-te-ik-lib-
bu-u (V R 41, 57. 60 d, placed along with itaktumu).
IV 3. Pret. asar it-ta-nap-ras-si-du 'whither he
had fled' (V R 10, 14). Pres. ittanablakkatu 'they
break through, march across' (V R 1, 27 etc.).
2) Following on these quadriliteral verbs, pro-
perly so called, those quadriliterals may most con-
veniently be discussed that are secondary develop-
ments from triliteral verbs by repetition of the
last radical.
d) Assyrian stems such as bbptj, TITO etc., which
correspond to form IX of Arabic and the Pi f lel or
Pu c lal of Hebrew. As is shown by the noun saharratu
compared with sahrartu (v. 65 No 29 note b), there
is a certain connexion between these verbal stems
and nominal stems with the third radical sharpened
v. 65 (Nos. 20 ff.).
Simple Stem. Permansive: 'the city, like a
cloud in (istu) the sky lii-ka-lu-la hung suspended'
(Assurn. Ill 51. Shams. II 48, identical with 3. f. plur.),

'a mountain peak which like a cloud in (iStu) the sky
su-kal-lu-la-at hung suspended' (Shalm. Mon. rev. 70;
kal 9 No. 107), cf. Assurn. I 62, where sukalula ap-
pears to be a variant of $ukululat\ 'he who Suparruru
spread out' (Tig. VII 58). Preterite: 'the sea uSharir
narrowed itself (Nimr. Ep. XI, 125), usparir 'he spread
out' (e. g. K. 3437 rev. 12). Inf. su-gam-mu-mu 'roar*
(of lions, II R 21, 18 d), su-ka-lu-lu 'hang suspended'
(S b 145). $u-har-ru-ru 'be narrow', or 'narrow, op-
pressed, hampered' (V R 19 lib) and sii-par-ru-ru (S b
237) may be taken as infinitives or (v. 88, b, note)
as adjectives.
t-stem. Pret. ustahriru pdnusu 'his countenance
was wistful, anxious' (Nimr. Ep. 9, 45).
n-stem. Inf. or adj. na-zar-bu-bu (Third Creation-
tablet obv. 21).
&) We would also mention the altogether unique
form su-ka-mu-mu 'standing or to stand upright' (II R,
44, 8 d), from which is derived us-ka-ma-am-mu 'they
take their stand' (IV R 30 No. 1 rev. 6).
As regards the union of the verb with the 118.
pronominal suffixes (cf. 56, b), all needful in-
formation may be got from paradigm C. If the suffix
is to be appended to a verbal form ending in a short
vowel, it does not, as has been already more than
once remarked, cause the tone to fall on this short

vowel and, so falling, to lengthen it, but the Assyrians
pronounced iptisu, ar-di-su, li-ki-iu 'take him', ri-si-su
'conceive for him' (love, and such like), etc. with the
accent on the first syllable. Orthographical varieties
like a-sim-me-si (IV R 52, 14 a), i-pi-te-$u, u-se-me-su
can prove nothing to the contrary. For cases like ab-bi-
e-u 'I accosted, hailed him', however, see 53, d, note.

A. The several parts of speech
in their simplest combinations.
1. The Substantive
in connexion with a pronominal suffix, an adjective or another substantive.
a) With a pronominal Suffix.
The place of the suffix to the noun is sometimes 119.
supplied by the independent personal pronoun with
the force of a genitive or accusative ( 55, b), as if,
for 'my house', we should say '(this) house of mine'.
It is always so in the royal greeting: sulmu ctsi libbaka
lu tdbka (or IMakunu lu tdbkunusi, e. g. K. 312, 3 f.).
attu'a, attunu ( 55, c, (3), also, serve in the Achseme-
nian inscriptions as mere representatives of the
suffix, e. g. bita at-tu-nu 'our house' (Beh. 27) ; in fact
the suffix may even be employed at the same time
without receiving thereby any special emphasis,
e. g. abu'a attua 'my father' (K III, 2), attu'a abu'a
Ustaspi 'my father is Hystaspes' (Beh. 1). Such special
emphasis is, however, bestowed upon the suffix by
placing kdsi etc., before it. With the illustrations.

already given in 55, b, compare further: mannu sa
ka-a-$u Id idibbubu kurdiku 'who should not proclaim
thy strength?' (0 Merodach, IV R 46, 27 a).
A phrase in apposition, referring to a person in-
dicated by a pronominal suffix, is introduced by sa.
Observe Assurb. Sm. 74, 18: Sa epi$ arduti u nddin
mandatti lillikid suppuka 'as of one doing homage and
paying tribute may thy request come before him'.
120. Two substantives closely connected in sense
may take the suffix only with the second of the two:
narkabdte u ummdnate-ia (Tig. I 71. II 43), narkdbdti
sise-ia 'my chariots and horses' (Senhb. VI 22); a third
example will be found in 122 end. But cf. also
Shalm. Ob. 149. 176: ina pa-na-at ummdni* a kardsCa
'at the head of my army, of my camp'.
b) With an Adjective.
121. Position of the adjective. The adjective is
placed, in most cases, after the substantive, before it,
however, wherever any stress is to be laid upon the
adjective; hence rabitu(rri) kdsu or kdtsu 'his great
(strong) hand' (Assurn. I 39. Sarg. Cyl. 26), kdbtu
nir beluti'a 'the heavy yoke of my sovereignty' (Esarh.
II 21), rapsu nagu Jaudi, 'the wide Land of Judah'
(Senh. Const. 15), rapMti mdtdtiNa-i-ri (Assurn. Balaw.
19), sakuti Istdr (Assurb. Sm. 120, 27), akrdte napU-

tesunu 'their dear life' (Senhb. V 77), ina emki
'in his wise heart' [(Desct. rev. 11), 'Ur and sittdtim
mahdzd the other cities' (V R 35, 5), utakkina dalihtu
mdtsu 'I made secure his disordered country' (Khors.
52). The adj. is even placed before the preposition in
Assurb. Sm. 76, 27: rapaSti kabal tdmtim 'in the wide
Agreement of Subst. and Adj. 1) in respect of 122. Looking at 66, we are inclined to think that
mursu Id tabu, ta-ni-ha marsam (ace., IV 26, 63 b) was
quite as good Assyrian as sad-da-a mar-su 'the inac-
cessible mountain' (Senhb. Bav. 42), malki i$aru 'a just
king' (he sought, V R 35, 12). 2) In respect of state.
Subst. and adj. stand in the absol. state; constructions
like the following are less common : asar ruki 'a distant
place' (IV R 14 No. 1, 2), issur mu-bar-su 'a feathered
bird' (Shams. II 49), lisdn limuttu 'an evil tongue' (K.
246 col. I 32), Marduk mar (sign 9 No. 157) restu
sa apsi (IV R 22, 30 b). For these the student is re-
ferred to the beginning of 66. The follg. are striking:
ana ka-at dam-ka-a-ti 'to the gracious hands' (IV R 8,
49 b), pan Umnuti 'the evil contenance' (K. 246 col. 131).
3) In respect of number and gender. The so-called
constructio ad sensum is frequently found with mdtu,
when the reference is not to the country but to its
inhabitants. This is always the case with the name

of Media; observe Senhb. II 30 ff.: a mdt Ma-da-a-a
rukuti sa ina s arrant abe'a mamman Id ismu zikir
mdti$un mandatasunu kabitta amhur. Cf. also mdt Man-
na-a-a dalhute (Lay 33, 9), w lt Subari sapsute Id magire
(Tig. II 89, cf. Ill 88 f.). The two collective nouns
issuru 'birds, the bird tribe' (issur same muttaprisa
Tig. VI 83, issur pl same muttaprisa I R 28, 31 a, but
also issur same muttaprisuti III R 9 No. 3, 56) and
uku 'people' (v. Dicty. p. 236) may be joined with the
plural of the adj. We shall have to come back to
this construction in 141.
A single adj. referring to two substs. is found
V R 35, 14: kdta u tibbasu isara 'his just hand and
heart'; for the suffix v. 120.
c) with another Substantive in Subordination.
123. The subordination of a subst. in the genitive to
another substantive is expressed 1) by the so-called
nexus of the construct state. For illustrations
and also for the numerous exceptions see 72 a and b.
I To the examples there given with i in the first member
/ instead of the sing, of the^ construct, we would here
' add: i8-di kusse sarrutisu (ace., Tig. VIII 78. IV R 18,
35 b), alakti ilutisunu (ace., Neb. I 8). Note.also the
late and incorrect construction malikutim kullata nap-

har from a cylinder of Cyrus (V R 35, 12) instead of
malikut kullat naphari. 2) By $a before the substantive
in the genitive (v. 58). This periphrasis by means of
sa is necessary when a suffix, adjective or other form
comes between the nomen regens and the genitive.
Examples: sulullasunu sa laldme (V R 10, 64), apil
sipri-ia sa sulme 'my messenger of peace' (accus., V R
3, 21) ; langu siru sa Bel 'high-priest of Bel' (IV R 44,
13), namsaru zaktu sa epes tahdzi 'the sharp battle-
sword' (Assurb. Sm. 124, 55), mure baltute $a rimdni
'the living young of a wild-bull' (IV 28, 6 a); sarrani kdli-
sunu sa Na-i-ri (Shams. II 3f.). Cf. also erel sarruti'a
sa kirib Dur-ilu (Assurb. Sm. 127, 85). 3) By a prono-
minal suffix appended to the nomen regens and an
explanatory sa before the genitive. Cf. the continually
recurring phrase: X aplu-su $a (son of) Y; also dldnisu
sa 'the cities of such and such a one' (Shams. II 25 f.).
In longer constructions, when the genitive has a cer-
tain emphasis laid upon it or when it receives further
qualifying additions, it is very frequently placed at
the head of the sentence with sa, the pronominal
suffix then referring back to this anticipated genitive.
Cf. Sd N.N.... astakan abiktasu (Senhb. I 19. Ill 45),
Sd Lu-li-i... ekim sarrusu (Senhb. Const. 13), Sa m
Ma-da-a-a... mandat(t)asunu amliur 'the tribute of
the Medes I received' (Senhb. II 30), Sd ASurbdnpal...

epe rubutisu sabat (Assurb. Sm. 73, 16), sa sarri...
ina imnisu 'into the king's right hand' (IV R 18, 39 a).
d) With another Substantive in Apposition.
124. The follg. are examples of the various kinds of
apposition in Assyrian: erinu zululu 'the cedar roofing'
(Neb. Ill 30. 43. 46, erinum sululisu 'its cedar roofing'
Neb. Grot. II 19), Rammdn musaznin zunnum nuhsu
'R. who sendeth rain overmuch' (Neb. IV 58), hurdsu
ihzu 'gold that serves as a setting, a gold setting'
(v. Dicty. under Th^J; 'Astartarikku Mratsu sarrat
his consort the queen' (V R 66 col. II 27) must be
viewed ace. to the commencement of 66. An appo-
sition in Assyrian may often be rendered in English
by an adjective or a participle, e. g. ekallu subat sar-
rutisu 'his royal palace', alanilu dannuti bit nisirtisu
his strong, well guarded cities' (Senhb. Const. 37.
Senhb. II 9 f.; cf. Neb. Bab. II 22: Bdbilu ana nisirtim
askun). aple nabnit and dldni bit, just mentinoned,
serve at the same time to illustrate one of the most
important rules affecting apposition in Assyrian, ac-
cording to which substantives, even when they stand
in apposition to other substantives in the plural,
remain themselves in the singular. Cf. also V R 64
col. II 40: ^Samas u Istdr si-it libbisu his (Sin's) own
children'. Hence also dldni dannuti bit durdni 'strong,

well-walled cities', literally, strong cities, dwelling-
place with walls'. Participial expressions to
include these at this stage - - are subject to the
same law; cf. the frequent sarrdni dlik mahri'a 'the
kings, my predecessors', sarrdni dlik mahri abea
(Esarh. V 34 etc.), arddni ddgil pdnVa (V R 3, 83 etc.),
'Asshur andlshtar rct'imu sanguti'a (Sentib. Kuy. 4, 10),
nise dsib libbisu 'the inhabitants of that place', bele'a
dlik idi'a (Assurb. Sm. 39, 17). So also V R 33 col.
VII 39 ff. But cf. 'the great gods', rffimut sarrutia
(Shalm. Mo. obv. 3).
Place of the word or phrase in apposition.125.
The word or phrase etc. in apposition usually stands
after the substantive to which it belongs. Only when
special emphasis is laid on the apposition - - which
is often the case in elevated style, in particular -
do we find it preceding its substantive. Cf. bent uzni
ildni Marduk 'the wisdom of the gods, Merodach' (I R
52 No. 6, 6. Neb. II 3. Ill 3 etc.), belu rabu Marduk
(V R 60 col. Ill 7), nur ildni Samal (V R 3, 113); see
also Sm. 954 obv. 26. 28. rev. 12, 14 and many other
passages. 'Merodach, the lord of deities' is always
rendered bel ildni Marduk. We rarely meet with Sarru
placed first (V R 33 col. VI 42: sarru Agum; V R 61
col. VI 35 f.: sarri Nabu-bal-iddina).
The favourite mode of expressing the idea of 126.

'all, the whole' is by placing kalu (gen. ka-li-e V R 34
col. Ill 44, elsewhere always ka-li, ace. always ka-ld)
or gimru 'totality, all' in apposition accompanied by a
retrospective suffix: mdtdti kalisina 'all lands' (Assurn.
I 16. Ill 17), but also ell kalisina mdtdti 'upon all lands'
(Assurn. I 17. Ill 118), mdtdte nakire kalisun (Khors.
14); ildni gimrasun 'all gods', A-nun-na-ke gimirlunu
(IV R 19, 45 a). This does not, of course, exclude such
constructions as kal malke 'all princes', kala teneseti
'all men' (Neb. Grot. Ill 52); gimri mdtisu rapastim
(Senhb. II 11). gi-mir ma-lik 'all princes', in the text
of Assurbanipal V R 62 No. 1, 3, is quite anomalous;
strange, too, is the use of the adv. kalis in: sa ka-li-is
kibrdta 'from all regions' in Cyrus' cylinder V R 35,
29, though it is also found in Shamshi-Ramman : mcthir
bilti u i-gi-si-i sa ka-lis kibrdti (Shams. I 38), according
to which Shams. I 28. Salm. Ob. 16 murtedu ka-lis md-
tdte is to be translated, 'who rules all lands'.
gabbu also serves to express the ideas of 'all' and
'whole', but in this case no retrospective suffix is
employed; cf. mdtdte gabbu 'all lands' (IV R 52 No. 1,
21), uku gabbi 'the whole people' (Beh. 16 etc.), sdbe
be! hiti gaUbu 'all debtors' (Assurn. I 82), ina naphar
mat Asur gab-be 'in the whole extent (lit. totality) of
Assyria' (Tig. IV 101 f.), with the same piling up of
words for 'all' that we find in mdtdte sa naphar(i)

(or lisdndta) gabbi 'the lands of each and every
tongue' (B, 3. 0, 16). Expressions like mutu gabbiSa
(Assurn. II 47) are less frequent.
e) With another Substantive in Co-ordination.
The usual construction is the union of two sub- 127.
stantives by the copula w, but very frequently the
substantives are simply placed side by side without
a conjunction (asyndeton): 'of heaven and earth' is
'almost uniformly expressed by same u irsiti(m), only
in rare cases is the copula wanting (e. g. Assurn. II
135. II R 66 No. 1, 1); on the other hand biltu man-
dattu, for example, is quite as common as biltu u man-
dattu 'custom and tribute' ; so, also, 'Nebo and Mero-
dach' is now Nabu u Marduk, now only Nabu Marduk.
The same applies to adjectives and infinitives. The
following deserve notice on account of the construct
form of the first noun: gamdl u suzubu tidi (IV R 67,
35 a), ana siizub u nirdrute Kummuhi (Tig. II 17); si-hir
ra-bi 'small and great' (IV R 19, 12 a), alongside of
sihru u rabu (e. g. V R 5, 122).
Asyndeta like isten ume Sind ume ul uk-ki (III R 15
col. I 10) we should render by: 'one or (much less)
two days I waited not'. In Assurn. II 34 : the mountain
Nisir sa lad " Lullu ^ sad ^ Kinipa ikabus'uni' and Esarh.
II 25 'the inhabitants of Tilasurri, the name of which

in the mouth of the common people is dlu Mehrdnu dlu
Pitdnu have we in each case two popular names?
Appendix: Numerals. Adverbs.
The Numerals.
128. The oft recurring expression 'the four regions' (kib-
ratu, also tubkatu, saru, rarely suku) is particulary in-
structive with regard to the union of cardinal num-
bers with a substantive. We find a) kib-rat irbitti(m)
(ir-bit-ti, irbit-ti, irbit-ta etc.), where kib-rat, to judge
from kib-ra-a-ti ir-bi-it-tim (V R35, 20) and tu-bu-ka-tum
ir-bit-ti is certainly to be regarded as plural (kibrdf) ;
b) kib-rat ar-ba-\-i) or kibrdtim ar-ba-im (gen., Hamm.
Louvre 15). Of these two constructions kibrdt(i) ir-
bittim and arbai three explanations are possible,
between which, in view of what has been stated in
72, it is difficult to decide. First, the substantive
may be regarded as in the constr. state ('the regions
of the quartette', literally) ; or, secondly, the numeral
see under d) and cf. Hebr. fljbflj nto 'three daughters.'
1 Chr. 25, 5 - - may be considered as in apposition
to the substantive ('the regions, a quartette'); or finally,
we may hold that both modes of expression were in
use side by side, c) ana ir-bit-ti sa-a-re 'to the four
winds' (Khors. 164). This construction - - feminine

of the numeral in the constr. state followed by a
masculine substantive in the plural --is also found
in ir-bit nasmade 'team of four' (K. 3437 obv. 16), e-
lal-ti ume 'three days' (IV R 61, 32 b), si-bit Mre 'the
seven winds' (IV R 66, 47 a); V nirmak sipirri (Tig.
II 30) must accordingly be read hamSat nirmak. d) ha-
am-ma-mi $a ar-ba- (Sarg. Cyl. 9. Khors. 14). The
numeral occurs without sa in kursinndsu IN-bi or ba
(III R 65, 39. 43 b), but here too it is to be under-
stood as being in apposition. It stands in apposition
at the head of the expression in sibittisunu ildni limnuti
'the seven evil spirits' (IV R 5, 70 a). For the number
'two' cf. sind u-me (v. 127).
The combination a-na su-uk ir-bit-ti (IV R 13, 52 b), su-
ki ir-bit-ti (K. 2061 col. II 7) we would mention at least in a
note. Just as in Hebrew, when a numeral is joined to HEX
'ell, cubit', the latter is very frequently introduced by 2, e. g.
SiBBS ssnx so in Assyr. ammatu is introduced by ina; e. g. c an
edifice a 95 ina iten ammat rabitim arkat 31 ina isten ammati
rdbitim rapsat' (Esarh. V 32 f.).
The Assyrian ordinal numbers are treated quite 1 29.
like adjectives: in their original construction they,
follow the subst., hence arah samnu (for arah instead
of arhu v. 122, 2), ina sa-ni-ti Unuti, ina Sa-ni-tum
salultu 'a second, a third time' (Beh. 55. 51); since,
however, in longer sentences of reports of different
expeditions or years, the ordinals stand in emphatic

contrast to each other, we find them in most cases
placed before their substantives, thus: ina mah-re-e
gir-ri-ia (but also ina gir-ri-ia mah-re-e Shams. I 53).
ina Il-e, III etc., VHI-e girria (Senhb.), ina VHI-e,
IX-e gir-ri-ia (V K 5, 63. 7, 82), ina sal-si gir-ri-ia
(Senhb. Kuy. 1, 18), ina mah-re-e pale-ia (I R 49 col.
III 9f.), a-di XV pale-ia (Khors. 23); the orthographical
varieties ina mah-re-e palu pl -ia (which must also be
read pale-ia, Shalm. Mo. obv. 14), a-di V palu (pl) -ia
(Tig. VI 45) must not lead us so far astray as to wish
to regard girre'a as plural; it is much more likely
that the plural determinative after pale is due to a
mistake. Cf. in addition to the above, ina sa-ni-e ta-
lu-ki 'on a second expedition' (Shalm. Balaw. IV 5),
ina Salultisatti (but ina satti salulti Khors. 144). Instead
of the ordinal of 'one', when used in opposition to
'second, third etc.', we may have the cardinal; thus:
IV E, 5, 13 a: isten 'the first' (followed by 'the second'
up to 'the seventh'), Desct. obv. 42: iSten bdbu 'the
first gate' (followed by: 'the second' up to 'the seventh'
gate), Nimr. Ep. XI, 136: istSn umu 'the first day'
(folld. by: sand umu, salsa umu or uma, rebd umu or
uma, hassu, VI-$a, sebd uma or sebu umu). Cf. the
same usage in is-ta-at 'firstly, in the first place' (follow-
ed by sanutum up to sebutum, 'secondly' up to 'se-
venthly') Nimr. Ep. XI 204 (v. 77).

A distributive number occurs Nimr. Ep. XI,
149: si-ba u si-la aclagur 'seven incense vessels each'
(see details in Dicty., No. 77). For a-di (a-de)
VH-su (V E 6, 10), a-di si-U-su 'till seven times'; a-di
istd-tu, a-di sind(sii) 'for the first, second time' and
similar expressions v. Dicty. p. 127.
The Adverb.
Of the adverbs those in is and es are worthy of 130.
notice from a syntactical point of view inasmuch
as they are capable of taking a noun after them in
the genitive: cf. kakkabis samdmi 'like the stars of
heaven' (Neb. Ill 12), identical in meaning with kima
kakkal) samdme (IV R 3, 12 a), la-ba-ris ume 'in con-
sequence of the becoming old of the days, in conse-
quence of old age' (its foundation had become unstable,
weak, Senhb. VI 32; Senhb. Const. 58), ahrdtas (ume)
'in the future (of the days), in future' (without ume
e. g. Khors. 53. V R 34 col. II 48, with ume e. g. I R
7 F, 18).
2. The Verbal Nouns: Participle and
The Assyrian participle takes the object de-131.
pendent on it in the genitive, the two together forming
the members of a construct nexus. Hence nds hatti sirti,
D e lit z sell, Assyrian Grammar. 22

nds kasti elliti (V R 55, 8), emid sarrdni 'the subduer
of kings' (V R 55, 2), Id pdlih belittCa, 'Nebo pdkid
kissat lame irsitim' (I R 35 No. 2, 3), rakib abtibi 'who
rides upon the whirlwind', tup-sar sdlir nare anni (V
R 56, 25), mu'abbit Jimmiti (Assurn. I 8), munakkir
Sitri'a (Senhb. VI, 71), namsaru inmalihip namtdri (IV
R 21, 65 a); 'my war-chariot sdpinat zd'ire' (Senhb.
V 77), pdtikat nabmti (V R 66 col. I 21. IV 63, 10 b),
'Sumalia dsibat reseti kabisat kuppdti (V R 56, 47), lu
mulamminat egirresu 'may she inspire them with evil
thoughts' (IV R 12, 43); Id kdnisut Amr (Tig. IV 8;
cf. with suffix: Id kdnsutesu Assurn. I 14. 36). For
mustappi klka-ri-e (IV R 14 No. 3, 14) with / in the
end of the first member, and also for the periphrasis sa
e. g. utukku kdmii sa ameli (K. 246 col. I 28), cf. 123,
1 and 2, and also 72, a there referred to. As excep-
tions of the same kind as those mentioned in 72, a
may be quoted ndsir kudurreti mu-kin-nu able (V R 55,
5), sdlilu Kassi (alongside of kdsid mC{t Aharri, ibid. 1. 10) ;
cf. also: Id pdliliu ilisu (IV R 3, 6 a), 'Ea pdtiku kal
gimri (E. M. II 339), mupattu titddte (Shalm. Mo.
obv. 8), ^sshur (or: the great gods) musarbu sar-
rutia, multaspiru teniset Bel (Tig. VII 50), etc. Details,
also, regarding the place where and the time when
the action denoted by the part, took place, are append-
ed in the genitive to the constr. state of the parti-

SYNTAX: 132 ixiaxmvE. 339

ciple, hence dlik pctni 'who goes at the head'; dlik
mahri do., fern, dlikat mahri (II R. 66 No. 1, 4), dlik
mah-ri-ia 'my predecessor', sarrdni dlik mahri dbe'a,
cf. dlik mah-ri-e-a IV R 17, 43 b; dlik idi 'who goes
at one's side', dlik i-di-sit or -ia 'his or my helper'?
also a-li-kut i-di-e-su (V R 4, 24); muttallik musi 'who
walks, roams about in the night-time' (IV R 24, 42 a).
For the rare cases in which the participle of the Qal is
preceded by its object after the manner of the finite verb, see
'73 p. 196, and note also, for example, IV E 3, 6 a: sa Btar
pa-ki-da Id i-8u-u 'whoever doth not respect the goddess Ishtar'.
The infinitive in Assyrian is either treated as a 132.
substantive, in which case its object becomes the se-
cond member of a construct nexus, e. g. ana epes
ardiiti'a 'to do me homage', naddn ildni 'the giving
back, restoration of the gods' (Esarh. Ill 7), sumkut(u)
nakire, nasah kudurri anni 'to pull up this boundary-
stone' (1 Mich. II 8), or it follows the construction
of the finite verb, in which case, however, it is always
preceded by its object (v. on this point 73 b above).
Cf. mita or miti lullutu, 'quickening of the dead' (IV
R 29, 18 a. 19, lib), simtum sdmu 'to appoint (one's)
fate, lot' (II R 7, 5 b), suttu pasdru 'interpret a dream'
(VR30, 13 f), kar-siakdlu 'calumniate', 'he assembled
his army ana mat nukurtim saldli' (K. 133 obv. 12),
ana mimma limni tarddi 'to drive away all evil' (IV R

21, 29 a), re'usina epesu 'to exercise his sway' (V K 7,
105), assu tabu napisti ume rukiiti naddnimma u kunnu
pale a (I entreated, Khors. 174), misir mdtisunu ruppusa
ikbiuni (Tig. I 49), assu lipit kdtVa suttume 4 to prosper
the work of my hands' (Senhb. Kuy, 4, 10), etc.
133. For the sake of emphasis, the infin. is joined
to the finite verb, in such cases as : 'lies in these lands
lu ma-du i-mi-du are assuredly on the increase' (Beh.
14), kdsu kisamma 'give, I pray thee!' (Nimr. Ep. 37,
8), 'the city hasdla ihsul he utterly destroyed' (v. Nimr.
Ep. 51, 6); for II 1 cf. adi zunnunu ina mdtisu iznunu
'till there was heavy rain in his land' (Assurb. Sm.
101, 22).
For the meanings of the inf., active and passive, v. 95 end.
As an illustration of the passive use of the inf., which is often
overlooked, I would here mention a single, but very important,
passage, viz : Beh. 36 ana Btibilu Id kasddu 'that Babylon may
not be captured, to prevent the capture of Babylon'; that the
words cannot by any possibility mean 'when Babylon was not
3 - et reached' (Bezold) is self-evident.
3. The finite Verb.
a) Signification and Use of the Tenses and Moods.
134. The signification of the various tenses in
Assyrian has been already discussed at length in 87
of the morphology, the permansive receiving, over
and above, special treatment in 89. For the use of


the tenses in prohibitive sentences v. 144, and cf.
87, c; for the protasis of an hypothetical sentence,
see 149. The moods the relative mood, the
precative, formed both from the preterite and from
the permansive, and the cohortative, from the preter-
ite, have also been discussed in 92 and 93; see,
in addition, for the relative mood 147 and 148, and
for the precative-cohortative 145. We would here
add the following brief remarks regarding the use of
the tenses and moods. 1) The present assumes the
meaning of 'shall' (i. e. of duty) even in other
than prohibitive sentences: tallak means not only 'thou
wilt go' but also 'thou oughtest to, thou shalt, go'.
Cf. 'whoever shall do so and so, him illalusu shalt
thou bind, etc.' (I R 7 F, 27), tusasbat 'thou' shalt
cause to be siezed' (IV 54 33 a), 'soldiers tasappar
thou oughtest to send' (IV R 54 No. 2, 34), ikammisma
kiam ikaWi 'he shall fall down and speak thus' (IV
R 61 No. 2), 'the king uMn shall place' (IV R 32. 33),
'what I know, atta tidi oughtest thou to know (IV R
7, 31 a, Peiser). Accordingly we find with the ne-
gative ul: pdnuka ul urrak 'thy countenance shall not
grow pale' (Assurb. Sm. 125, 69), 'the king ul isasi^
ul ikkal shall not speak, shall not eat' (IV R 32, 25.
30 a etc.). 2) The so-called relative mood (modus
relativus) is also used in principal clauses incor-

rectly, as was explained in 92, in place of the pre-
terite (which does not, per se^ end in a vowel); it is
also used however in some cases - - such a use is, at
least, possible to denote the pluperfect, which
might be quite easily explained by the fact that such
a pluperfect sentence from a logical point of view ap-
proaches very closely to a conjunctional sentence with
the conjunction omitted (cf. the examples given in
148, 3) : 'he had done so and so, then came to pass'.
An example beyond suspicion, however, is unknown
to me. Neb. Senk. I 19 e. g. (i)-ir-ta-ii salimu must
be translated simply 'he (Merodach) took pity' (not:
had taken) ; irtdsu, for which in any case, were it in
the relative mood, it would be better to write ir-ta-
su-u., is to be explained ace. to 108 (i. e. as standing
for irtdst).
b) Government of the Verb,
a) Pronouns governed ly the Veil}.
135. The place of the verbal suffix is occasionally
supplied by the independent personal pronoun with a
genitive or accusative signification ( 55 b), and in the
examples about to be quoted the suffixes represented
in this way have all the force of a dative: c the power-
ful arms which Asshur had granted ana a-ia-si (var.


ia-a-si] me' (Assurn. II 26); without ana: manna ia-a-ti
'he told it me' (V R 1, 63), iribika ia-a-si kdsu kisamma
'give me thy hibu (Nimr. Ep. 37, 8), itihhd ana kdsi
(ibid. 11, 11). These pronouns, however, must be
employed, in the first place, when a word in apposi-
tion is added to the person denoted by the suffix,
e. g. ia-a-ti Nabu-kudurri-usur... umdiranni 'me,
Nebuchadnezzar, he sent' (cf. V R 7, 94 etc.), he spoke
'to him, viz. to Nimrod' ana sdsuma ana Namrudu\ se-
condly, when more or less emphasis is to be laid on
the suffix: in this case the pronominal suffix must
never be dispensed with. Cf. lu (?) andku ana kdsunu
uUalukunitsi, at-tu-nu ia-a-si ulHld'inni ('but ye do not
enlighten me!' IV II 56, 46 f. a), 'the foundation-stone
of Naram-Sin ukaUim 'anni ia-a-si he (Shamash) showed
to me', (V R 64 col. II 60), ana a-a-si du-gul-an-ni
'look upon, unto me' (IV R 68, 29 b), 'so and so kdsa
lukUka will I announce to thee' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 10) T
sdhi akbis 'I spoke to him' (Neb. I 54), cf. also Assurn.
Ill 76: ana su-a-sii remiitu askunasu 'to him (himself)
I showed mercy'. *
The use of andku and attunu for the verbal suffix
is quite late and bad, all the more so that not the
slightest emphasis is meant to be put upon the suffix
(with dative force) thus represented. NR 9: mandattum
andku inassunu 'they bring me tribute'; NR 21 : andku

iddannassiniti 'he handed them (the countries) over
to me'; Beh. 4: 'Auramazda sarrutu andku iddannu.
Cf. finally S. 15 f. : 'the gods ana andku Ussuru'inni\
where a slight emphasis is laid upon 'me' at least.
136. When to a verbal suffix of the 3. pers. sing, or
plur., or to the pron. sdsu, sdsa, sdsimu ( 55, b) a
word is added to describe the state or condition of the
person denoted by the pronoun at the time of the
action in which he is concerned, this is done by means
of the abstract noun in ut with the appropriate no-
minal suffix. The same method is adopted when a
word is added to a preceding substantive or proper
name. The verbal suffix (which in the latter case has
a retrospective reference) may be present or wanting.
Examples: baltusu ina kdti asbatsu (Senhb. IV 38);
sdsu bal-tu-us-su isbatunimma 'him (himself) they cap-
tured alive' (V R 8, 24 ff.), sdsa bal-tu-us-sa ina kdti
asbat: 'the kings of the lands of Nairi baltusunu
kdti iksud' (Tig. V 9), 'who Hanno, the king of Gaza,
ka-mu-us-su useriba dhi Assu?*' (Sarg. Cyl. 19); Seni...
sallusu u kamusu ana alV~a ubla(su) 'Seni I brought
captive and bound to my city' (Tig. V 24).
The semi-adverbial use of the abstract noun in ut, joined
to the suffix of the 3 pers. (nssu=utsu) has possibly brought
about the formation of the two adverbs umussu and arhussu
mentioned in 80, b, p note.

J5) Substantives governed by the Verb.
The substantive, as the indirect object of the 137.
verb, is always introduced by ana\ as the direct
object, it generally stands in the accusative, which;
however, does not necessarily end in a (v. 66); in
either case the substantive precedes the verb, although
the converse arrangement is not unfrequent (details
in 142). Sometimes, however, the periphrasis with
' ana is also used for the accusative; cf. e. g. 'when
Anu and Bel ana ga-ti-ia umallu entrusted to me such
and such' (Hamm. Louvre I 14 if.), ana salat Uri nitu
ilmehi (III K 15 col. II 4) in both cases ana might
be dispensed with, since the verbs quoted govern
two accusatives (v. 139).
Of Assyrian verbs which, contrary to our idiom, 138.
govern the accusative, the follg. may be here men-
tioned: main 'be full of something' (e. g. I R 28, 7b),
sebu 'to take one's fill of something' (cf. II 1 with
two aces.: sizbu Id usabbu karasisunu, var. karassun,
'with milk they could not satisfy their stomach', V R
9, 67), semu 'hearken to, obey some one', apalu 'answer
some one' (e. g. Ea mdrasu Marduk ippal), nakdru
'rebel against some one' (but only when the object is
a verbal suffix, otherwise it is construed with itti, la-
pa-ni or ina kdt). ndhu and pasdhu 'to be quiet, com-

posed with regard to some person or thing' also take
the accusative of reference, cf. Assurb. Sm. 105, 66:
'Asshur's angry heart ul inuhsunuti ul ipSahhmuti kalitti
Istdr', also saldmu 'be freed from loss, be satisfied
with regard to something' (money lent, for example),
'get back one's money', cf. the phrase so common in
the contract tablets: adi kaspa isallimmu 'until he (the
creditor) get back his money'. No explanation is
required of the accus. with verbs of motion to ind-
icate the direction in which one goes or comes, e. g.
rebitam ina bd'ihi 'when he walks in the street' (IV R
26, 4b), sibuta lillik 'may he reach old age'(Khors. 191).
Special attention, on the other hand, is here called
to the ace. with verbs of swearing to denote the
person or thing by which one swears. Cf. for sakdru:
nis (ideogr. MU) Hani ana ahames iskuru 'by the name
of the gods they swore mutually' (Esarh. I 42), 'never
to do such and such ni-is Hani rabuti ina nare su-a-
tum iskur hath he sworn by the name of the great
gods upon this tablet' (1 Mich. 1 22), ade ni-is (var. MU)
Hani usaskirsunuti 'I made them swear (obedience to)
the laws by the name of the gods' (V R 1, 21 f. etc.).
So with tamii: nis same lit, tamdt nis irsitim lu tamdt
'by the name of heaven be thou exorcised, by the name
of earth be thou exorcised'! It is evident that ni-is
has in these expressions, to a certain extent, the

function of a preposition: to swear 'by' something;
cf. 81 a, end.
From the number of verbs that govern two accu-139.
satives we single out the follg. : saku 'give some one
something to drink' (me elluti sikisu IV R 26, 40 b),
saldhu 'sprinkle some one with something', pasdsu
'rub, anoint some person or thing with something,
e. g. with oil', sardpu 'dye something with something'
(cf, the frequent ddmesunu kima napdsi sadu lu asrup,
Assurn. I 53 etc. ; but also inct), suunu 'decorate some-
thing with something, produce some beautiful ob-
ject from something', emedu 'lay something upon some
one' (annu kdbtu emidsu 'a heavy punishment he laid >^V
upon him' V R8, 10), nadu 'put something, (such as
fetters) upon some one' (Padi l)i-ri-tu parzilli iddu
'Padi they had put into iron fetters', Senhb. II 70 f.),
sandku 'press something into something else', and
such like (e. g. 'the horses and oxen isnika sindesu
he put into harness, he harnessed, Senhb. V 30),
lamit 'surround some one with something' (nitum al-me-
su 'with war I surrounded him, I attacked him on all
sides, Senhb. V 13, 'the city niti alme Senhb. Bav. 44),
zummu 'to exclude some person or thing from some-
thing' (sa eribmu zummu nura, Desct. obv. 7. V R 6,
103). malidru 'to take, receive something from some
one': madatusu amhursu (Shalm. Ob. 177 etc.), kdtesun

liarre hurasi... sa laktesunu anihur 'from their hands
w w >-
I took their golden rings' (Senhb. VI 2f.).

B. The Sentence.
1. The simple Sentence.
a) Declaratory Sentences.
140. The follg. are examples of simple nominal sen-
tences with a noun or pronoun as subject and a noun
(subst., adj., or part.) as predicate: Ilu damku 'God
is gracious', andku NaMna^id 'I am Nabonidus'. The
predicate is often found at the head of the sentence
for the sake of emphasis, e. g. Beh. 100: parsdtum
si-na 'they are lies', V R 2, 123: sarru sa ilu idiisu
atta 'thou art the king whom God hath chosen'. In
view of the preceding and following sections no ad-
ditional examples are required either of complex
nominal sentences with a finite verb as predi-
cate, or of verbal sentences, consisting of or beginning
with a finite verb; in the latter case the object or
the adverbial adjuncts may take precedence.
141. Gender and number of the predicate are
determined, as a general rule, by the gender and
number of the subject. Numerous exceptions, however,
are found, the majority of which are due to the

principle of constructio ad sensum. For gender
cf. IV R 17, lib: mdtdte resunikka 'the countries hail
thee with joy'; for number cf. Tig. Ill 66 f.: mdt Adaus
lib talulzVa danna lu eduruma asarsunu lumasseru etc.
Cf. 122, 3. An exception due to the precedence of the
predicate (unless it be simply a case of careless treat-
ment of the gender, as explained in 90, c) occurs
perhaps in V R 35, 35: littaskaru amdta dunk? a 'let
words be spoken in my favour'. The want of concord
between subject and predicate Nimr Ep. 59, 4: nissd-
tum (plur.) iterub ina karsi'a 'sadness has entered into
my 3pirit', though admitting of explanation, still re-
mains anomalous ; the same remark applies to the
passage quoted at the close of 134, 1 : pdniika (plur.)
ul urrak.
For the union of one predicate with several
subjects observe V R 6, HOf. : ina ume u-ma $i u
Hani fibesa tabbu su-me ana belut mdtdti 'at the time
when she (Nana) and the gods, her parents, called my
name to bear rule over the lands'; tabbu is 3 pers.
fern, singular!
Place of the object dependent on thei42.
finite verb. In Assyrian the object dependent on
the finite verb may be placed either before or after
the verb, according as greater emphasis is to be
laid on the object or on the verb. Compare on the

one hand usahhir mdtsu 'I diminished his land' (Senhb.
II 18. Ill 26), 'the gods indru ga-re-ia subdued my
foes' (V R 4, 49), Id issuru mdmit ildni; on the other
dla (dldni) abltul akkur ina isdti asrup, kullat mata-
tisunu useknisa, (Assurn. I 23) and hundreds more.
For the position of the object before the infinitive
v. 132; this position is much less frequent with
the participle, v. 131 note. Before we pass from
the position of the object, I would mention here a
characteristic Assyrian construction, which consists
in short direct speeches being placed before the verb
kibu 'to speak', without an introductory umma. Cf. :
'Ishtar Id tapallah ikbd said: "fear not"! (Assurb. Sm.
123, 47); 'whoever ekhi ki mu-lu-gi ul nadinma ikabbu'
(1 Mich. II 17 f.), 'whoever andku Id i-di ikabM shall
say, "I know not" (I R 27 No. 2, 82 f.), 'whoever anna
mi-na ikabu (Assurn. Balaw. rev. 18 f.). e-ki-a-am i ni-
lik ikMsu "whither shall we go", they said to him'
(IV R 34, 29 a), 'if a father say to his son ul mdri
atta iktabi shall say: "thou art not my child", etc.
(V R 25, where the same position of the words in the
left column is alone sufficient to show that this 'Su-
merian' text is no re-translation of an original Assyrian
Semitic text).

b) Particular kinds of Sentences.
Negative declaratory sentences. The ne-143.
gative Id serves for the negation of substantives and
infinitives, of adjectives and participles, e. g. emuk Id
nibi 'a countless army' (Senhb. Kuy. 2, 39), sent a Id
nibi 'flocks without number' (Senhb. I 50), Id mi-na(m\
ana Id ma-ni. ana Id me-ni or mi-na(m), ana la ma-ni-e
(Tig. V 7. 53), rarely ma Id meni, 'without number,
countless', sarrutu Id sandn (e. g. Senhb. I 10), 'he
brought umsikku ana la sapdh nagisu that his land
might not be laid waste' (Lay. 51 No. 1, 11), mesiru
sa Id naparsudi 'a blockade which could not be run'
(Assurb. Sin. 59, 88 b) ; Id pddu 'without mercy' (ace.
kakkasu Id pa-da-a, plur. Id pa-du-tum IV R 5, 4 a),
Id ddiru 'not fearing' (cf. la-(a-)di-ru Assurn. I 20),
ahu Id kenu etc.
While, according to the above, there can be no
doubt that Id is the most general negative (as opposed
to all the other negatives, ul included), still it seems
to me that the distinction between Id and nl as
employed in negative declaratory sentences has not
yet been denned with sufficient precision. For my
part, I must confine myself meanwhile to bringing
together a few examples that are instructive in
this connexion. Cf. for Id: 'the edifice Id ussum was

not suited for the goddess to dwell in' (V K 34 col.
III 17), Id uddd usurdti 'the walls were not recogniz-
able' (Neb. Senk. I 16); mind Id tidi 'what knowest
thou not'? (IV R 7, 27. 29 a); Id iddin 'he gave not'
(K. 538, 25): sa Id iknusa, sa Id kitnusu ana niri'a, sa
ana Asiir Id kansu, 'lands which kanaka Id i-du-ii knew
not subjection' (Tig. Ill 75. IV 51) For ul of.: edu ul
ezib', ul isemmu 'they hear not', nuru til immaru; ul
zi-ka-ru sunu ul zinniMti sunu 'they are not male
neither are they female' (IV R 2,40 b). Is it the case
that the use of ul is chiefly or even exclusively con-
fined to principal clauses, while Id is employed in
principal and subordinate clauses indifferently?
144. Prohibitive sentences. No negative can be
joined to the imperative; prohibitions are expressed
sometimes by Id with the present, sometimes by a-a
with the pret. (cf. 87, c on p. 241), - - for ul with
the pres. v. 134, 1 Id being found with the 3.
and 2. pers. sing, and plur., a-a, on the other hand
with the 3. pers. sing, and plur. and 1. singular.
Examples: Id tasakip 'cast not down' (thy servant,
IV R 10, 36 b), Id taddara amelu 'shun no man' (M 55
col. I 19), 'upon another god Id tatakkil rely not*
(I R 35 No. 2, 12); musaru Sitir sumfa limurma Id
unakkar (V R 64, 45 c), kdtsu Id isabat 'let him not
take his hand, nor help him' (III R 43 col. IV 24),

my work Id uhabbalus let them (the gods) not destroy'
(S, 17). hi prefixed seems to denote greater urgency ;
e. g. K. 21, 20: sarru lu la i-pa-lah 'let the king fear
not at all'. a-a itiir or ituruni 'let him (or them)
not return', ki-bi-ra a-a irsi 'burial shall he not re-
ceive' (V R 61 col. VI 55), a-a illika (Nimr. Ep. XI,
158), a-a UUkum, a-a irubuni etc. ; idirtu a-a arsi 'into
tribulation let me not fall' (IV R 64, 69 a), a-a atur
ana arkia (III R 38 No. 2 rev. 57). We also find a-a
employed with the second person, but curiously enough
always under the form e: e tashuti (Nimr. Ep. 11, 10),
e tannasir (sic! IV R 13, 4b), e tesir (IV R 17, 18 b),
etc. The use of a-a in the declaratory sentence V R
7, 45 is quite exceptional: 'his corpse a~a addin ana
ki-U-ri I did not commit to burial.' la is found with
the 2 pers. of the perm, in III R 15 col. I 8: alik Id
ka-la-ta\ here, however, Id kaldta is perhaps to be
taken as a sort of circumstantial clause and to be
translated: 'go without ceasing!'
Optative and cohortative sentences. For145.
optative and cohortative sentences formed with the
help of the adverb lu ( 78 on p. 214) see above
so far as verbal and complex nominal sentences are
concerned 93, 1 and 2, where a sufficient number
of examples has been given of the precative and co-
hortative forms derived alike from the preterite and
Delitzsch, Assyrian Grammar. 23

from the permansive. The 1 pers. plur. seems to have
assumed a cohortative signification without any par-
ticle, so perhaps V R 1, 126: mdta ahennd nizuz 'let
us divide'?; the more usual way, however, must have
been to place the cohort, meaning beyond doubt by
a prefixed i (e), 'come now, go to !' v. 78. In addi-
tion to the example cited in 142, cf. K. 3437 rev. 3:
'arise (Tiamat)! andku u kdsi i ni-pu-us sasma thou
and I, let us fight with each other'; ASKT 119, 23. 25:
al-kam i nilliksu i nilliksu, ninu ana dlisu i nilliksu 'come
now, let us go to him..., let us go to him to his city' ;
Nimr. Ep. 44, 68 and a few other passages. Examples
of a simple nominal sentence expressing a wish are
found in : atta lu mu-ti-ma andku lu assatka 'would
that thou wert my husband and I thy wife' (Nimr. Ep.
42, 9), and in the greeting so common in the epistol-
ary literature of the Assyrians and Babylonians,
lu ulmu ana sarri ~belVa (with variations). In this
formula, however, lu may be wanting. Clauses
expressing a wish are also repeatedly found depending
on the verb of the principal clause, thus Tig. II 96
'I laid upon them the yoke of my sovereignty satti-
samma bilta u madatta ana mahri'a littarruni' (... to
bring before me). Cf. also Tig. II 67 (kurdde'a sa
mithus tapde lipirdu, where we have a precative in a
relative clause) and many other passages.

Interrogative sentences. The examples of146.
interrogative sentences given in 79, y, which were
quoted to prove the existence of u as an enclitic in-
terrogative particle, must meanwhile suffice. K. 522,
9 f. is the only additional illustration that need be
given: i-zir-tu-u ina libbi satrat 'is a curse (izirtu)
written thereon?'
Attributive relative clauses. 1) Relative 147.
clauses introduced by sa, which is continued by a
pronominal suffix in all cases where it has the force
of a genitive, and in most cases where it has the force
of an accusative or dative. Relative clauses, which, de-
prived of attributive signification, constitute nominal
sentences, call for no remark. Cf. e. g.: belum sa ana
dMu ta-a-a-ru (K. 133 rev. 16), 'a woman with child
sa kirimmasa la isaru (K. 246 col. I 43), Verbal sen-
tences possessing attributive signification are at once
recognized as such by the fact that they always end
in a vowel, mostly u (or urn), more rarely 0; cf. 92.
a) Pret. and pres.: sa itbalu 'who had carried off'
(Esarh. II 47), 'Bel and Nebo sa aptallahu ilusun whose
divinity I worship' (Assurb. Sm. 103, 46), 'the land
of Nairi Sa akSudu which I had subdued' (Tig. VIII
14); 'the deity sa tas(tis)lit-tu imaharum that heareth
prayer' (V R 43, 47 c), 'he who never his ambassador
ispura Id is-a-lum sulum 0rrwmm(Assurb. Sm. 289, 50,

for which in 292, etc.: Id ispuru Id U-a-lu)\ sa iksuda
'who conquered' (Assurn. I 39), 'Tammaritu sa innabta
isbata sepe'a (Assurb. Sm. 216, f). b) Perm.: 'who
Id hassu did not consider', sa hi kitnusu, etc. etc. The
3. fern. perm, generally remains without the final
vowel. We find, it is true: 'Tiglathpileser sa...
Jiattu ellitu nadnatasumma nise... ultaspiru on whom
a brilliant sceptre was bestowed and who ruled the
nations' (Tig. I 32 f.), 'the palace sa ell mdhriti ma'adis
suturat ra-ba-ta u naklat (Senhb. VI 44 f.); but the
usual form is: sa kibitsu mafyrat (I R 35 No. 2, 2),
sa alaktasa Id tdrat, 'whose dwelling like an eagle's
nest... sitkunat was situated' (Senhb. Ill 70). A pret.
or a pres. without the final vowel in a relative sen-
tence, such as sa istakkan (V R 62 No. 1, 6), 'Darius
sa Uta agd ipus' (Persepolis Inscr. B, 6), must be
considered as a very rare exception. A relative
/ sentence introduced by sa occasionally precedes the
/ subst. of which it is the attribute, e. g. K. 2867, 18:
'the heart of the great gods was not calmed, ul ipsah
I sa ezuzu kdbitti belutisunu nor was soothed the angry
spirit of their majesty'; V R 1, 133: tdbti kdtussun
uba'ima sa epussunuti dunku 'my good deeds I de-
manded at their hand, the favour shown them by me'.
2) Relative clauses without sa. In these
the final vowel of the verb is the only indication that

they are relative clauses. Examples: 'the four lions
ad-du-ku (which) I had killed' (I R. 7 No. IX, A, 2),
tdbta epusus 'the good (which) I did him' (V R 7, 86),
Utu epusu 'the house (which), I built' (Neb. Grot. Ill
47); ina isinni saknus 'at the feast instituted in his
honour' (K. 133 rev. 18). The relative pronoun is
always wanting with the substantives ma-la and ammar
discussed in 58, when these signify 'as much, as
,inany, as'; also with asar signifying 'in the place
where or whither' (cf. the Hebr. JTaij"^^ 'whither,
but also nfttf alone), cf. asar tallaki ittiki lullik (Assurb.
Sm. 125, 61), sanarkabtu su-a-tu asar saknata unakkaru
'whoever shall attempt any change with the chariot
in the spot where he is stationed' (IV R 12, 33),
Senhb. VI 24, and other passages.
Conjunctional relative clauses. In these, 148.
also, the verb must have a final vowel. 1) Conjunctional
relative clauses introduced by special conjunc-
tions (v. 82). The most of these conjunctions are
also found as prepositions; indeed they are all,
strictly speaking, prepositions that have become con-
junctions by the additon of sa. sa may, however, be
dispensed with on occasion; in fact with some, such
as istu and ultu 'since', it is always wanting. Examples :
istu ibnanni 'since he (Merodach) created me' (Neb.
I 23), ultu emedu mcitasu 'after I had subdued his

land' (V R 2, 81), ultu Mbbasa inuhhu 'as soon as
her heart shall be calmed' (Desct. rev. 16) cf. also
for ultu as conj. Ill R 15 col. II 5. Senhb. VI 25; ultu
eli sa imuruma 'as soon as they saw, when they saw'
(K. 10 obv. 21), ultu eli sa Birat hipu u ilesu abku
'since B. was destroyed and its gods carried off' (K.
509, 17); arki sa ana sarri aturu 'after I became
king' (Beh. 11); adi same u irsitu lasu zersu lihtik
'so long as heaven and earth endure, let his seed be
destroyed'! (V R 56, 60) ; a-du ana all... tuserabuluni
'until thou bringest him into the city' (K. 650, 11),
adi allaku 'till I come' (Assurb. Sm. 125, 67), 'they
await me adi eli sa andku allaku ana Madci till I
arrive in Media' (Beh. 47); - - ki-i as-pu-ru 'when I
sent', ki-i iibu 'when they came' (K. 509) and many
other examples in which the conj. ki presents the
peculiarity of placing its subject, object and preposi-
tional phrases before itself and its verb ; - - as-su li-
muttum epusu 'because he had done evil' (Khors. 92,
cf. also Esarh. II 48. IV 29), as-sa-a nittekirus 'because
we have rebelled against him' (IV R 52, 27 a), 'I march-
ed against Ba'al of Tyre, set (var. as-su) amdt sar-
rutia Id issuru because he had not observed the com-
mandment of my majesty, my royal command' (V R
2, 51) - - is Nimr. Ep. XI, 113 also to be explained
in this way?, 'may the gods bless the king sa rnitu

andku u sarru uballitanni for I was dead and the king
granted me my life' (K. 81, 12). 2) Conjunctional re-
lative clauses attached to substantives and pre-
positional phrases, with or without sa as an ind-
ication of the attributive nature of the clause. Cf. e. g.
istu rest with (S. 1046, 6) or without sa (K. 359, 3. 9)
'from the beginning' (such and such happened). To
this category belongs, in particular, i-nu, inum, usually
e-nu-ma (proply. a or the time) meaning 'at the time
when, when, as': i-nu Marduk... ikbu 'when M....
ordered' (V R 33 col. I 44; cf. Hamm. Louvre I 10 ff.),
inuu Marduk rest sarruti'a ulluma 'at the time when M.
exalted my royal head' (lit. 'head of my royalty' Neb.
I 40), e-nu-ma ekallu ildb^iruma i-na-hu (Esarh. VI 61).
Cf. further the passage V R 6, 110 f. quoted in 141,
and the illustrations given in 82 for 1) and 2) gene-
rally. 3) Conjunctional relative clauses without any
special conj., without a governing subst. and at
the same time without sa, so that the final vowel of
the verb is the only cue to the proper understanding
of the syntax. Cf. Assurn. Balaw. rev. 13 f.: 'future
prince! asirtu si enahu nard ta-mar-ma tasasu anhusa
uddis should this temple come to ruin, thou wilt
find the tablets, and shouldest thou read them then
rebuild its ruin'. We can also understand how in the
sentence Tig. VIII 50 ff.: 'may some future prince

e-nu-ma Mtu u sigurrdtu usalbaruma e-na-hu anhusunu
luddis when these buildings shall have become old
and fallen to ruin, rebuild their ruins', e-nu-ma is
wanting in one of the two duplicates; we may at
least characterize this construction as harsh and not
to be imitated. Cf. finally V R 64, 13 ff. : ma pale' a
kenim Sin... ana all u Mti sasu islimu irsu ta-a-a-ri
ina re$ sarrutVa ddriti usdbru'inni sutti 'during my
well-established reign, when Sin turned towards that
city and that house, took pity (upon them) - - in the
beginning of my lasting rule they (Sin und Marduk?)
showed me a dream'. In this case the following trans-
lation is also admissible: 'during my reign Sin had
turned towards that city', 'in the beginning of my
reign he had shown me a dream' (new sentence be-
ginning with 1. 28: 'when the third year drew nigh');
for this construction of the verbs islimu, ir$u, usabru
as pluperfects see 134, 2.
149. Conditional clauses. On these we can, as
yet, make only a few observations. In V R 25 1 ff. b,
one of the so-called family laws, we read: summa
assatamussu izirma ulmuti atta iktdbiana naru inaddusu
^if a wife hates her husband and says : "thou art not
my husband", let her be thrown into the river'; from
this we are justified in inferring, first, that the verbs
-depending on summa do not take on the final vowel

(vocalic auslauf)', secondly, that in such, hypothetical
protases of general application not referring, that
is, to a particular instance - - the pret., not the
pres., is the tense employed. Both inferences are
confirmed by the law V R 25, 13 ff. b: 'if a house-
holder igurma imtut hire a slave and the latter die etc.'
The apodosis has in either case the present. If, on
the other hand, the hypothetical clause has reference
to a particular specified case as, e. g., Desct. obv. 16 :
'if thou dost not open the gate, I will smite the door
in pieces' - then the protasis has likewise the pre-
sent: summa Id tapattd bdbu amahhas daltum. For the
absence of the relative vowel cf. summa sarru ikabbi
'if the king thinks' (S. 1034, 14). A third observation
is that in Assyrian, as in English, the hypothetical
particle may be dispensed with altogether. Thus the
text IV R 55 begins with the words: sarru ana dlni
Id igul 'should the king not obey the laws' (his sub-
jects will be destroyed, his land delivered over to
ruin, innammi pres.); cf. Dicty. No. 63 (the reading
i-gul there given is to be maintained as against Jen-
sen's plausible emendation i-zun the former being
now found on the native tablets).

2) The joining together of several sentences.
a) Copulative sentences.
150. Both nominal and verbal sentences are very often
placed side by side without any connecting particle
(asyndeton), as, for example, in the oft-recurring abbul
akkur ina itdti asrup', when, however, they are joined
together by a copula, the latter is u in nominal sen-
tences, or, more precisely in simple nominal sentences,
and ma in verbal sentences and so-called complex
nominal sentences, the latter particle being appended
enclitically to the first verb (v. 82). Cf. for the
complex nominal sentences : sunn liktuma andku lurriid
'let them perish, but let me increase' (K. 2455), i
limutma andku lublut (IV R 66, 17 b); for the verbal
sentences (which often consist entirely of a single
verb) : 'the troops ina kakke usamkitma edu ul ezib
I cut down with the weapons (of war) and left none
in life' (Senhb. I 57), '-arkanu ina ade'a ih-ti-ma tdbti
Id issurma isld nir 'belutVa (Assurb. Sm. 284, 93 f.)
'the head ikkisunimma ana Nina ubilun? (99, 13 f.), 'the
palaces which in the course of years umdaserdma ena-
Mma ^dbtd had been forsaken and had fallen into
decay and were now heaps of ruins' (Tig. VI 98).
In cases like Senhb. I 26 f. : ana ekallisu erumma aptema
Mt nisirtiSu, the first ma is at most the copula, the

second being added for emphasis (v. 79, a); it is possible
however that both are employed in the latter capacity,
so that we should translate: 'into his palace I entered;
I opened his treasure-chambers'. In compound verbal
sentences like the above, it is very common to find
the vowel a added to the first verb (with ma: ammo)',
the second also ends occasionally in a. Examples:
'the horses etc. usesamma sallatis amnu (Senhb. I 74),
'from Elam innctbtamma ana Nina illikamma unassik
sepe'a (Esarh. II 37 ff.), tappuhamma... tapti 'thou
didst come forward and didst open' (IV R 20 No. 2);
ana Nina ispuramma unassik(a) sepe'a (V R 3, 19),
illikamma... urriha kakkesu (Assurb. Sm. 175, 45).
For the occurrence side by side of perinansive and 151.
preterite forms, in which there should be nothing to
astonish us since states and events frequently succeed
each other, see the passage Tig. VI 98, quoted above
in 150, also the words Tig. I 32 f. quoted in 147,
l,b and there, in my opinion, explained for the first
time. Cf. also for the permansive, followed by
the preterite: 'the city moat sa abtuma iprdti imlu
(I R 28, 7b); without a connective: e-nu-ma alddku
alibanu anaku 'since I was born, was created' (Neb. I
27). A present may, of course, also follow a perman-
sive describing a condition in the present, without
it being necessary for us to explain the clause con-

taining the former as a circumstantial clause like the
cases discussed in 152; e.g. Neb. Bab. I 19 ff. (sim-
ilarly Nerigl. I 17f.): andku ana Marduk leli'a Mndk
Id batldk 'I cleave continually to Merodach, my lord,
which pleaseth him well, every morning i-ta-ma-am
IWbam my heart reflects'. For the pret. and pres.
followed by the perm. cf. : 'the house enahma "dbif
(e. g. Tig. VIII 4); 'Nebuchadnezzar who the way of
their divinity istem'ii bitluhu belutsun keeps in view,
is full of reverence for their majesty' (Neb. I 9 f.),
aramu puluhti ilutisunu pitluhdk belutsun (I 38 f.).
V) Circumstantial Clauses.
152. Should an event narrated by a preterite be accom-
panied by more precise qualifications, specifying in
what state the subject was during the time of the action,
what was the aim of the latter, or in what state another
subject was during the same period, these mor.e
4- precise qualifications f o jjjjjjyjn. JJLQJ? resent:
f~ this tense, in suclTa case, is to be rendered in English
by participles, participial phrases, and such like.
Examples: innabitma ibakam zikndsu 'he fled, tearing
his beard' (K. 2674 obv. 15), 'every year to Nineveh
ilikamma unassaka sepe'a he came to kiss my feet'
(III R 15 col. II 26), pdsu epusma ikaWi izakkara ana
'he opened his mouth to speak, to announce to...'

(Nimr. Ep., passim), uktammisma attasab abakki 'I drew
back, sitting down weeping' (Nimr. Ep. XI, 130),
innendiima sarrdni kilalldn ippusu tahdza (V R 55, 29),
Ea mdrasu issima amdta usahhaz 'Ea called his son,
giving (him) commandment' (IV R 5, 57 b) - - observe
in all these examples the emphatic ma with the prin-
cipal verb ; uptarris ikabbi umma 'he lied, speaking
thus' (Beh. 9092), il-si-ka Istdr isakkanka temu 'Ishtar
called thee, giving thee commandment' umma, (Assurb.
Sm. 124, 58), 'like Ramman elisunu asgum nablu eli-
sunu usazanin (Assurn. II 106), 'my warriors, who
through Kardunias did march (ittanallaku) ukabbasu
Kaldu trampling on Chaldea' (Assurb. Sm. 171, 5).
In all the illustrations now given the subject of the
present is the same as that of the preterite. The
subjects however may be different: cf. iliisa usappd
illakd di-ma-a-a 'I melted (?) her divinity with tears'
(Assurb. Sm. 120, 28), 'tribute etc. I laid upon him
(emidsuma] isdt dbsdni' (Senhb. II 64), 'so and so I set
upon his throne (usesibma) isdt a absdni' (Esarh. II 54).
The circumstantial clause may even precede the prin-
ciparverb; cf! JSJimr. Ep. 141. 143: 'theTbve(swallow)
flew hither and thither manzazu ul ipassimma (var.
ipassumma) issahra, but as there was no place of rest
she returned'. Permansives may also be followed
by circumstantial clauses with the present.

Examples: 'the inhabitants, who (Id sanku) did not
obey their viceroys Id inamdimi mandattu' (VR 9, 117f.),
'his numberless troops kakkesunu sanduma isaddihd
iddsu' (V R 35, 16); cf. also the well-known: sdbru
utiilma inatal sutta, V R 10, 4b etc. The circumstantial
clause may also precede the principal verb as in K.
3437 obv. 32: Bel inatalma esi mdlaksu 'when Bel be-
held it, his gait was troubled'; V R 3, 80 f.: ells ina
saptesu itammd tubbdti sapldnu libbasu ka-sir ni-ir-tu. -
Note finally a passage which is interesting from a
syntactical point of view, Senhb. VI 9 ff.: 'the chariots
$a rdkibusin dikuma u sina mussurdma rdmdnussin itta-
nallakd the charioteer of which had fallen, while they
were forsaken and were careering about by themselves'.



Delitzsch, Gramm. Assyriaca.

A. Pronomen.

1. Pronomina personalia separata.
a) cum vi nominativi.

1. c. a-na-ku, ana-ku
2. m. at-ta
2. f. at-ti
3. m. sii-ii, sii-u
3. f. si-i

1. c. a-ni-ni, a-ni-nu, ni-
(i-)nij ni-nu
2. m. at-tu-nu
3. m. su-nu, su-nu, sun
3. f. si-na, sin

b) cum vi genitivi et accusativi.

1. c. ia-(a-)ti) ia-a-tu, ia-a-
si, a-a-si, semel a-
2. m. ka-a-tu, ka-a-sa, ka-a-
ti, ka-a-si
2. f. ka-a-ti, ka-a-si
3. m. sd~a-su, sa-(a-)sii, sa-
a-su, raro su-a-su,
3. f. sa-a-sa, sa-si


1. c. ni-ict-ti) ni-(i)a-sim
(uno adhuc loco
2. m. ka-a-su-nu

3. m. sd-a-su-nu, sa-a-su-
nUj sa-a-su-ua

A. Pronomen.

2. Pronomina suffixa.

a) nominalia.


1. c. -, -a (forma orig. ia) 1. c.

2. m. -ka, rarius -ku
2. f. -ki
3. m. -sit, -su, -s

3. f. -sa

2. m.
3. m.

3. f.
b) verbalia.

1. c. -a(ri)-ni, -in-ni\ rarius 1. c.
2. m. -ka\-ak-ka,-ak,-ik-ka, \ 2. m
raro -ak-ku
2. f. -Art; -Ar-Ai, -iA:-A:i 2. f.
3. m,

3. m. -su, -su, -s: -as-su, -as

3. f. -si, -s\ -as-si

-ni, raro -nu
-ku-nu, -ku-un,-kun
-sii-nu, su-nu, su-un,
-sun', rarius -su-
nu-ti, -su-nu-u-te
-si-na, -si-in

-an-na-si, -a-na-si,
-ku-nu-si ; -ak-ku-

-su-nu, -su-nu-u-ti,
-su-nu-ti, -su-nu-
u-tu, -su-nu-tu,
-su-nu-tu, rarius
nu, -as-su-nu-tit
3. f. -si-na, -si-na-a-tii,
-si-na-si-im, -si-
na-(a-)ti, -si-na-
a-tim\ -as-si-na-
a-tii, -as-si-ni-ti

A. Pronomen.

3. Pronomina demonstrativa.
a) suatu,ille, is',
(semper substantive postponitnr.)

m. sii-a-tu, su-a-tu, sii-a-ti,
m-a-tum, sii-a-tim, sd-
a-tu, sa-a-tu, sd-a-tim,
sa-a-tu, '-#-# (omnes
formae cum vi cujus-
libet casus)
f. si-a-tl


m. su-a-tu-nu, su-a-tu-nu,
sa-(a-)tu-nu, sa-a-
tu-nu, sd-tu-nu

f. sii-a - ti-n a, sa- (a -) ti-
na, sd-ti-na

Vice earum formarum etiam hae usurpantur:
Singularis. Pluralis.
m. sn-u, SU-HJ su-u,sir, raro m. sii-nu, su-nu', sii-nu-ti,
sa-a-su su-nu-ti
f. si-i \ f. si-na-(a-)ti,si-na-ti-na
b) annu,h.ic, hoc', Fern, annitu,haec, hoc'.
Singularis. Pluralis. (etiam Ace.) m. an-nu-(ii-)tu, an-nu-, an-ni-e, an-ni \ (u-)ti, an-nu-tu, an-, an-ni-a-am nu-te, a-nu-te
f. an-ni-tu, an-ni-tu, an- f. an-na-a-tu, an-na-a-ti,

n i- ti (Ge n.), an-ni- ta
et an-ni-tu (Ace.)

an-na-a-te, an-ni-tu,
an-ni- ti


A. Pronomen.
c) ullu,ille, illud'.


m. ul-lu-u (Nom., Ace.), ul-
li-i et ul-li-e (Gen.)


m. ul-lu-ii-tu

d) aga (agannu),hic',
vicem explens generis masculini, feminini et neutrius, atque omnium casaum
et ulriusque numeri.
ct-ga-a, a-ga, a-ga-
Speciatim vi


f. a-ga-ta, a-ga-a-ta (Ace.,

m. a-gan-nu-tu (Ace.), a-

f. a-ga-ni-e-tu, a-ga-ni-
e-tum (Nom., Gen.)

Cfr. aga$u,hic, hoc'.
Sing, a-gct-sii-ii, a-ga-su-u (Nom., Gen., Ace.)
Plur. a-ga-su-nu (Gen.)
4. Pronomen relativum,
omnium casuum, generum et numerorum:
Pron. rel. generale.
Masc v Fern. ma(ri)-nu (sa),quisquis'.
Neutr. mi-na-a\ man-ma (h. e. probabilissime
min-ma vel mim-md) sa, mi-im-ma (sa), saepis-
a (h. e. mim-md) et ^H ( n - e. mimma)

A. Pronomen. 7*
scriptum, ^-tnu-u, -^-rnu-u (legendum mim-
Masc., Fern, et Neutr. ma-la, mal', am-mai\
5. Pronomina interrogativa.
Nonnisi substantive :
Masc., Fern, man-nu (Nom., Ace.),quis? quern?'.
Neutr. mi-nu(-u) (Nom., Ace.); mi-ni(-i), ml-ni-e,
(Gen.); mi-na-a, hii-nam (Ace.),quid?'.
Substantive et adjective: a-a-u,qui?'.
6. Pronomina indefinita.
Substantive et adjective:
Masc., Fern, omnium casuum: ma-nu-man, man-
ma-an,ma-am-ma-an, ma-am-man, ma-am- ma-na,
ma-ma-na\ ma-na-a-ma, ma-nam-ma, ma-na-ma,
man-ma, ma-am-ma, ma-ma,aliquis, aliqua',
cum negatione Id vel ul,nemo'. Saepe -$ma
(^-^} h. e. mamma scriptum.
Neutr. mi- im-ma, mi-ma, eti&TQ. ma/i-ma (an legen-
dum est min-ma, mim-mal),aliquid'. Sae-
pissime ^-ma (^^f) h. e. mimma scriptum.
Substantive et adjective: Masc. (Nom., Ace.) a-a-um-
ma, la-um-ma, a-ia-um-ma, a-a-am-ma (Ace.)


B. Verbum trilitterum : 1. Verbum firmum.

B. V e r b u n

1. Verbuir

inclusis verbis me

kasddu,expugnare, vincere'

Sing.'. Praesens



1 1. 3.m. ikdsad;

Z S tf / / /Hw ^ * *) ; ?S /W /

3.f. takdsad


2.m. takdsad



2.f. takdsadi



I.e. akdsad


PL : 3.m. ikasa c?w(m,ra]

ciusnu) iksudu(ni, nu)

3.f. ikasadd(ni)



2. HI. takdsadu


kusudu(etisini ku-

2.f. takdsadd



I.e. nikdstid


II 1. ukassad

itkassid, ukesid

kussid, kassid

III1. KSffMa.d

iisaksid) useksid


IV 1. iJckdM (f. takkdsad) ikkasid


III 2.
IV 2.

IV 3.

ik tana sad

iktdfad**) kitdsad, kitsad
uktassid, uktesid
ustaksid, usteksid siitalcsid

ik tan a sad

*) Formae P'raesentis, Praeteriti et Permansivi I 1 extra dubitationem
exemplis probari possint; reliquae autem formae omnes exemplis probatae sunt.
**) Aut ipkid (Praes. ipdkid, Imp. pikid), isbat (Praes. isabat, Imp. sabat).

1. Verbum firmum.

prill tier urn.*)
diae geminatae.
saldlu,in servitutem redigere, diripere'.
j Participium Permansivum Infinitivus
kds(i)du',$d-\kasid\ sal \kasddu ; saldlu
[lilu kasdat sallat
kkasddti salldti
, ' kasddk(u) salldk(u)
kasdu(ni) sallu(ni)
kasdd salld
kasddtunu salldtunu

kasddni(rsiico mi) salldni

mukaUidu ku ssu d ;
mmaksidu si(ksud
mukka$(i)du naksud

sul (2. m.

muktas(i)du kitsud, raro kitdhid
muktassidu [kutassud]
muslaksidu sutaksud.

naksudu\ naslulu et

kitdsudu, sitdlulu et
kitSudu, sit lulu
sitaksu du \su taksa dii\
itaksudu; Has lulu

positae sunt, quamvis non omnes in omnibus verbi nrnii et iniirmi generibus
- Praet. I 2 iptekid. Cfr. Praet. IV 3 : ittanabrik.


B. Verbum: 2. Verbum primae 3.

2. Verbum
nasdru,servare, tueri' ;

Singularis :



I 1. 3.m. indsar; inddin*)

mwr; zrfrf//i

3.f. tandsar tanddin

tassur taddin

2.m. tandsar tanddin

tassur taddin

M5Mr ; irfm

2.f. tandsari etc.

tassuri etc.


I.e. andsar



3. in. indsaru

issuru iddinu(ni)

3.f. in as a r a

issurd iddind

2.m. tandsaru


2.f. tandsar a



I.e. nindsar


II 1. unassar



III 1. usansar, usassar ] usansir

sun sir

IV 1. inndsar

innasir', innadin

I 2. ittdsar

ittdsar ; ittddin

II 2. uttassar


III 2.

IV 2.

13. ittand(ii]dan

ittand(n)din *)

IV 3. ittandsar

*) Et

2. Verbum primae


primae :.


ndsiru', nddinu nasir\ nadin
nasrat nadnat
nasrdta nadndta
etc. etc.




nasdru ; naddnu

sussuru, sunsuru

itdsuru, itsuru


B. Verbum: 3. Verbum primae

3. Verbun.
ahdzu,capere, prehendere'

/ j / yt/y f )/7sjty")Q *




IJ tiiy wvUtf (/o
I 1. 3.m.

ihhaz (rarius fdhaz)',

ehuz ; eris

\irris (err is)


tahhaz tirris tdhuz teris


tah/jaz tirris tdhuz teris



talihazi tirrisi tahuzi terisi alizi


aliliaz dhuz eris**)

Pluralis :



ehuzu erisu



chuzd erisd






tahhaz a




nihhaz nihuz niris


uhhaz ifahhiz, uhhiz nhhiz


usdhaz, usahhaz usdhiz


IV 1.

inn d ha z


I 2.

itdhaz', eteris

ifd/jciz(3. f. tdtd-

h(iz) ; eteris


u t tah h az u ( t) tah h iz

Ill 2.

ustdhaz, ustahhaz ustdhiz

IV 2.

ittdhaz (ittanhaz) ittdhiz

I 3.


IV 3.


*) Cfr. stirpis bbx,splendere' Perm. Sing. 3. m. [el], f. ellit.
**) Aparu,vestire' format dpir (Sanh. V 56), fortasse forma antiqua.

3. Verbum primae


primae N r
*,resu,cupere c.


mu'ahhiz, muhhiz\ uhhuz


must dhizu

ahdzu ; eresu


ncfhuz, ndhuz, nan- na'huzu, ndhuzu,
[huz \narityuzu
I itdhuzu, ithuzu


[utahhuzu] utehuzu

B. Verbum: 4. Verbum primae


4. Verbum
etik', epus; crub

Singularis :
I 1. 3.m. ettik\ eppus (ippus)', errub
3.f. tettik teppus terrub \ tetik tepus terub
2.m. tettik teppus terrub tetilt tepid terub


tettiki teppusi


tetiki tepusi terubS


ettil: eppus


etik epus erub



ettiku eppusu


etiku epus Ci erubu.'-


ettikd eppusd


e tikd ep u sd eru bd.,


tettiku t eppusu


tetiku tepusu terub A


tettikd teppusd


tetikd tepusd terub d


nittik nippus


nitik nipus nirub

II 1.


uttik', uppis


usetak etc.

usdtik, us etik etc.

IV 1.

innetek (inne'tik,





itdtik, itetik,etetik', itd-

puSj itepus, etepus*)\

ite'rub) etdrub


ut(t)attik, ut(t)ettik

Ill 2.

ustetik etc.

IV 2.


itenitik\ etandpus, \

IV 3.

[etenepm ;

1. Pers. etatik, etetik\ etapus, etepus, etiam etapas (raris

4. Verbum priinae N 4

. 5


Lmae N 4. 5 (y).
M,facere'; erebu,intrare'.


j; epus] erub
(erba, ir-ba)

Participium ! Permansivum
etiku\ episu\ etik\ epus
[eribu l

selik\ siiribmusetiku Qkc.\$utuk



eteku ; epesu ;

sutuku etc.,

itdtuku, itetuku,


B. Verbum: 5. Verbum alaku (primae N 2 ).

5. Verbui


j; i elevens j. i ctcLCiituiii

I 1. 3.m.































Ill 1.

usdlik (3.m., I.e. Sing.)

Singularis :

I 2. 3m.


















Singular is:

I 3. 3.m.


ittandlak (Plur. 3. m. itta-

5. Verbum alaJcu (primae N 2 ).


rimae N2 ().
Imperativus Participium Permansivum Infinitivus

) al-ka





Delitzsch, Gramm. Assyriaca.


Plur. $ulukd



B. Verbum: 6. Verbum mediae

(X 2.3)-


6. Verbu
m (t ' a d u.multum essj


I 1.3.m.


itn'idj imid\ iPa


lama' id




tarn id





am a id


Pluralis :


imd'idu ; ibarrit

im'idu, imidu', ia














uma'ad, raro wndd

urn a' id

(Plur. umaddu)

Ill 1.


IV 1.


imld'id**) ; Htd'al


Ill 2.

IV 2.


imtand'ad, imtandd

[imtand'id?]**) ; is

IV 3.


*) Flexio verbi rawm (CS 3 1),misericordem esse, amare' haeo e
raro Praet. 2>am, 1. c. a-ri-im; Imp. rcw, Hwi (e. g. rimanni); P
**) Cfr. /^a'W,extulit, glorificavit*.

6. Verbum mediae fc^ (1*2.3).
lediae NJ (N 2. :,).*)
mdlu,interrogare' ; badru,extrahere'.
paperativus Participium Permansivum





ma'id (mddi)
mdidaku, mdddku

sital mumtciidu\

) mddu\
[badru, bdru


[sitd'ulu] situlu

es. irdm, taram, arcim, iramu-, Praet. irem (cfr. i-ri-en-su), i-ri-im,
mu, rdmuj Inf. ramu.


B. Verbum: 7. Verbum mediae

7. Verbu:
belu (saepissime pelu scriptui


Singularis :
I 1. 3.m. ibel (izdkka, izekku Rel.)
Pluralis :





II 1. ubdal
III 1.*) [

Ill 2.*) \u$ttpeT\





*) De formis angulatis uncinis inclusis uspel, muspelu, ustepel e\

7. Verbum mediae


ediae N 4.
?mare, dominari'.





















85 et 106. Stirpium IV 1 3. II 2 formas nondum adhuc inveni.


B. Verbum: 8. Verbum tertiae

8. Verbu:




Singularis :
I 1. 3.m. imdsi

e5 *)

3.f. tamdsi


2.m. tamdsi



2.f. tamdsi


I.e. amdsi



3.m. imasu(ni, nu)


3.f. imdsd


2.m. tamdsu


2.f. tamdsd


I.e. nimdsi


II 1. umassi




us amsi *)

IV 1.


1 2. fmfcfci




Ill 2.


IV 2.

1 3 imtandsi


IV 3. ittanamsi

*) Cum vocali a: ^m?a, usamd.

8. Verbum tertiae


prtiae N^
mdsu (mdsi)

masat (scrib. ma-sa-at)



musamsii, musemsu sumsu, 3. f. sumsat




B. Verbum: 9. Verbum tertiae X 4. 5 (3>) et

9. Verbum tertia
tebu (tibu),venire'

Slngularis :



I 1. 3.m.

itdbi,itebi(itebe); ipdti, ipe'ti(ipe'te)

itbi, itbe ; ip ti, ip te *^


tatdbi, tetebi tepeti

tatbi tapti


tatdbij tatebi, tetebi tepeti

tatbi tapti


etc. etc.

tatbi tapti


atdbi, atebe

atbi apti




ttbu(ni) iptu(ni)



itbd(ni) iptd


tatbu.. taptu


tatbd taptd



nitbi nipti



utabbi,utebbi', upatti



usatbi ; usapti

IV 1.


ittabi, ittebi\ ippeti


ittdbi, ittebi\ ipteti


uttabbi, uttebbi

Ill 2.

IV 2.



IV 3.

*) Cum voc. a: itba, ij.
**) Cum voc. a? v. 109.

9. Verbum tertiae N 4. 5 (3>) et


V) 6t N 3 (Hi).







tebu ; petu

tebi\ peti

tebu\ petu












$i/fhi/ f. jsi/.fhat

tubbu; puttii


titdl}e\ pit ate



B. Verbum: 10. Verbum tertiae 1 et 1.

10. Verbum
banu,aedificare, procreare''




Singularis :

I 1. 3.m. ibdni(ibeni)

z'&w? *) imnu

3.f. tab ani

tabni tamnu

2.m. tdbdni

tabni tamnu

bini', munu

2.f. tdbdni

tabni tamni


I.e. abdni;amd-

abni amnu

Pluralis: [nu

3.m. ibdnu

ibnu imnu

3.f. ?'&0'/m ibnd imnd

2.m. tdbdnu tdbnu tamnu

2.f. tab and

tdbnd tamnd

I.e. nibdni

fiibni nimnu

II 1. ubanni

ubanni*), iibenni


III 1. uSabni*)

usabni, uebni


IV 1. t^^t




ibtdni) ibteni\ imtdni


Ill 2.

us tabni, ustebni

IV 2. ifl&f

ittabni, ittebni



IV 3.

*) Cum voc. a: ibnd, ubanna, usabnd.
**) In propositione relativa bunnu, subnu.

10. Verbum tertiae ^ et 1
tertiae ^ et i.
ma nil,nnmerare, aestimare'.
Participium Permansivum


bdnu (bdnij f. bdnitu
[et Idntu)

mubtdnu, mubtenu


bunnu **)


sutabnu, sutebnu,
[3. f. lutebnat

banu:, manu

sub nu

bitannu, bitnii

28 :

B. Verbum: 11. Verburn primae 1 et \

11. Verbum
asdbu,sedere, habitare'

Smgulans :



I 1. 3.m. ussab

MS& ; ^'r

3.f. tussab

fttftt ft^ir

2.m. tussab

2.f. tussabi

tusibi etc.

I.e. its sab


Pluralis :

3.m. ussabii

usibu(ni), iisbuni

3.f. ussabd(ni)


2.m. tussabu


2.f. tussab a


I.e. nussab


II 1. w'&0& et ws&


III1. Mfctatf, w&&&;

usesib*) ; usesir

5W5/&, 5^'&

uSessir, usenak

IV 1.

I 2. ittdsab

ittdSib**), ittusib;


utassib \itdsir

Ill 2. ustesir

ustesib', (ussisib)*) ;


IV 2.


1 3. ittandsab

IV 3.

*) Rarius usasib, ustasib, musdsibu.
**) Verbi araefw (^1) Praet. I 2 : ittdrad.

11. Yerbum primae 1 et \
orimae i et ^
sdru(l}, rectum esse'.




usesibu *) ; musesiru


asl)dku\ cfr.




ussub', ussur ussubu', ussuru
:, sesubu

mustesibu] mustesiru sutdsub] sutesur l sutdsubu', sutesuru


B. Verbum: 12. Verbum mediae 1 et

12. Verbun
kdnu,firmum esse', (mat

Praesens Praeteritum


Singularis :

I 1. 3.m.

ikdn et Ikunnu ; itab et

ikun ;









tatib kim\ tib






akdn atdb



Pluralis :


ikdnu et ikunnti', itdbu



[et itibbu




kunu tibu






II 1.

ukdn ; utdb\ukdin,uken,uk$n\utib kdin, ken.

[f. kinnl\


Ill 1.**)


\usmit ;

ustib} [sumit]

IV 1.


iktun ;



ukten, uktm

Ill 2.

IV 2.




IV 3.

*) Cfr. (ttk, dik,occisus est'.
**) De illis formis angulatis uncinis inclusis v.

85 et 115.


Delit/.sch, Gramm. Assyriaca.



.^8^ ft)

T fa*


. 8)




ccmbuL Lossazof.




T ^ ^rr OTT y


39 *







^IL ^K ^fr tt-3? '^T ^TTT rf ffi- y V-


g) \


X T?

^rr pa:


(Animadverte notationes fctj =
hebr. tt, X 2 = hebr. n, K 3 =
hebr. n = arab., X 4 = hebr.
y = arab.,, X 5 = hebr. $ =
arab. J.
^^Xj (?) dlu (ideogramma vid.
9 num. 81) m. urbs. Plur.
dldni (de scriptione vid. 23).
al sarruti urbs regia. dl tu-
kulti vid. b:n.
U'alli n. pr. m. filii Ahseri, regis
lNj abu (ideogr. 9 num. 24)
m. pater ( 62, 1 extr.). Plur.
abe. bit abesu domus ejus
3Xj IV 1 fugere (3 sing, praet.
1S 4 adi praep. : usque ad, cum
( 81, a); adi kirib usque ad,
adi mahri ad, coram ( 81, b).
IX Adar n. pr. dei (ideogr. 9
num. 60).
; t u (u) copula: et ( 82).
X 1 ellamu ( 65 num. 36)

pars anterior, unde ellamfta
( 80, e) ante me.
Izirtu n. pr. urbis Mannaeorum.
HKj aJju (ideogr. 9 num. 165)
frater. Plur. ahe.
tn^j a//a^?*(102) capere,prehen-
dere (3. m. sing, praet. tyuz).
AJjseri (cf. in^j-'nx) n. pr. m.
regis Mannaeorum.
AJcJcuddu n. pr. urbis terrae
^Xj ilu (ideogr. 9 num. 60) m.
deus, numen. Plur. ildni.
n^Xj ultu ( 81, a); ultu kirib,
ultu Jcirbi ( 81, b) praepp.
ex, de. ultu ulla antiquitus
( 78). ultu rei a primordio.
r&!*4 ell praep. : super, de (victor
de...), contra; ad (vi ad-
jiciendi) ( 81, b).
ullii, in ultu ulld antiquitus.
-|Kx 2 aldku ( 102. 104 extr.)
ire, proficisci (1. sing, praet.
I 2 idem (1. sing, praet.

ab-bul (bu-ul) vid. Vas. ib-bu-u legas ip-pu-u et vid. fc'ss.
ag-ffur legas ak-kur, "92. -- id-du-u vid. rn;. -- u-dan-nin vid.
ja-r. alu vid. VK. ul-bat (mid etc.) legas ul-ziz et vid. TT:.



Ill 1 facere ut quis ad ali-
quem statum perveniat
sive redigatur (1. sing,
praet. usdlik).
mdlaku, st. cstr. mdlak, via,
ElenzaS n. pr. urbis regionis
Bit-Barru (vide id ipsum).
CI^NJ alpu (ideogr. 9 num. 250)
bos. Plur. alpe.
Ellipi (genitivus) n. pr. terrae
prope Mediam sitae.
emedu ( 102) imponere
(c. duplice accus., 139) (1.
sing, praet. emid, c. pron. suff.
emidsu, cf. 51, 1).
x amdtu, st. cstr. amdt, vox,
III 1 parem facere, ad-
aequare (1. sing, praet. uemi).
umma particula orationem di-
rectam introducens ( 78).
ummanu (ideogr. 9 num. 182)
exercitus, plur. ummdndte et
ummdne ( 70, b) copiae.
-HO**! amdru ( 102) videre (3. m.
sing, praet. emur).
iBXg imeru (ideogr. 9 num.
244) asinus (vid. 65 num. 12
et 32, a).
ana praep. : ad, in (c. accus.),

contra, etiam nota dativi (
81, a. 138).
ina praep.: in (c. ablat.), etiam
de eo cujus ope aliquid effi-
citur ( 81, a); ina kirbi, ina
kirib in ( 81, b). ina kibit
jussu (alicujus). ina amdt con-
venienter ei quod quis pro-
nuntiavit. ina libbi illic ( 78).
ptj andku ego ( 55, a).
Ispabdra n. pr. m. regis terrae
bsx aplu (vel mart*, ideogr. 9
num. 139) films, apilridutisu
vid. flYl.
? ep$8u ( 102) facere (1.
sing, praes. eppus).
Ill 1 faciendum curare (1.
sing, praet. usepis).
lu (ideogr. 9 num. 1),
st. cstr. ehil, ager, tractus,
territorium ( 65 num. 1).
erebu ( 102) intrare (1.
sing, praet. erub).
Arba'ihi vid. N 4 ai.
ardu (incertae originis; ideogr.
9 num. 226) servus.
jix arnu peccatum. Plur. arnd
( 67, a, 4).
Erisinni n. pr. m. filii U'alli, filii
Ahseri, regis Mannaeorum.

el-la-mu-u-a vid. V's. al-ur legas al-lik, ~'~x. ul-tu vid.
n^s. am-nu vid n:^. in-da-a-a-ru vid. -iioi. -- in-na-bit
vid. rss. ameiu en-nam vid. 9 num. 116. ak-Icur vid. ^p;
er-ba vid. ^\ arkdnu vid. f-i\ er ku-ti-su legas dl tukul-
ti-u et vid. Vsn.


Arrapha n. pr. urbis et tractus,
graece 'Aj^aTTa^TTi^.
ttJKj iidtu (ideogr. 9 num. 60)
ignis (cf. 62, 2).
assu praep. : causa (81, c).
111^ aSru locus.
Aur (de variis scriptionibus
vid. 9 num. 60. 220) n. pr.
summi del Assja-iorum.
Assilr (ideogr. 9 num. 220)
n. pr. Assyriae.
Istctr (ideogr. 9 num. 60) n.
, pr.Veneris Assyriacae (cf. 65
num. 40, a).
Istatti n. pr. urbis Mannaeorum.
^X 4 3 belu (ideogr. 9 num. 62)
dominus. Plur. bele. be-ili
(sive e-ni) dominus meus (de
valore syllabico Hi qui signo
ni convenit vid. S a col. 1 20).
Bel (ideogr. 9 num. 60) n.
pr. del Beli.
beltu (ideogr. 9 num. 256)
belutu dominium, majestas
(de scriptione cf. 23).
bon III 1 abolere, abrogare (3.
plur. praet. uSabtilu).
ma bitu domus. bit eri vel

edini domus deserti (voci kul-
tdrd, h. e. tentoria, vi deter-
minativi praepositum). De
usu vocis bitu in dldni bit
Sarruti urbes regiae, dldni
bit durdni urbes moenibus
cinctae, dldni bitniirti urbes
bene defensae vid. 124.
Bit- Bar ru n. pr. region is terrae
Bit-Kubatti (cf. m&t Bit-ku-ba-
tim Neb. Grot. I 25) n. pr.
urbis Cossaeorum.
Bit-Kilamzah n. pr. urbis Cos-
aba balatu vivere, st. cstr. balat.
mn birtu (cf. 65 num. 2) arx,
unde nom. abstr. birtutu: dla
ana birtuti asbat urbem, ut
castelli vicem expleret, cepi.
STJa basil ( 108) esse (genit.
Ill 1 facere, creare, efficere,
e. g. seditionem (3. plur.
praet. uabsu).
pPQ batdku abscindere, sejun-
gere (1. sing, praet. abtuk).
b^a gamvnalu (tamquam ideo-
gramma GAM. MAL scrip-

u-sib vid. a-. u-se-bi-la vid. ban. u-se-me(mi) vid. n-s ; -
VrSe-me legas u-se-sib et vid. awi. i-me-e-ma vid. stttc. u-se-
pis vid. 'i'iS. u-se-sa-am-ma vid. s^. u-sa-as-tir vid. ita.
u-te-(es-)se-ra vid. *&. at-ta-bi vid. sas. at-tag-gi$ vid. ;j. -
at-ta(l)-lak vid. -ft*. birtu vid. ma. be-ni legas vel be-ili (vi.i.
!;sa) vel e-ni (cf. enw dominus, 62, l). Bi-si-i legas --'



turn, praecedente determina-
tive* 9 num. 244) camelus.
"IBS ffimrn universitas, totum.
ffimri mdtisu totam ejus
terram (cf. 72, a).
gimirtu idem.
"H3 girru expeditio, e. g. ina
rebe girri'a in quarta expe-
ditione mea (cf. 128, 1).
durn (ideogr. 9 num. 239) m.
murus. Plur. dnrdni. Cildni
bit durdni, vid. n^s.
131 dananu robustum, firmum,
muni tu m esse, potentem esse,
de robore et potestate deorum,
st. cstr. dandn.
II 1 munire, fortificare (1.
sing, praet. udannin).
dannu firmus, undique muni-
tus. Plur. m. dannuti.
dannatu, st. cstr. dannat, arx,
N 4 pT diku ( 108) conciere, con-
gregare (copias). (1. sing.
praet. adki).
ditallu (incertae lectionis atque
derivationis) flamma; adv.
ditallis ( 80, b, a).
^31 (111) III 1 facere ut du-
catur, afferatur (3. sing, praet.

( 111) III 1 educere (1.

sing, praet. c. copula u$e-
samma, cf. 150).
situ exitus, exortus: mdrtu
sit libbisu filia ejus ger-
TTI ( 111) III 1 facere ut quis
descendat, deorsum portare
(1. sing, praet. useridamma,
cf. 23 nota).
"pi arltanu (ideogr. 9 num. 245,
cum vel sine adjecto nu) adv.
postea, posterius ( 80, c).
ailJI asdbu ( 111) sedere, con-
sidere, habitare (3. m. sing,
praet. lisib). Part. fern. st.
cstr. dsibat incolens.
Ill 1 facere ut quis alicubi
considat, assignare sedem
(1. sing, praet. usesib).
musabu ( 65 num. 31, a)
sedes, habitaculum.

N 4 1T zu, (ideogr. 9 num. 54)
IDT zikru (ideogr. 9 num. 94)
virilis, vir (cf. 65 num. 9).
uD3T zinnistu (ideogr. 9 num.
212) muliebris, mulier.
"ipT zakru altus, arduus, acuto
cacumine eminens. Plur. m.
4 1t zeru (ideogr. 9 num. 113),
st. cstr. zer, familia (cf. 65
num. 1).

zir-ta-re legas kul-ta-re.



a^n III 1 devastate (1. sing.
praet. usahrib).
l^n harrdnu via; expeditio.
/rnrsw m. mons. Plur. hur-
sani ( 67, a, 2).

(ideogr. 9 num. 26)
m. dies. Plur. ume (de scrip-
tione vid. 23). um(e) pdni
vid. H5S.
la-su-bi-ffal-la-a-a n. pr. tribus
n*P ( 111) multiplicare, augere
(3. ra. sing, praet. er-ba, etiam
ideographice, 9 num. 67,
scriptum, vid. Sinaherba).
ftttji ( 111) habere. sa riiba la
i-su-u innumerabilis (cf.
Njii); scrip tio i-su-i (Sanh.
I 75) error scribae est.
1NO* ( 111) III 2 dirigere (1.
sing, praet. u$te$era, cf.
113 et 36).
kid-mu-ri (alias ki-di-mu~ri),
fortasse nomen templi: belit
vel sarrat kid-mu-ri cogno-
men deae Istar Nineviticae.
^3 ki, sequente vel non sequente
a, conj.: quemadmodum,
sicuti (vid. 82 et 148, 1).
Tnma praep.: instar (81, c).

kakku (ideogr. 9 num. 31), plur.
kakke m. arma.
Kum(m)aMum urbis terrae
Ellipi. ~'
T2335 kanaSu se subjicere, c. ana
pers. vel rei, cui quis se sub-
mittit (3. m. sing, praet. ik-
1 2 idem, sa Id kitnuSu qui se
non subjecerat ( 89).
N t DD kussu (ideogr. 9 num. 31)
Kar (vel Kdr, vid. 9 num. 180)
in n. pr. Kar-Sinaherba vid.
sub littera p.
d">3 kormu ager; kar-mis (kar-
mes) adv. agri sive agrorum
instar ( 80, b, a).
Kassi n. pr. populi montani
ad septentriones Babyloniae.
mat KaSsi terra Cossaeorum.
^11132 kaSddu expugnare, vincere
(1. sing, praet. aksud\ de
vaviis scriptionibus vid. 9
num. 176 et 23 cum nota).
JdSitti kdti victoria de aliquo
reportata, etiam sensu con-
crete de ipso victo.
kustdru, kultdru ( 51, 3) ten-
torium (cf. 65 num. 40, b).
Plur. kultdre (vid. 70, b).
la in voce la-pa-an vid. H3B.
Nb Id adv.: non ( 80. 143).

kultdru vid. kustdru. li-Sit-ti vid. -rca. kit-nu-su vid. w.



jb letu potentia, victoria (cf.
62, 1. 69 nota).
b libbu (ideogr. 9 num. 259)
cor, centrum, medium, martu
sit libbiu vid. NjXl. ina libbi
illic ( 78).
lu, particula affirmativa:
certo, profecto ( 78).
lamu ( 108) obsidere (1.
sing, praet. al-nte).
limetu circuitus, ditio, terri-
torium urbis ( 65 num. 9).
De a in dldni sihruti sa
limetisunu vid. 123, 1.

ma copula enclitice agglutinata
( 82. 150).
n h v 2 a ( 105) II 1 mittere (1. sing.
praet. uma'ir).
nia mitutu status mortui, mors
( 64 et 65 num. 34).
"ihJQ maJiru pars antica; ac?i
mahri'a (malri phonetice aut
ideographice, 9 num. 86,
scriptum) coram me ( 81,b).
malru, accus. mahra, fern.
malntu, prior.
naa wmnw ( 108) numerare,
aestimare : Sallatis amnu
spolii instar eos tractavi; ina
kat... vnanu in manum ali-
cujus numerare h. e. ei tra-

dere (3. f. sing, praet. tamnu;
de tamnusuma cf. 53, d).
mmu numerus (cf. 65
num. 1); (ana) la minam
innumerabilis ( 143).
Man-na-a-a (cf. 13) n. pr. terrae
Armeniacae C 1 ?'?).
^SO wiisru, st. cstr. wisir, regio
certis finibus circumscripta.
npa III 1 prosternere, inter ficere
(3. m. plur. praet. usamkitu).
mdru vid. aplu films, martu
vel bintu (ideogr. 9 num.
139) filia.
MarubiSti n. pr. urbis terrae
namrau asperitas (de via
laboriosa). Plur. namrase.
II 1 derelinquere, deserere.
missum facere.
I 2 (?) abjicere, conculcan-
dum tradere (3. m. plur.
praes.?: indassaru).
matu f. terra; matsu, mcisu
( 51, 1) terrain ejus. Plur.

KUK, 9 num. 176, scriptum).
DD I 2 nominare (1. sing, praet.
nibu numerus ( 65 num. 4);
urbes parvae sa riiba Id
i-su-u innumerabiles.

le-i-tu(m) vid. rrs,!?. madattu vid. -j-ra. mi-tu-tu vid. r'ts.
nibu vid. sas.



nibittu (?), st. cstr. nibit,

Nabu (ideogr. 9 num. 60) n.
pr. del Assyriorum.
^13 nabdlu destruere (1. sing.
praet. abbul).
!~13.3 nag id regio, provincia ( 65
num. 6); genit. na-gi-e (cf.
66 nota).
tt5M (cf, iggus = iWiAr) I 2 con-
ficere (viam peragrando) (1.
sing, praet. attaggis).
nn: wadifc ( 108) jacere, conjicere
(3. m. plur. praet. iddu}.
p3 madat(t)u (cf. 49, b) tribu-
T73 III 1 statuere, erigere, e. g.
cippnm (1. sing, praet. wfew,
vid. 37 extr. et 51, 3).
Nlnua, Nina (ideogr. 9 num.
237) n. pr. capitis Assyriae.
"H3 mm (ideogr. 9 num. 31)
""O3 II 1 mutare, aXXoiouv (1.
sing, praet. unakkir).
Nusku (ideogr. 9 num. 60) n.
pr. dei Assyriorum.
tL*B3 napistu (ideogr. 9 num. 28)
anima, vita; genit. c. pron.suff.
napistimsu (vid. 74, 1 nota).
1^3 nisirtu custodia, protectio.
aldni bit nisirtl vid. n" 1 !.
"ip3 nakaru destruere, devastare
(1. sing, praet. akkur).

Nergal (ideogr. 9 num. GO) n.
pr. dei Assyriorum.
n^3 naru (ideogr. 9 num. 151)
in. lapis monumentalis, qui
facta inscriptione erigebatur.
nisu, (ideogr. 9 num. G3) po-
pulus, plur. nise homines, in-
fc*l'J3 nasii afferre, e. g. tributum
(3. m. plur. praet. issuni).
Ill 1 portandum curare (1.
sing, praet. usassi).
ptt33 II 1 osculari et pedes quidem,
de eo qui ultro se subjicit (3.
m. sing, praet. unassik(a)).
plO suku (ideogr. 9 num. 105)
platea sive latior sive an-
ID ( 108) si-hu seditio.
sahapu prosternere (1. sing,
praet. asftup).
Sin (Sml ideogr. 9 num. 60)
n. pr. dei Luni.
Sin-atje-er-ba (h. e. Sin fratres
multiplicavit) in n. pr. ur-
bis Kdr - Sinaherba (vid.
sub littera p).
sisti (ideogr. 9 num. 244) equus.
Plur. sise.
"152 pagru, st. cstr. pa gar, cada-
ver (cf. 74, 1, a).
"IS pahdtu vel pihdtu (ideogr.

namrasu vid. -ptt.
Delitzsch, Gramra. Assyriaca.



9 num. 116) praefectus, regis
nbs paldhu metuere, revereri.
Part. m. st. cstr. palih.
nss pdnu, st. cstr. pan, pars
anterior ; eli sa um (vel u-me)
pdni magis quam antehac.
la-pa-an ante ( 81, b).
!T~iS paru (ideogr. 9 num. 244)
bos juvencus. Plur. pare.
ions ( 1 17, 1) IV 1 fugere, f again
capessere (3. m. plur. praet.
ipparsiddu, cf. 53, c).
ptiis supsuku arduus, ascensu
difficilis ac paene inaccessus
(cf. 65 num. 33 extr. et
fc^PS pitu ( 108) aperire, mani-
festare, confiteri (peccata) (3.
m. sing, praet. ipta, cf. 92).

S senu nomen gen. ovium et
caprarum (cf. 65 num. 1).
2^ siru ( 65 n. l)dorsum,
deinde id quod supra est, pars
supera; sirussu (siru etiam
ideographice, 9 num. 240,
scriptum) super eo ( 80, e).
sabdiu capere, sumere, de
via: deligere et ingredi (1.
sing, praet. asbat).
I 2 idem (1. sing, praet. assa-
bat, cf. 48).
:J II 1 imminuere (1. fcing.
praet. usalir).

saliru et sUtru (ideogr. 9
num. 139) parvus ( 65
num. 7 nota). Plur. m.
sihruti. sihir rabu parvos
magnosque (cf. 127).
n^2S II 1 rogare, implorare (3.m.
sing, praet. usalla).
Sisirtu n. pr. urbis terrae Ellipi.
N 4 5p kibti fari, dicere (3. f., 1.
sing, praet., mod. relat. takbu,
akbCi, cf. 92. 147. 148).
kiMtu, st. cstr. kibit, effatum,
jussum ( 65 num. 11).
ttEp kamu ( 108) comburere
(1. sing, praet. akttiu).
jSp kinnu familia.
karu in n. pr. urbis Kar-Sin-
aJie-erba (var. er-ba), proba-
biliter legend um kdru, agger,
deinde oppidum munitum.
n^p kirbu (vid. 19), st, cstr.
kirib, id quod intus est; kirib,
ina kirib, ina kirbi praep.:
in ; ultu kirib, ultu kirbi ex ;
adi kirib usque ad (81, b).
kdtu manus. ina kdt... man ft
vid. nDB. kiSitti kdti vid. n^D.
dXj"! riwiu bos sylvestris, unde
adv. rimdnis bourn ferorum
instar ( 80, b, a).
t3X 3 ^ remu misericordia (65
num. 1 et cf. 29).
pX 3 "i riiku longinquus, plur. fern.



r til Hi loca longinque dissita
(cf.' 32, Y et 70, a, nota).
ttjtfj'i resu, initium ( 65 num. 1);
ultu resi inde ab initio.
K 4 !n arba'u qnattuor ( 75),
unde n. pr. urbis Assyriacae
Arba'ilu Arbela (de ideo-
grammate vid. 9 num. 234
et 60).
rebu quartus (76); IV-elegas
rebe (genit.).
nni rabu (ideogr. 9 num. 169)
> magnus. Plur. m. rabuti.
hYi radii, ridu ( 108) ire, fluere,
ridutu (phonetice vel ideo-
graphice, 9 num. 94,
scriptum) effusio (sc. semi-
nis): apil ridutisu filium
ab ipso genitum.
!YT~<- II 1 addere, c. eli rei cui
aliquid adjicitur (1. sing,
praet. uraddi, c. copula : urad-
dima, 53, d).
35"i raMbu conscendere, e. g.
equum, c. ina jumenti quo
aliquis vehitur (1. sing, praet.
narkdbtu (ideogr. 9 num. 31)
vehiculum, currus (65
num. 3 1, a) ; narJcabat sepe'a
vehiculum pedummeorum,
essedum meum (?).
( 108) III 1 facere ut quis

alicubi domicilium figat (1.
sing, praet. usarme).
Rammdn (ideogr. 9 num.
60) n. pr. dei Assyriorum.
w rapsu (ideogr. 9 num.
247), fern. rapaStu, rapaltu,
latus, amplus ( 65 num. 6).
rait ( 108) capere, spec,
gratiam (clementiam) h. e. ea
commoveri in aliquem (cf. 1.
sing, praet. remu arSisiima).
Sa pron. relat. ( 58. 147); nota
genitivi ( 58. 123).
u-a-tu, plur. satunu, pron. de-
monstr. ( 57, a).
~nUJ sadu (ideogr. 9 num. 176),
genit. Sadi (cf. 23). mons.
-8akti, c. determ. am ^ M,
praefectus militum superior.
tt) sepu (ideogr. 9 num. 261)
pes (de suffixo -ia vid. 74,
1, b).
III 1 scribendum curare
(1. sing, praet. uatir).
ttJ I 2 parare, facere, acquirere
(potestatem), reportare (vic-
toriam de aliquo) (1. sing,
praet., mod.relat., astakkanu).
w altis adv. victoriose.
ttJ Salcilu spoliare, captivum
abducere (1. sing, praet. c.
copula: aslulamma, cf. 150).

ru-su-ku legas sup-su-lu et vid.



8allatu praeda, spolia, unde
adv. Mlatis (vid. nsa).
sulmu pax.
Salamtu, c. determ. amtlu vel
sine determ., cadaver.
ta'ii sumu (ideogr. 9 num. 52)
nomen ( 62, 2).
4 attJ 3ew$ audire (3. m. sing.
praet. z'swi, c. copula: ime-
ma vid. 53, d et 32, 7).
Samas (ideogr. 9 num.
60) n. pr. dei Soils.
ttJ sanu, secundus ( 76); Il-e
legas sane (genit.).
JJ saparu mittere (3. m. sing.
praet. c. copula: iSpuramma,
cf. 150).
apil sipri (ideogr. 9 num.
1 et 74) films missionis (epi-
stolae) h. e. nuntius; apil
sijjri'a sa sulmi nuntium
pacis meum (cf. 123).
: sakummatu ( 65 niim. 23)
cruciatus, miseria.
B sarru (ideogr. 9 num.
238 et 203) m. rex. Plur.
sarrutu (de scriptione vid.
23) regalis dignitas et
dominatio. al Sarr&ti urbs
Sarratu, st.cstT.Sarrat, regina.

tabaku effundere (1. sing,
praet. atbuJc).
lift II 1 vertere, rnutare, reddere,
facere (1. sing, praet. utir),
*|3n tikkatu funis. Plur. tikkati.
Von II 1 confidentem et fortem
facere, fiducia implere, corro-
borare (3. m. sing, praet.
tukultu (ideogr. 9 num. 41)
praesidium, auxilium; al
tukultisu urbs praesidii sui
h. e. qua prae aliis nixus
est. Quomodo ideogramma
9 num. 265, quod cum
ideogrammate num. 41
ejusdem valoris est, enun-
tiandum sit, signo sexus
muliebris ( 9 num. 212)
antecedente, nondum li-
quet; at certum est, inesse
vim copulae carnalis sive
concubitus itemque voca-
buluna assyriacum, quod
eo ideogrammate indica-
tur, in terminationem fern,
abstractivam utu exi-
a tirsi aetate, e. g. ma-
jorum meorum (81, b).


a) monument orum persicorum
(plcrumque Irilingium: persico-susiano-babylonicorura).
'* Garcia de Silva y Figueroa. De rebus Persarum epistola. V. Kal.
an. MDCXIX Spahani exarata ad Marchionem Bedmarii etc.
Antverpiae 1620. Cf. : L'ambassade de Don Garcia de Silva y
Figueroa en Perse... traduite de I'Espagnol par M. de Wicqfort.
Paris 1667.
2 Viaggj di Pietro della Valle il pelegrino. Descritti da lui medesimo
in 54 Lettere familiar! (16141626). 2. impressione. Eoma 1662
(prima prodiit 1650). 4. (Parte II: La Persia). [Exstant trans-
lationes in linguam germanicam (Genff, Joh. Herm. Widerhold,
1674), gallicam, anglicam et batavicam.]
3 Les six voyages de J. B. Tavernier, 2 vols. Paris 1676 1679.
4 Yoyages de Monsieur le Chevalier Chardin, en Perse, et autres
lieux de 1' Orient. Tome III. Amsterdam 1711.
^Engelbertus Kaempferus. Amoenitatum exoticarum politico-physico-
medicarum fasciculi V, quibus continentur variae relationes, obser-
vationes et descriptiones rerum Persicarum et ulterioris Asiae.
Lemgoviae 1712. 912 pp. 4.
^Cornells de Bruin. Reizen over Moskovie, door Persie en Indie:
verrykt ' met 300 kunstplaten.... voor al... van Persepolis.
t'Amsteldam 1714. fol. [Exstant translations in linguam gallicam
(Corneille Le Brun. Voyages etc. Amsterd. 1718) et anglicam.]
iCarsten Niebiihr. Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien und andern um-
liegenden Landern. Bd. II. Kopenhagen 1778. 479 pp. 4.
[Exstant translationes in linguam gallicam et batavicam.]

*) Animadverts compendia: Ac = Academy. Ath = Athenaeum. CR =
Comptes rendus de 1'AcadCmie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres. GGA = Got-
tingische g-elehrte Anzeigen. JA Journal Asiatique. JRAS = Journal of the
Eoyal Asiatic Society. RA = Revue arch^ologique. RC = Revue critique.
TRIA = Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy (Dublin). ZDMG = Zeitschrift
der Deutschen Morgeulaudischeu Gesellschaft.

56* Litteratura.
8 James P. Morier. A Journey through Persia, Armenia and Asia
Minor etc. London 1812. 4.
$Sir William Onseley. Travels in Various Countries of the East;
more particularly Persia, etc. 3 Vols. 4. London 1819 1823.
^Robert Ker Porter. Travels in Georgia, Persia, Ancient Babylonia etc.,
during the years 1817, 1818, 1819 and 1820. Vol. II. London
1822. 4.

et Coste. Voyage en Perse de MM. Eugene Flandin,
Peintre, et Pascal Coste, Architecte, attaches a 1'Ambassade de
France en Perse, pendant les annees 1840 et 1842, entrepris par
Ordre de M. le Ministre des Affaires Etrangeres, d'apres les in-
structions dressees par 1'Institut. 2 vols. : Relation de voyage par
E.Flandin (Paris 1851. 8. fr. 15. 15s. (Triibner)); Atlas de 6 vols.
in folio, contenant 260 planches gravees, 100 planches lithographiees,
et tin texte archeologique. Paris 1843 1854. (Publie a fr. 1460).
12 Persepolis. Die achaemenidischen und sasanidischen Denkmaler
und Inschriften von Persepolis, Istakhr, Pasargadae, Shapur zum
ersten Male photographisch aufgenommen von F. Siolze im An-
schluss an die epigraphisch-archaeologische Expedition in Persien
von F. C. Andreas. Herausgegeben auf Veranlassung des fiinften
international en Orientalisten- Congresses zu Berlin mit einer Be-
sprechung der Inschriften von Th. Noldeke. 150 Lichtdruck-
Tafeln. Berlin 1882. 2 Bande. fol. M. 250.

fc) monwnentorum lialylonicornm et assyriacorum.
Joseph Hager. A Dissertation on the newly discovered Babylonian
Inscriptions. London 1801. XXIII, 62pp. 4. 4 tabulae. 12s. 6 d.
[Germanice edidit Klaproth: Tiber die vor kurzem entdeckten
Babylonischen Inschriften. Weimar 1802. 110pp. 8. 6 tabulae.]
14 A. L. Mill-in. Description d'un monument persepolitain, qui appar-
tient au Museum de la Bibliotheque Nationale: Monuments antiques
inedits. Paris 1802. pp. 58 68. [Monmr.entum de quo agitur
est id quod Caillou de Michaux vocatur.]
^Claudius James RicJi. Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon. Third
Edition. With three plates. London 1818. IV, 67pp. 8. (First
Edition, 1815).
^Idem. Second Memoir on Babylon: containing an Inquiry into the
Correspondence between the Ancient Descriptions of Babylon and
the Remains still Visible on the Site. Suggested b} 7 the "Remarks"
of Major Rennell published in the Archaeologia. London 1818.
58 pp. 8. Cf.:

Litteratura. 57*
17 Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811. Memoir
on the Ruins. Remarks on the Topography of Ancient Babylon
by Major Rennell in Reference to the Memoir. Second Memoir
011 the Ruins in Reference to Major Rennell's Remarks. With
Narrative of a Journey to Persepolis. By the late C. J. Rich.
Edited by his widow. With 26 plates and plans. London 1839.
XLVII, 324 pp. M. 12.
18(7. J. Rich. Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan, and on the
Site of Ancient Niniveh, with Journal of a Voyage down the
Tigris to Bagdad, and an Account of a Visit to Shiraz and
Persepolis. Edited by his widow. London 1836.
J 9P. E. Botta. Letties de M. Botta sur ses decouvertes a Ninive.
A M. /. Mohl a Paris: JA. IV Ser., II, 1843, 6172. 201214.
Ill, 1844, 91 103. (...sur ses decouvertes pres de Ninive)
424435. IV, 1844, 301 314.
soMonument de Ninive. decouvert et decrit par M. P. E. Botta\ me-
sure et dessine par M. E. Flandin. Ouvrage publie par Ordre
du Gouvernement sous les auspices de S. Exc. M. le Ministre de
I'lnterieur, et sous la direction d'une commission de 1'Institut.
5 vols. Paris 18471850. 400 tabulae, fol. (fr. 1800). 45
^iVictor Place. Ninive et 1'Assyrie; avec des essais de restauration
par Felix Thomas. 3 vols: 2 vols. de texte et un atlas de
82 planches. Paris 1866 69. fol. (fr. 850). fr. 500. M. 300
(Joseph Baer) 350.
^Austen Henry Layard. Nineveh and its Remains: with an Account
of a Visit to the Chaldaean Christians of Kurdistan, and the
Yezidis, or Devil- Worshippers; and an Enquiry into the Manners
and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians. 2 Vols. London 1849. (6.,
ultima, editio London 1854). XXX, 399 et 491 pp. 8. M. 22 30.
1 4 s. (Triibner).
Idem. Niniveh und seine Uberreste. Deutsch von N. N. W.
Meissner. Leipzig 1850. Neue Ausgabe, 1854. 8. M. 18.
A Popular Account on the Excavations of Nineveh. Lon-
don 1851.
Idem. Popularer Bericht iiber die Ausgrabungen zu Niniveh.
Neb>t der Beschreibung eines Besuches bei den chaldaischen
Christen in Kurdistan und den Jezidi oder Teufelsanbetern. Ntu.-h
dem grosseren Werke von ihm selbst abgekiirzt. Deutsch von
N. N. W. Meissner. Leipzig 1852. XII, 228 pp. 8. M. 2.50
4.50. 4s. 6 d. (Triibner).
Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, with
Travels in Armenia, Kurdistan, and the Desert: being the Result
of a Second Expedition undertaken for the Trustees of the British

5 8* Litteratura.
Museum. London 1853. 8. With Maps, Plans and Illustr.
M. 1622. 1 1 s.
Idem. Nineveh und Babylon. Nebst Beschreibung seiner Reise
in Armenien, Kurdistan und der "Wiiste. Ubersetzt von J. Th.
ZenJcer. Leipzig 1856. VIII, 526 pp. 8.
25 The Monuments of Nineveh, illustrating Mr. Layard's First Expe-
dition to Assyria, from Drawings made on the Spot. London
1849 (100 plates, fol.); a Second Series of the Monuments of
Nineveh, including Basreliefs from the Palace of Sennacherib
and Bronzes from the Ruins of Nimroud, from Drawings made
on the Spot, during a Second Expedition to Assyria, by Austen
Henry Layard. London 1853 (71 plates, fol.). (21). 10 10s.
(Trubner). M. 250.
WFulgence Fresnel. Lettre a M. Jules Mohl, ecrite de Hillah, en
decembre 1852, sur les antiquites babyloniennes : JA. V Ser., I,
1853, 485548. II, 1853, 578.
M Sir Henry C. Raivlinson. Babylonian Discoveries (of M. Taylor) :
Ath 1854, pp. 341 ff. 465 f. 525. 5561 654.]
23J. E. Taylor. Notes on the Ruins of Muqeyer: JRAS XV, 1855,
260276. Notes on Abu Shahrein and Tel el Lahm: ibid.,
29 /r Henry C. Rawlinson. On the Birs Nimrud, or the Great
Temple of Borsippa (read Jan. 13, 1855): JRAS XVIII, 1861,
134. 6 s.
^William Kennett Loftus. Travels and Researches in Chaldaea and
Susiana; with an Account of Excavations at Warka, the "Erech"
of Nimrod, and Shush, "Shushan the Palace" of Esther, in 1849
1852, under the Orders of Major-General Sir W. F. Williams
of Kars, and also of the Assyrian Excavation Fund in 1853 4.
London 1857. XVI, 436 pp. 8. 12s.
zifdem. Warkah: its Ruins and Remains: Transs. of the Royal Soc.
of Litterature, VI, 1859, 164. 4s. 6 d.
32 Expedition scientifique en Mesopotamie, executee par Ordre du
Gouvernement de 1851 a 1854 par MM. Fulgence Fresnel, Felix
Thomas et Jules Opptrt, publiee sous les auspices de son Excel-
lence M. le ministre de 1'Etat par Jules Oppert. Tome I: Rela-
tion du voyage et resultats de 1' expedition. Paris 1863. Ill,
370 pp. 4. Tome II vid. num. 84. Atlas de 21 planches, fol.
Tome I. II et Atlas fr. 125. 7 10 s. (Trubner).
^George Smith. Assyrian Discoveries: an Account of Explorations
and Discoveries on the Site of Nineveh, during 1873 and 1874.
With Illustrations. London 1875. XVI, 461 pp. 8. M. 1220.
18 s. (Trubner).

Rassam. Excavations and Discoveries in Assyria (read
4. Nov.. 1879): TSBA VII, 1882, 3758. (Etiam seorsum).
Cf. num. 108.
Recent Assyrian and Babylonian Research: being a Paper
read (on February 2"d ? 1880) before the Victoria Institute, or
Philosophical Society of Great Britain. London. Seventh edition.
38 pp. 8.
Recent Discoveries of Ancient Babylonian Cities: TSBA
VIII, 1885, 172197.
. G. Pinches. The Antiquities found by Mr. H. Rassam at
Abu-Habbah (Sippara): TSBA VIII, 1885, 164171.
^Delauney. Les fouilles de M. de Sarzec dans la Mesopotamia :
Journal officiel 1881.
^Leon Heuzey. Les fouilles de Chaldee. Communication d'une lettre
de M. de Sarzec: RA XLII, 1881, novembre. (Seorsum: Paris
, 1882. 18 pp. 8). Cf. ibid. 1881, juillet, p. 56.
^George Perrot. Les fouilles de M. de Sarzec en Chaldee: Revue
des deux Mondes, ler octobre 1882, LIII, 525565.
Vide etiam num. 117.
4 ' W. St. Chad Boscaicen. The Monuments and Inscriptions on the
Rocks at Nahr-el-Kelb: TSBA VII, 1882, 331352.
4-Eberhard Schroder. Die Keilinschriften am Eingange der Quell-
grotte des Sebeneh-Su: Abhh. d. K. Preuss. Acad. d. Wiss. zu
Berlin 1885. (Seorsum: Berlin 1885. 31 pp. 4. Mit 1 Tafel. M. 3).
^Francis Brown. The Wolfe Exploring Expedition to Babylonia:
Presbyterian Review 1886 (Jan.), 155159.
4-The American Expedition to Mesopotamia: Ac 1886 (Nr. 736),
^Joachim Menant. L'expedition Wolfe en Mesopotamia: RA VIII,
1886, 233238.
w William Hayes Ward. Report on the Wolfe Expedition to Baby-
lonia 1884 85. Boston (Archaeological Institute of America) 1886.
33 pp. 8.
On Recent Explorations in Babylonia: Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity Circulars Nr. 49, May 1886.
Ennan. Der Thontafelfund von Tell-Amarna: Sitzungsberr.
der Kgl. Preuss. Ak. d. Wiss. zu Berlin, XXIII, 1888. 7 pp.
. G. Pinches. Assyrian Antiquities. Guide to the Kouyunjik
Gallery. With four Autotype Plates. Printed by Order of the
Trustees. British Museum, London 1883. IV, 199pp. 8. (is. 6 d.,
nunc) 4 d.
5Q Idem. Assyrian Antiquities. Guide to the Nimroud Central Saloon.
Printed by Order of the Trustees. British Museum, London 1886.
XI, 128 pp. 8. 4 d.

60* Litteratura.
a) scripturae cuneatae nwnumentorum persicorum.

Fried-rich Grotefend. Praevia de cuneatis quas vocant in-
scriptionibus persepolitanis legendis et explicandis relatio [praelecta
est 4. Sept. 1802]: GGA 1802, 148187. Of.:
Uber die Erklarung der Keilschriften, und besonders der
Inschriften von Persepolis: Beilage I der 1. Abth. des 1. Bandes
von A. H. L. Heeren. Ideen uber die Politik, den Verkehr und
den Handel der vornehmsten Vblker der alten Welt. 3. Aufl.
Gottingen 1815. S, 564603.
. Burnouf. Memoire sur deux inscriptions cuneiformes trouvees
pres d'Hamadan. Paris 1836. VII, 198 pp. 4. Cum 5 tabulis.
12 s. (Triibner).
** Christian Lassen. Die altpersischen Keil-Inschriften von Persepolis.
Entzifferung des Alphabets und Erklarung des Inhalts. Nebst
geographiscnen Untersuchungen uber die Lage der im Hero-
doteischen Satrapien-Verzeichnisse und in einer Inschrift er-
wahnten altpersischen Volker. Bonn 1836. Mit 2 Inschrift entaff.
8. M. 24.
55 G. F. Grotefend. Neue Beitrage zur Erlauterimg der persepoli-
tanischen Keilschrift nebst einem Anhange iiber die Vollkommen-
heit der ersten Art derselben. Mit 4 Steintafeln. Hannover 1837.
48 pp. 4.
56 Major H. C. Rawlinson. The Persian Cuneiform Inscription at
Behistun decyphered and translated; with a Memoir on Persian
Cuneiform Inscriptions in general, and on that of Behistun in
particular: JEAS X, 1847, LXXI, 349 pp. 8. With 8 folding
Plates. 2 10s. (Triibner'i.
^~ Edward Hincks. On the First and Second Kinds of Persepolitan
Writing (read June 9'h, 1846): TKIA XXI, 1848. Polite Lit.,
5S>.ff. C. Rawlinson. Note on the Persian Inscriptions at Behistun:
JEAS XII, 1850, I-XXI.
^Theodor Benfey. Die persischen Keilinschriften mit Ubersetzung
und Glossar. Leipzig 1847. 97 pp. 8.
GO J". Oppert. Das Lautsj'stem des Altpersischen. Berlin 1847. 56pp.
8. 8s. i Triibner i.
Memoire sur les inscriptions achemenides [etiam: des Ache-
menides], concues dans 1'idiome des anciens Perses: JA. IV Ser.,
XVII, 1851, 255296. 378430.534 591. XVIII, 1851, 5683.
322366. 553584. XIX, 1852, 140215.

Litteratura. 61*
WFriedrich Spiegel. Die altpersischen Keilinschriften. Im Grundtext
mit Ubersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar. 2. vermehrte Auflage.
Leipzig 1881. VIII, 246 pp. 8. M. 9. (pp. 133148: Kurze Ge-
schichte der Entziiferung). (1. Aufl. Leipzig 1862).
63 Inscriptiones Palaeo-Persicae Achaemenidarum, quot hucusque re-
pertae sunt ad apographa viatorum criticasque Chr. Lassenii,
Th. Benfeyi, J. Oppertii nee non Fr. Spiegelii editiones arche-
typorum typis primus edidit et explicavit, commentaries criticos
adjecit glossariumque comparativum Palaeo-Persicum subjunxit
Cajetanus Kossowicz. Petropoli 1872. 8. fr. 40. 3 (Trubner).
G4 Joachim Menant. La stele de Chalouf. Essai de restitution du
texte perse: Becueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a,
1'archeologie egyptiennes et assyriennes IX, livr. 3/4. (Seorsum:
Paris 1887. 27 pp. Cum 1 tabulaX
b) scriptiirae cuneatae wionuvnentorum babylonicorum ct
^Isidore Loeicenstern. Essai de dechiffrement de 1'ecriture assyrienne
pour servir a 1'explication du monument de Khorsabad. Paris
1845. 36 pp. 8. Cum 3 tabulis. fr. 5.
^Idem. Expose des elements constitutifs du systeme de la troisieme
ecriture cuneiforme de Persepolis. Paris et Leipsic 1847. 101 pp.
8. (fr. 10). M. 5. 7 s. 6 d. (Triibner).
^H. A. P. de Lonffperier. Lettre a M. Isidore Loewenstern sur les
inscriptions cuneiformes de I'Assyrie (20. sept. 1847): BA IV. annee,
2. partie (oct. 1847 mars 1848), 501507.
68J57. Hincks. On the three Kinds of Persepolitan Writing, and on the
Babylonian Lapidary Characters (read 30. Nov., and 14. Dec.,
1846): TBIA XXI, 1848. Polite Lit. 233 248. (Seorsum: Dublin
. 1847).
toldem. On the Third Persepolitan Writing, and on the Mode of
expressing Numerals in Cuneatic Characters (read 11. Jan., 1847):
TBIA XXI, 1848. Polite Lit., 249256.
70P. E. Botta. Memoire sur 1'ecriture cuneiforme assyrienne: JA. IV
Ser.,IX, 1847,373391. 465505. X, 1847, 121 148. 207229.
296324. 444472. XI, 1848, 242273. (Seorsum: Paris 1848.
197 pp. 8. fr. 5. M. 3.50).
7!.F. de Saulcy. Becherches sur 1'ecriture cuneiforme du systeme
assyrien [vel:.... cuneiforme assyrienne]. Inscriptions des Ache-
menides. Memoires autographies (14. Sept. et 27. Xov. 1849).
Paris 1849. 44 et 61 pp. 4.

62* Litteratura.
''-Idem. Sur les inscriptions assyriennes de Ninive. (Khorsabad,
Nimroud, Koioundjouk) : RA VI. annee. (Seorsum: Paris 1850.
23 pp. 8. Cum 2 tabulis).
~>%E. Hindis. On the Khorsabad Inscriptions (read 25. June 1849):
TEIAXXII, Part II, 1850. Polite Lit,, 3 72. (Seorsum: Dublin
1850. 72 pp. 4. 12 s.).
7 4Jf. C. Eawlinson. A Commentary on the Cuneiform Inscriptions
of Babylonia and Assyria, including- Headings of the Inscription
on the Nimrud Obelisk, and a Brief Notice of the Ancient Kings
of Nineveh and Babylon. London 1850. 83 pp. 8. Cf.: Notes
on the Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia (read on 19 th Ja-
nuary and 16th February 1850): JRAS XII, 1850, 401483.
2 s. 6 d. (Trubner).
~$Idem. Memoir on the Babylonian and Assyrian Inscriptions: JEAS
XIV, Part I, 1851. CIV, 32 pp. and 16 folding Sheets. 6s.
(Trubner). [Partes hujus commentationis inscriptae sunt: In-
scriptions of Behistun and detached Inscriptions at Nakhsh-i-
Rustam; Indiscriminate List of Babylonian and Assyrian Cha-
racters; (pp. I CIV:) Analysis of the Babylonian Text at Be-
76Q 1. F. Grotefend. Bemerkungen zur Inschrift eines Thongefasses
mit babylonischer Keilschrift. Nebst zwei Stein drucktafeln [con-
tinentes textum originalem ejus inscriptionis Nebucadnezaris quae
Neb. Grot, signatur]. Gottingen 1848. 18 pp. 4. (Aus dem
IV. Bd. der Abhh. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen).
"Idem. Bemerkungen zur Inschrift eines Thongefasses mit ninivi-
tischer Keilschrift. Nebst 3 Steindrucktafeln: Abhh. der Kgl.
Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen, IV, 1850. Cf.: Nachtrage zu den Be-
merkungeii iiber ein niniv. Thongefass, ibid. 1850.
"8JE7. Hincks. On the Assyro-Babylonian Phonetic Characters (read
24. May, 1852): TEIA XXII, Part IV, 1853. Polite Lit., 293
370. (Etiam seorsum: A List of Assyro-Babylonian Characters
with their Phonetic Values. Dublin 1852. 4.).
" 9 6r. F. Groteftnd. Erlauterung der Keilinschriften babylonischer
Backsteine mit einigen anderen Zugaben und einer Steindruck-
tafel. Hannover 1852. 4. Mit 1 Tafel. M. 1.
WIdem. Die Tributvcrzeichnisse des Obelisken aus Nimrud nebst
Vorbemerkungen iiber den verschiedenen Ursprung und Charakter
der persischen und assyrischen Keilschrift und Zugaben iiber die
babylonische Current- und medische Keilschrift. Mit 2 lithogr.
und 3 gedr. Tafeln: Abhh. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen,
V, 1852. 94 pp. 4. M. 2.
81 Jrfem. Erlauterung einer Inschrift des letzten assyrisch-babyloni-
schen Konigs aus Nimrud, mit 3 anderen Zugaben und einer
Steindrucktafel. Hannover 1853.


Erlauterung der babylonischen Keilinschriften aus Bchistun.
Gottingen 1853. 4. Cum 1 tabula. M. 1.
83.F. de Saulcy. Traduction de 1' inscription assyrienne de Behistoun:
JA. V Ser., Ill, 1854, 93160.
84 Jules Oppert. Expedition scientifique en Mesopotamia (vid. num. 32).
Tome II: Dechiffrement des inscriptions cuneiformes. Paris 1859.
II, 366 pp. 4. Compendiose scribimus: E. 3T. II. jfc
ttJoachini. Menant. Les noms propres assyriens. Eecherches sur la
formation des expressions ideographiques. Paris 1861. 64 pp. 8.
31. 4.
8C.E. Hincks. On the Polyphony of the Assyrio-Babylonian Cunei-
form Writing. A Letter to Professor Eenouf. Dublin 1863.
58 pp. 8. (From the Atlantis, Vol. IV).
Cf. ad B, a et b:
H7. Menant. Les ecritures cuneiformes. Expose des travaux qui
ont prepare la lecture et 1'interpretation des inscriptions de la
Perse et de 1' Assyria. 2. edit. 2 parties. Paris 1864. 310pp. 8.
(fr. 30). fr. 15. 15 s.
^Idet.\ Lecons d'epigraphie assyrienne, professees aux cours libres
de la Sorbonne pendant 1'annee 1869. Paris 1873. VIII, 115pp.
8. fr. 6.
89JFV. Spiegel. Geschichte der Entzifferung der Keilschrift: Ausland
1865 (Nr. 18, 6. Mai), 409420.
WWellhausen. Uber den bisherigen Gang und den gegenwartigen
Stand der Keilentzifferung : Ehein. Mus. f. Phil., N. F., XXXI,
1876, 153175.
Cf. ad A et B:
'MFr. Kaulen. Assyricn und Babylonien nach den neuesten Ent-
deckungen. 3. Aufl. Mit Titelbild, 78 in den Text gedruckten
Holzschnitten, 6 Tonbildern, einer Inschrifttafel und zwei Karten.
Freiburg im Breisgau 1885. X, 266pp. 8. M. 6. (pp. 19132).
$-Fritz Ho mm el. Geschichte Bab}-loniens und Assyriens. 3Iit Ab-
bildungen und Karten. Berlin 1885 if. pp. 58134.
93J. Menant. Les langues perdues de la Perse et de 1'Assyrie.
Eouen: Perse, 1885. XI, 172pp. Assyric, 1886. XVI, 340pp. 8.

c) collectiones signorum quibus scriptura utitur.
Smith. The Phonetic Values of the Cuneiform Characters.
London 1871. 23 pp. 8.

64* Litteratura.
95 J. Menant. Le Syllabaire Assyrien. Expose des elements du systems
phonetique de I'ecriture anarienne. (Extr. du tome VII, I Ser.,
ire et 2e partie, des Memoires presentes par divers savants a
1' Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-lettres). Paris: I. partie, 1869.
IV, 455 pp. II. partie, 1873. IV, 462 pp. 4. (fr. 60). M. 25.
de Chossat. Essai d'une classification du syllabaire assyrien:
^Loderne-archaique, Babylonien-Ninivite. Paris 1873. 93 pp.
Idem. Classification des caracteres cuneiformes, babyloniens et
niuivites. Paris [sine anno]. 261 pp. 4.
Repertoire assyrien. Traductior et lecture. Lyon 1879.
VIII, 184 pp. et 204 pp. lithogr. 4. M. 25.
Repertoire sumerien (accadieii). Lyon 1882. VI, 217 pp.
. Schrader. Assyrisches Syllabar fiir den Gebrauch in semen
Vorlesungen zusammengestellt. Mit den Jagdinschriften Asur-
banipals in Anlage. Berlin 1880. 8 pp. 4. M. 1.50.
Vide etiam num. 110. 112. 127 et 143.
10 A. Amiaud et L. Mechineau. Tableau compare des ecritures ba-
bylonienne et assyriemie, archaiques et modernes, avec classe-
mcnt des signes d'apres leur forme archa'ique. Paris 1887. XVI,
148 pp. 8. (fr. 15). fr. 12.75.
iQlRudolph E. Brunnoio. A classified List of all Simple and Com-
pound Cuneiform Ideographs occurring in the Texts hitherto pu-
blished, with their Assyro-Babylonian Equivalents, Phonetic
Values etc. Leyden: Part I. II. 1887. 400 pp. 4.
10 2 w. Houffhton. On the Hieroglyphic or Picture Origin of the
Characters of the Assyrian Syllabary : TSBA VI, 1879, 454483.

Vide num. 75 et 84.
103P. E. Botta. Monument de Ninive (vid. num. 20). Voll. III. IV :
Inscription?. Paris 1849.
1 ^Inscriptions in the Cuneiform Character, from Assyrian Monuments,
discovered by A. H. Layard. London, printed by Harrison and
Son, 1851. 98 plates, fol. M. 20. Compendium: Lay.
lo^The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia. London. 5 Vols.
Vol. I. A Selection from the Historical Inscriptions of Chaldaea,
Assyria, and Babylonia. Prepared for publication by Major-
General Sir H. C. Raivlinson, assisted by Edivin Norris; litho-
graphed b} T R. E. Bowler. 1861. 70 tabulae. [Non jam venale].



Vol. II. A Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria.
Prepared for publication, under the Direction of the Trustees of
the British Museum, by Major-General Sir H. C. Rawlinson,
assisted by Edwin Norris; lithographed by R. E. Bowler, 186e!
70 tabulae. M. 20. Vol. Ill assisted by George Smith 1870.
70 tabulae. Vol. IV. 1875. [Initio anni 1889 denuo edeturj.
Vol. V assisted by Theophilus G. Pinches', lithographed by
J. Jankowsky. 1880 (tabulae 1 35). [Non jam venale.j 1884
(tabulae 36 70). M. 10.60. Compendium: I R, HR etc. [secun-
dum alios: W. A. I.J
106/. Oppert et J. Menant. Les Fastes de Sargon, roi d'Assyrie
(721 a 703 av. J.-Ch.), traduits et publies d'apres le texte assyrien
de la grande inscription des salles du palais de Khorsabad. Paris
1863. fol. (fr. 15). M. 20. 1 10 s. (Triibner). (Extr. du JA.
VI Ser., I, 1863, 526. II, 1863, 475517. Ill, 1864, 562.
168201. 209265. 373415): 0. et M. Grande inscription du
palais de Khorsabad, publiee et commentee. 8. 15 s. (Triibner).
Compendium: Khors.
1Q T Francois Lenormant. Choix de textes cuneiformes inedits ou in-
completement publies jusqu'a ce jour. 3 fasc. Paris 1873 1875.
370 pp. 4. fr. 15. M. 12.
lOST/jeo. G. Pinches. The Bronze Gates discovered by Mr. Rassam
at Balawat (read 5. Nov., 1878): TSBA VII, 1882, 83118.
t09The Bronze Ornaments of the Palace Gates of (vel: from) Balawat.
(Shalmanaser II., B. C. 859825.) Edited, with an Introduction,
by Samuel B-irch, with Descriptions and Translations by Theophilus
G. Pinches. Parts I IV. London 1880 1882. 72 tabulae, fol.
1 10 s. each part. M. 120.
Haupt. Akkadische und sumerische Keilschrifttexte nach
den Originalen im Britischen Museum copirt. 4 Lieferungen.
Leipzig 18811882. 220 pp. 4. M. 36. [Fasciculus quintus
nondum editus est.] (Assyriologische Bibliothek, hrsgn. von Friedr.
Delitzsch und Paul Haupt, Bd. I). Compendium: ASKT.
. Schrader. Die Sargonsstele des Berliner Museums: Abhh. d.
Kgl. Akacl. d. Wiss. zu Berlin 1881. Mit 2 Tafeln. (Seorsum:
Berlin 1882. 36 pp. 4. M. 3).
G. Pinches. Texts in the Babylonian Wedge- Writing, auto-
graphed from the Original Documents. With a List of Characters
and their Meanings. Part I. Texts in the Assyrian Lang'
only, from the Royal Library at Nineveh. London 1882. V, 20 pp.
8. 4s. 6 d. Compendium: Pinches, Texts.
Bezold. Die Achamenideninschriften. Transcription des
babylonischen Textes nebst Ubersetzung, textkritischen An-
merkungen und einem Worter- und Eigennamenverzeichnisse. ^lit
Delitzsch, Gramm. Assyriaca. E

66* Litteratura.
dem Keilschrifttexte der kleineren Achamenideninschriften, auto-
graphirt von Paul Haupt. Leipzig 1882. XVI, 96pp. 4. M. 24.
(Assyriol. Bibl., Bd. II).
H4J". N. Strassmaier. Die altbabylonischen Vertrage aus Warka.
(Mit einer autographischen Beilage) : Verhandlungen des V. inter-
nationalen Orientalisten- Congresses, gehalten zu Berlin im Sept.
1881. Zweiter Theil, I. Halfte. Berlin 1882, 315364, nebst
144 autographirten pp. (Etiam seorsum. M. 4).
115 X>. G. Lyon. Keilschrifttexte Sargon's, Konigs von Assyrien (722
705 v. Chr.). Nach den Originalen neu herausgegeben, um-
schrieben, iibersetzt und erklart. Leipzig 1883. XVI. 93 pp. 4.
M. 24. (Assyriol. Bibl., Bd. V).
nbPaul Haupt. Das babylonische Nimrodepos. Keilschrifttext der
Bruchstiicke der sog. Izdubarlegeiiden mit dem keilinschriftlichen
Sintfluthberichte nach den Originalen im Britischen Museum copirt
und herausgegeben. Abth. I, den Keilschrifttext der ersten
10 Tafeln enth. Leipzig 1884. 78 pp. 4. M. 20. (Assyriol.
Bibl., Bd. Ill, 1). Compendium: Ninir. Ep.
aiErnest de Sarzec. Decouvertes en Chaldee: Ouvrage accompagne
de planches. Public par les soins de Leon Heuzey. Sous les
Auspices du Ministere de 1'Instruction publique et des Beaux-
Arts. Paris: 1. livraison 1884. 2. livr. 1887.
H8J". j\r Strassmaier. Die babylonischen Inschriften im Museum zu
Liverpool nebst anderen aus der Zeit von Nebukadnezzar bis
Darius: tire du Vol. II des Travaux de la 6 e session du Congres
international des Orientalistes a Leide. Leide 1885. 56 -f- 176 pp.
8. M. 18. Compendium: Str. I.
1 ^Collection de Clercq. Catalogue methodique et raisonne. Anti-
quites assyriennes. Cylindres orientaux, cachets, briques, bronzes,
bas-reliefs, etc. publies par M. de Clercq avec la collaboration de
M. J. Menant. 3 livraisons. Paris 1885 ss. fol. fr. 60.
120J. F. X. O' Conor. Cuneiform Text of a recently discovered Cy-
linder of Nebuchadnezzar. With 12 plates of Cuneiform Text.
With Transcription and Translation. Woodstock 1885. 53 pp.
M. 7.50.
I21 J". A. Craig. Throne-Inscription of Salmanassar II.: Hebraica
11 (Nr. 3, April 1886), 140146. Vide num. 191.
H. Pognon. Les inscriptions babyloniennes du Wadi Brissa.
Ouvrage accompagne de 14 planches. (Bibliotheque de 1'Ecole
des hautes etudes, 71. fasc.). Paris 1887. II, 199 pp. 8. (fr. 12).
fr. 9.60. M. 10.
Samuel Alden Smith. Die Keilschrifttexte Asurbanipals, Konigs
von Assyrien (668 626 v. Chr.) nach dem in London copirten
Grundtext mit Transcription, Ubersetzung, Kommentar und voll-
standigem Glossar. Heft II. Neue Bautexte, unverbffentlichte

Litteratura. (57*
Briefe und Depeschen mit Originaltextausgabe u. s. w. L.
1887. IV, 99 pp. 8. Mit 23 Seiten Koilsehriftdruck. M. ] if.
Compendium: Asurb. S. A. Sm. II.
Miscellaneous Assyrian Texts of the British Museum, with
Textual Notes. Leipzig 1887. VII, 16 pp., 28 tabulae. 8. -M. 7.
125 7. N. Strassmaier. Babylonische Texte. Inschriften von I
nidus, Konig von Babylon (558 538 v. Chr.), von den Thontafelu
des britischen Museums copirt und autographirt. Enthaltend :
Inschriften mit 5 Registern. Leipzig 1889. (Heft I. II 1887. Ill
1888. IV 1889). X, 68 + 640 pp. (M. 48). M. 43.20. Com-
pendium: Str. II.
WTheo. (?. Pinches. The Babylonian Chronicle: JRAS. N. S., XIX,
1887, 655681.
12'Friedrich Delitzsch. Assj-rische Lesestiicke nach den Originalen
'theils revidirt, theils zum ersten Male herausgegeben nebst Para-
digmen, Schrifttafel, Textanalyse und kleinem Worterbuch zum
Selbstunterricht wie zum akademischen Gebrauch. 3., durchaus
neu bearbeitete Auflage. Leipzig 1885. XVI, 148 pp. kl. fol.
M. 30. (2. Aufl. 1878. VIII, 107 pp. M. 24). Compendium: AlA
Vide etiamnum. 143. 148. 157.


. Hincks. On the Personal Pronouns of the Assyrian and other
Languages, especially Hebrew (read 26. June, 1854): T El A XXIII,
Part II, 1859. Polite Lit., 310.
On Assyrian Verbs: Journal of Sacred Literature ami
Biblical Eecord. Nr. II, July 1855, 381393. Nr. Ill, Oct.
1855, 141 162. Nr. V, April 1856, 152171. July 1856,
392 403. London 18551856.
130J-. Oppert. Elements de la grammaire assyrienne. Paris 1860.
(Extr. du JA. V Ser., XV, 97130. 338398). Duppe Lisan
Assur. Elements de la grammaire assyrienne. Seconde edition
considerablement augmentee. Paris 1868. XXII, 126 pp. 8.
(fr. 6). fr. 3.35.
13 ij. Olshausen. Pruning des Charakters der in den assyrischen
Keilinschriften enthaltenen semitischen Sprache: Abhh. der
Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin 1864, 475 496. (Seorsum: Berlin
1865. 4. M. 0.80).

68* Litteratura.
132J5. Hincks. Specimen Chapters of an Assyrian Grammar: JBAS.
N. S. II, 1866, 480519. (Seorsum: London 1866. 40pp. 8. Is.).
133J". Menant. Expose des elements de la grammaire assyrienne. Im-
prime par Ordre de S. M. L'empereur a 1'Imprimerie Imperiale.
Paiis 1868. IV, 392 pp. 8. (fr. 15). M. 815. fr. 10 (Welter).
w*Eb. Schrader. Die assyrisch - babyloiiischen Keilinschriften.
Kritische Untersuchung der Grundlagen ihrer Entzifferung:
ZDMG XXVI, 1872, 1392. (Etiam seorsum: Leipzig 1872.
1. (Triibner)). Compendium: ABK.
135^4. H. Sayce. An Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes.
London 1872. XVI, 188 pp. 8. 7 s. 6 d. (Triibner).
An Elementary Grammar; with Full Syllabary and Pro-
gressive Beading Book, of the Assyrian Language in the Cunei-
forme Type. London 1875. VI, 129 pp. 4. 9 s.
Lectures upon the Assyrian Language and Syllabary. Lon-
don 1877. VIII, 157 pp. 4. 9 s. 6 d. (Triibner).
The Tenses of the Assyrian Verb : JBAS. N. S., IX, 1877,
a 2j. Schrader. Uber die Aussprache der Zischlaute im Assyiischen :
Abhh. der Kgl. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berlin, vom 5. Marz 1877.
Cf. ZDMG XXVI, 195f. Jenaer Literaturzeitung 1874, Nr. 15;
B. Stade. Erneute Pruning des zwischen dem Phonikischen und
Hebraischen bestehenden Verwandtschaftsgrades, p. 181 ff. Anm.
in: Morgenlandische Forschungen, Leipzig 1875; F. Philippi.
Das Zahlwort zwei im Semitischen: ZDMG XXXII, 21 ff. (2432).
Zur Frage nach der Aussprache der Zischlaute im Baby-
lonisch-Assyrischen: ZK I, 1884, 1 18. Cf. St. Guyard. Quel-
ques remarques sur la prononciation et la transcription de la
chuintante et de la sifflante en Assyrie: ibid. 27 31.
Homtnel. Zwei Jagdinschriften Asurbanibal's nebst einem
Excurs liber die Zischlaute im Assyrisch en wie im Semitischen
iiberhaupt. Mit einer photolithographischen Abbildung. Leipzig
1879. VIII, 63 pp. 8. (M. 5.60). M. 33.50. Cf. Fr. Philippi
Zeitschr. f. Volkerpsychol. u. Sprachw. XIII, 143165. Paul
Haupt ZDMG XXXIV, 1880, 757763.
Haupt. The Oldest Semitic Verb-Form: JBAS. N. S.,
X, 1878, 244252.
Die sumerischen Familiengesetze in Keilschrift, Tran-
scription und Ubersetzung, nebst ausfuhrlichem Commentar und
zahlreichen Excursen. Eine assyriologische Studie. Leipzig 1879.
VIII, 75 pp. 4. M. 12. Compendium: SFG.
Vide etiam 178.
143 J". Menant. Manuel de la langue assyrienne. I. Le syllabaire.
II. La grammaire. III. Choix de lectures. Imprime par

Autorisation du Gouveraement a PImprimerie Nationale. Paris
1880. V, 383 pp. 8. 18 s. (Triibner).
. G. Pinches. Papers upon Assyrian Grammar: PSBA (Nov. 7,
1882) V, 1883, 2131. (Jan. 8, 1884) VI, 1884, 62-
Haupt. Beitrage zur assyrischen Lautlehre: Nachrichten
v. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. und der Georg-Augusts-Univ. zu Got-
tingen 1883, 25. April, Nr. 4, 85 115.
ibidem. Assyrian Phonology, with Special Reference to Hebrew:
Hebraica I, 1885, 175181.
wfrldem. Watch- ben-Hazael, Prince of the Kedarenes about 650 B. C. :
Hebraica I, 1885, 217231. (Seorsum: Chicago 1885).
u* c ldem. On the Etymology of Mutninu: Hebraica II (Nr. 1, Oct.
1885), 46.
i "/". F. Me Curdy. The Semitic Perfect in Assyrian: Travaux de
la 6 e session du Congres international des Orientalistes a Leide I,
fe07 534. (Seorsum: Leiden 1885. 25 pp. M. 1.50).
Vide etiam num. 122.
14 8). G. Lyon. An Assyrian Manual for the Use of Beginners in
the Study of the Assyrian Language. Chicago 1886. XLV,
138 pp. 8. 21 s.
i9jfc. Mutter. Grammatische Bemerkungen zu den Annalen Asur-
nasirpals: ZA I, 1886, 349379.
is op. Haupt. On the Etymology of nekasim: Hebraica III (Nr. 2,
Jan. 1887), 107110.
i5l ldem. On the Pronunciation of tr in Old Persian : Johns Hopkins
University Circulars, Nr. 58, Aug. 1887.
Uber den Halbvocal u im Assyrischen: ZA II, 259286.
The Assyrian e- Vowel. A Contribution to the Comparative
Phonology of the Assyro-Babylonian Language: Americ. Journ.
of Phil. VIII, 1887, 265291. (Seorsum: ; Baltimore 1887.
29 pp. 8.). [Hac commentatione nituntur quae in 3235
J. Earth. Das Nominalprafix na im Assyrischen: ZA II, 1887,
111 117.
Das semitische Perfect im Assyrischen: ZA II, 375386.
Verschiebung der Liquidae im Assyrischen: ZA III, 5761.
MBrutto Teloni. Crestomazia assira con paradigm! Krammaticali:
Publicazioni della Societa Asiatica Italiana. Vol. I. Eoma-Firenze-
Torino 1887. IV, 144 pp. 8. L. 10. M. 9.
15SJ. Schrader. Zur Aussprache der Zeichen a-a und ia im J'.al.x -
lonisch- Assyrischen : ZA III, 1 16.
159 * George Bertin. Abridged Grammars of the Languages of the
Cuneiform Inscriptions containing I. A Sumero-Akkadian Gram-

70* Litter atura.
mar (pp. 1 26). II. An Assyro-Babylonian Grammar (pp. 27 69).
III. A Vannic Grammar. IV. A Medic Grammar. V. An Old
Persian Grammar. London 1888. VIII, 117 pp. 8. 5 s.

Vide num. 81.
160 J". Oppert. Etudes assyriennes. Inscription de Borsippa, relative
a la restauration de la Tour des langues, par Nebuchodonozor:
JA. V Ser., IX, 1857, 125209. 490548. X, 1857, 168226.
^Comparative Translations, by W. H. Fox Tal&ot, E. Hincks,
Oppert, and Sir Henry 0. Raivlinson, of the Inscription of Tiglath
Pilesar I: JEAS XVIII, 1861, 150219. (Seorsum: Inscription
of Tiglath Pileser I., King of Assyria, B. C. 1150, as translated
by Sir H. Rawlinson, Fox Talbot, Dr. Hincks, and Dr. Oppert.
London. Published by the Royal Asiatic Society. 73 pp. 8. 2 s.).
162 J". Oppert. Les inscriptions assyriennes des Sargonides et les
fastes de Ninive: Versailles 1862. 60 pp. 8. fr. 1.50. (Extr.
des Annales de philosophie chretienne, V Ser., VI, 1862).
Vide etiam num. 32 (tome I).
1C3 /. Menant. Inscriptions de Hammourabi, roi de Babylone (XVI e
siecle avant J.-C.), traduites et publiees avec un commentaire a
1'appui. Paris 1863. 12 tabulae, 80 pp. 8. fr. 10. M. 710.
1C4 7". Oppert. Grande inscription de Khorsabad. Commentaire philo-
logique. Supplement. Paris 1866. 8. 6s. (Triibner)). Cf. num. 106.
1G5 Jdem. Histoire des Empires de Chaldee et d'Assyrie d'apres
les monuments, depuis 1'etablissement definitif des Semites en
Mesopotamie (2000 ans avant J.-C.) jusqu'aux Seleueides (150 ans
avant J.-C). Versailles 1865. 144pp. 8. M. 2.25. 4s. (Triibner).
(Extr. des Annales de philos. chret., V Ser., XI, 1865, 81112.
iSCj". Menant. Inscriptions de revers de plaque du palais de Khor-
sabad, traduites sur le texte assyrien. Paris 1865. 23 pp. fol.
(Texte, transcription et traduction). fr. 10. (Extr. du Journal de
la Societe des Antiquaires, 1865).
1G7 J". Oppert. Les inscriptions commerciales en caracteres cuneiformes.
Paris 1866. 9 pp. 8. fr. 2. (Extr. de la Eevue orientale et
americaine, tome VI, 333341).
Les inscriptions de Dour-Sarkayan. (Khorsabad); provenant
des fouilles de M. Victor Place, dechiffrees et interpreters. Paris
1870. 39 pp. fol. (fr. 30). M. 16.
George Smith. History of Assurbanipal, translated from the Cunei-
form Inscriptions. London 1871. IV, 384pp. 8. M. 60. 2 10 s.
(Triibner). Compendium: Asurb. Sm.

Litteratura, 71*
Vide etiam num. 33 (p. 165 ss.).
170J". Menant. Ann ales des rois d' Assyria traduites et mises en ordre
sur le texte assyrien. Paris 1874. XII, :,!_' pp. 8. fr. 15.
"ildem,. Babylone et la Chaldee. Paris 1875. VJJ, :jn:; pp. 8. fr. 15.
i"2J5i. Schrader. Die Hollenfahrt der Istar. Ein altl.abylonisches
Epos. Nebst Proben assyrischer Lyrik. Text, Ubersetzung,
Commentar und Glossar. Giessen 1874. 153 pp. x. M
31. 2.803.
I"/. Oppert. L'immortalite de 1'ame chez les Chaldeens. Traduc-
tion de la Descente de la deesse Istar (Astarte) aux enfers. Paris
1875. 28 pp. 8. fr. 1.50. (Extr. des Annales de philos. chret.,
VIII, 1874).
r ^J. Oppert et J. Menant. Documents juridiques de 1'Assyrie et de
la Chaldee. Paris 1877. VIII, 366 pp. 8. fr. 20.
n*G. Smith. History of Sennacherib, translated from the Cuneiform
'Inscriptions. Edited by A. H. Sayce. London 1878. IV, 182 pp.
4. Compendium: Sanh. Sni.
nsReinhart Horning. Das sechsseitige Prisma des Sanherib in
Grundtext und Ubersetzung, nebst Beitragen zu seiner Erklarung.
Leipzig 1878. 32 pp. 4. (Diss.).
I~IA. Delattre. Les inscriptions historiques de Ninive et de Babylone.
Aspect general de ces documents, examen raisonne des versions
frangaises et anglaises. Paris 1879. 90 pp. 8. 3 s. (Triibner).
178 JET. Pognon. L'inscription de Bavian. Texte, traduction et com-
mentaire philologique avec trois appendices et un glossaire. Paris
18791880. 221 pp. 8. (Trente-neuvieme et quarante-deuxieme
fascicule de la Bibliotheque de 1'ecole des hautes etudes, publiee
sous les auspices du Ministere de 1'instruction publique. Sciences
philologiques et historiques). (fr. 12). fr. 8.75.
wWilhelm Lotz. Die Inschriften Tiglathpileser's I. in transscribirtem
assyrischem Grundtext mit Ubersetzung und Kommentar. 3Fit
Beigaben von Friedrich Delitzsch. Leipzig 1880. XVI, 224 pp.
M. 20.
mErnest A. Budge. The History of Esarhaddon (Son of Sennacherib),
King of Assyria, B. C. 681 668, translated from the Cuneiform
Inscriptions upon Cylinders and Tablets in the British Museum
Collection, together with Original Texts, a Grammatical Analysis
of each Word, Explanations of the Ideographs by Extracts from
the Bi-lingual Syllabaries, and List of Eponyms, etc. London
1880. XII, 163 pp. 8. 10 s.
Vide etiam num. 108. 109. 111. 113. 115.
18 ij". Halevy. Documents religieux de 1'Assyrie et de la Babyloiiio.
ire partie (seule parue): Texte assyrien (en carat- teres bttv
traduction et commentaire. I re partie contenant le texte complet

72* Litteratura.
et une partie de la traduction et du commentaire. Paris 1882.
144 + 200 pp. 8. M. 8.50.
^Hermann Hilprscht. Freibrief Nebukadnezar's I, Konigs von
Babylonien (c. 1130 v. Chr.), zum ersten Mai veroffentlicht, um-
schrieben und iibersetzt. Leipzig 1883. XVI, 9 pp. 4. (Diss.).
183 l Johannes Flemming. Die grosse Stein platteninschrift Nebukad-
nezars II. in transscribiertem babylonischen Grundtext nebst
Ubersetzung und Commentar. Gottingen 1883. VIII, 61 pp. 8.
(Diss.). Of. J. Oppert GG-A, 1884, 329340.
i$*H. Pognon. Inscription de Merou-nerar ler, roi d'Assyrie: JA.
VIII Ser., II, 1883, 351431. Ill, 1884, 293335.
185 P. Jensen. De Incantamentorum sumerico-assyriorum seriei quae
dicitur ^surbu" tabula sexta (commentatio philologica) : ZK I,
1884, 279322. II, 1885, 1561. (Eevidierter Separatabdruck:
Monachii 1885. 91 pp. 8.).
186 7". Oppert. Le poeme chaldeen du deluge. Traduit de 1'assyrien.
Paris 1885. 13 pp.
ibidem. Inscription d'Antiochus I Soter: Melanges Renier. Recueil
de travaux publies par 1'ecole pratique des hautes etudes en memoire
de son president Leon Renier. Paris 1886, 217232. Cf.
Idem. L'inscription babylonienne d'Antiochus Soter: Revue
d'Assyriologie et d'Archeologie oriectale I, 1885, 102 105.
i^Heinrich Zimmern. Babylonische Busspsalmen, umschrieben, iiber-
setzt und erklart, Leipzig 1885. X, 120pp. 4. M. 30. (Assyriol.
Bibl., Bd. VI).
i89p. Haupt. The Battle of Halule, 691 B. C.: Andover Review
1886 (May), 542547.
19 Off. Winckler. De inscriptione Sargonis regis Assyriae quae vocatur
Annalium. Berolini 1886. 62 pp. 8. (Diss.).
191 James A. Craig. The Monolith Inscription of Salmaneser II.
(860824 B. C.) collated, transcribed, translated and explained,
together with Text, Transcription, Translation and Explanation
of the Throne- Inscription of Salmaneser II. New Haven, Conn.,
1887. 32-f-7 pp. 8. (Diss. Lips.).
^Victor et Eugene Eevillout. Sur le droit de la Chaldee au
XXlIIe siecle et au VI e siecle avant notre ere. Appendice du
livre: Eugene Eevillout. Les obligations en droit egyptien com-
pare aux autres droits de Pantiquite. Paris 1886. pp. 275530.
IM Alfred Jeremias. Die babylonisch-assyrischen Vorstellungen vom
Leben nach dem Tode. Nach den Quellen mit Beriicksichtigung
der alttestamentlichen Parallelen dargestellt. Leipzig 1887. 126 pp.
8. M. 6.
Vid. etiam num. 122.
Francis Harper. Cylinder A of the Esarhaddon Inscrip-
tions, transliterated and translated, with Textual Notes, from the

Litteratura. 73*
Original Copy in the British Museum; together with the hitherto
unpublished Texts of Cylinder C. New Haven 1888. IV,
35 pp. 8. (Diss. Lips.).
G. Pinches. Inscribed Babylonian Tablets in the Poss
of Sir Henry Peek, translated and explained. London 1888.
VIII, 36 pp. 4. 3 s.
(i96Cf.: Eecords of the Past, being English translations of the
rian and Egyptian Monuments. Vol. I. III. V. VII. IX. XI.
London 18731878. (11 vols. fr. 50.)). [Nova editio propediem

197-.F. de Saulcy. Lexique de 1'inscription assyrienne de Behistoun:
JA. V Ser., tome V, 1855, 109197.
Fox Talbot. Contributions toward a Glossary of the Assyrian
Language: JRAS. N. S.: Part. I: Vol. HI, 1868, 164. Part. II :
Vol. IV, 1870, 180.
Edwin Norris. Assj'rian Dictionary, intended to further the Study
of the Cuneiform Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia. London:
Part I. 1868. Part II. 1870. Part III. 1872. 1068 pp. 8.
(44 s.). M. 60. [Opus nonnisi ad NST perductum.]
ffriedr. Delitzsch. Assyrische Studien. ' Heft I. Assyrische
Thiernamen mit vielen Excursen und einem assyrischen und
akkadischen Glossar. Leipzig 1874. VIII, 190 pp. M. 8.
Frangois Lenormant. Etudes sur quelques parties des syllabaires
cuneiformes. Essai de philologie accadienne et assyrienne. Paris
1876. XXIV, 329 pp. 8. (fr. 18.) M. 11.
Etudes cuneiformes. Fasc. I IV. Paris 18781879.
64. 56. 111. 150 pp. 8. (Extr. du JA. VII Ser., XI, 1878, et
XII, 1879). a fr. 2.50. (IV. fasc. 4 s. (Triibner)).
Vide etiam num. 113. 115. 179.
WSStanislas Guyard. (Melanges d' Assyriologie :) Notes de lexico-
graphic assyrienne, suivies d'une etude sur les inscriptions de Van
Paris 1883. II, 144 pp. 8. M. 5.
Nouvelles notes de lexicographic assyrienne (1 19): JA.
VIII Ser., II, 1883, 184198.
Une nouvelle racine assyrienne: baru: JA. VIII Ser., Ill,
1884, 499517.
206.EJ. Schrader. Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament.
Mit einem Beitrage von Paul Haupt. 2. umgearbeitete und
sehr vermehrte Auflage. Nebst chronologischen Beigaben, x\v-i
Glossaren, Eegistern und einer Karte. Giessen 1883. VII.
618 pp. 8. M. 16. Compendium: KAT.

74* Litteratura.
Vide etiam num. 127.
207J". Sdlevy. Notes de lexicographie assyrlenne: ZK I, 75 78.
180184. 262269.
208 J r. N. Strassmaier. Alphabetisches Verzeichniss der assyrischen
und akkadischen Worter der Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western
Asia Vol. II sowie anderer meist unveroffentlichter Inschriften
mit zahlreichen Erganzungen und Verbesserungen, und einem
Wb'rterverzeichniss zu den in den Verhandlungen des VI. Orien-
tal! sten- Congresses zu Leiden veroffentlichten babylonischen In-
schriften. Leipzig 1886. IV, 1144 + IV, 66 pp. 4. M. 150.
(Assyriol. Bibl., Bd. IV). Compendium: Strassm. Appendix
hujus operis etiam seorsum sub titulo:
209 J r. N. Strassmaier. Worterverzeichniss zu den babylonischen In-
schriften im Museum zu Liverpool nebst anderen aus der Zeit
von Nebukadnezar bis Darius, veroffentlicht in den Verhand-
lungen des VI. Orientalisten-Congresses zu Leiden. Leipzig 1886.
IV, 66 pp. 4. M. 8.
tWFriedr. Delitzsch. Prolegomena eines neuen hebraisch-aramaischen
Worterbuchs zum Alten Testament. Leipzig 1886. IX, 218pp. 8.
M. 8. Compendium: Proll.
Vide etiam num. 122. 148.
. Delitzsch. Assyrisches Worterbuch zur gesammten bisher
veroffentlichten Keilschriftliteratur unter Berucksichtigung zahl-
reicher unveroffentlichter Texte. I. und II. Lieferung. Leipzig
18871888. 328 pp. 4. M. 61.50. Compendium: WB.

The Athenaeum.
Journal Asiatique.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
London: I Ser. 18341863 (20 vols.). New Series 18651887
(19 vols.).
Journal of Sacred Literature.
Revue Archeologique ou Eecueil de documents et de memoires relatifs
a 1'etude des monuments, a la numismatique et a la philologie
de Pantiquite et du moyen age, publics par les principaux archeo-
logues francais et etrangers. Paris 1844 ss.
Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Litterature of the United King-
dom. London: I Ser. 18271842 (3 vols. 4.). II Ser. 1843
1874 (10 vols. 8). [Vol. VII, 1863, et VIII, 1866, continent
translationes quas Talbot confecit.]
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft.


Praeter haeccc acta commcmorentur:
212 Recueil de travaux relatifs a la philologie et a 1'archeologie
tiennes et assyriermes, pour servir de bulletin a la mission fran(;aise
du Caire, publie sous la direction de G. Maspero. Vol. I
Paris 18701887. 4.
2 ^Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. V.-l. 1
London 1872 1887. [Continent commentationes virorum ermli-
torum George Smith, Talbot, Sayce, Lenormant, Pinches, Base-
Ernest A. Budge, George Bertin, aliorum.] Compendium: TSHA.
2 ^Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. Vol. I X.
London 18791888. Compendium: PSBA.
215 Assyriologische Bibliothek, herausgegeben von Friedrich Delifzsch
i und Paul Haupt. Bd. I VI. Leipzig 18811885. Vid. num.
110. 113. 116. 208. 115. 188.
216 Melanges d'Archeologie egyptienne et assj'rienne, publies sous la
direction de M. Mariette Bey. Paris 1876 ss.
217a Zeitschrift fiir Keilschriftforschung und ver\vandte Gebiete, unter
Mitwirkung der Herren A. Amiaud und E. Babelon in Paris,
G. Lyon in Cambridge-Mass, und Theo. G. Pinches in London
herausgegeben von Carl Bezold uud Fritz Hommel. Leipzig:
Bd. I. 1884. 365pp. II. 1885 (Zeitschr. fiir Keilschriftforschung
etc., begrundet von Fritz Hommel, etc., herausgegeben von Carl
Bezold). 434 pp. Compendium: ZK.
217b Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie und verwandte Gebiete in Verbindung
mit J. Oppert in Paris, A. H. Sayce in Oxford, Eb. Schrader in
Berlin, und Anderen herausgegeben von Carl Bezold. Bd. I. 1886.
464 pp. II. 1887. 464 pp. III. 1888. Compendium: ZA.
218 J. Oppert et E. Ledrain. Eevue d' Assyriologie et d'Archeologie
orientale. Paris: I. 18841886. II. 1888.
2l9 The Babylonian and Oriental Record: a Monthly Magazine of the
Antiquities of the East. Director: Prof. T. de Lacouperie. Con-
sulting Committee: Theo. G. Pinches, Wm. C. Capper, W. St.
Chad Boscaiven, and Dr. C. de Harlez. Assistant Editor: H. J/.
Mackenzie. London: Vol. I (Nr. 112), 1887. 210pp. 11,1888.
244 pp. (Nr. 110). 4. Single Numbers 1 s. 6 d., Annual Sub-
scription 12 s. 6 d. [Continet multas commentationes quas Pinches
MOFriedr. Delitzsch und P. Haupt. Beitrage zur Assyriologie und
vergleichenden semitischen Sprachwissenschaft. I. Band. Heft 1.
Leipzig 1889.

76* Litteratura.
a) Litteratura ad linguavn quam vacant sumerico-accadicam.
221.A. H. Sayce, On Accadian Grammar: Journal of Philology, 1870.
222Jd cwl. On an Accadian Seal: ibid. Ill, 1871.
223,7. Grivel. Le plus ancien dictionnaire : Bevue de la Suisse catho-
lique 1871 (aout). 17 pp. 8.
224J5V. Lenormant. Lettres assyriologiques. II Ser.: Etudes aeca-
diennes. Tome I. Paris 1873. (1. partie: Introduction gram-
maticale. 207 pp. 2. partie: Restitution des paradigmes.
143 pp. 3. partie: Bepertoire des caracteres avec leurs valeurs
accadiennes. 151 pp.)- 4. fr. 15. Tome II. Paris 1874.
(1. partie: Choix de textes avec traduction interlineaire). 382pp.
4. fr. 20. Tome III. Paris 1879. (1. livraison: Choix de
textes bilingues formaut une chrestomathie accadienne. 2. livr.,
1880: Glossaire assyrien des mots compris dans les textes qui
precedent). 292 pp. 4. [Opus ab auctore non ad finem per-
Vide num. 201. 202.
225 7. Oppert. Etudes sumeriennes. Article II. Sumerien ou rien:
JA, may-juin 1875, 442500. (Seorsum: Paris 1875. 3s. 6 d.
asidem. Sumerien ou Accadien? Paris 1876. 8 pp. 8. fr. 1.
227,4. H. Sayce. Accadian Phonology. London 1877. 20 pp.
228.F. Hommel. Die neueren Besultate der sumerischen Eorschung:
ZDMG- XXXII, 1878, 177186.
Vide num. 142.
229p. Haupt. Uber einen Dialekt der sumerischen Sprache: Nach-
richten v. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss. und der G. A.-Univ. zu Got-
tingen 1880, 3. Nov., Nr. 17, 513541.
Die sumerisch-akkadische Sprache: Verhandlungen des
V. intemationalen Orientalisten- Congresses, gehalten zu Berlin im
Sept, 1881. Zweiter Theil, I. Halfte, 249287. (Seorsum: Berlin
Die akkadische Sprache. Vortrag, gehalten auf dem
V. intemationalen Orientalisten- Congresse zu Berlin. Mit dem
Keilschrifttexte des fiinfspaltigen Vocabulars K. 4225 sowie zweier
Fragmente der babylonischen Sintflutherzahiung und einem An-
hange von O. Donner iiber die Verwandtschaft des Sumerisch-
Akkadischen mit den ural - altaischen Sprachen. Berlin 1883.
XLIV, 48 pp. 8.

The Babylonian Woman's Language": Americ. J>
of Phi]., V, 1, 6884. Cf. Johns Hopkins University Cirr
Vol. Ill, 1884, Nr. 29, p. 51.
. G. Pinches. Observations upon the Languages of the Early
Inhabitants of Mesopotamia: JEAS. N. 8., XVI, 1884, 301 324.
(Etiam seorsum: 24 pp.).
Vide etiam num. 185. 188. 159.
233J.. Amiaud. L'inscription A de Gudea: ZK I, 1884, 233256.
234jrf em. L'inscription H de Groudea: ZA II, 1887, 287298.
235f r. Lenormant. Les principes de comparaison de 1'Accadien et
des langues touraniennes. Paris 1875. Eepouse a une critique.
24 pp. 8. fr. 1.50.
236.F\ Hommel. Die sumero-akkadische Sprache und ihre Verwandt-
schaftsverhaltnisse: ZK I, 1884, 161178. 195221. 323-
, (Seorsum: 1884. 70 pp.). Cf. J. Halevy EC 1885, 4549.
b) Ad quaestionem an revera existat lingua sumerica.
237 Joseph Halevy. Observations critiques sur les pretendus Touraniens de
la Babylonie: JA. VII. Ser., Ill, 1874, 461536. (Etiam seorsum).
238.EJ. Schrader. 1st das Akkadische der Keilinschriften eine Sprache
oder eine Schrift: ZDMG XXIX, 1875, 152.
2392/V. Lenormant. La langue primitive de la Chaldee et les idiomes
touraniens. Etude de philologie et d'histoire, suivie d'un glossaire
accadien. Paris 1875. VII, 455 pp. et 2 planches. 8. fr. 25.
24J. Halevy. La pretendue langue d'Accad est-elle touranienne?
Eeplique a M. Fr. Lenormant. Paris 1875. 31 pp. 8. 2 s.
Eecherches critiques sur 1'origine de la civilisation baby-
lonienne. Paris 1876. 268 pp. 8. fr. 18. (Extr. du JA, annees 1874
et 1876). Cf. Schrader, Jenaer Literaturzeitung 1879 Art.
La nouvelle evolution de 1'accadisme. Paris 1876. 16 pp.
II. partie 1878. 24 pp. 8. fr. 1.
Etude sur les documents philologiques assyriens: Melanges
de critique et d'histoire relatifs aux peuples semitiques, Paris 1883,
Quyard. Bulletin critique de la religion assyro-babylonienne.
La question sumero-aceadienne: Eevue de 1'histoire des religions,
III. annee, tomeV, 252278. (Seorsum: Paris 1882. 26pp. 8).
ibidem. Questions sumero-accadiennes : ZK I, 1884, 96114.
2i6j". Halevy. Les nouvelles inscriptions chaldeennes et la question
de Sumer et d'Accad: Melanges de critique et d'histoire, p. 389
. Schrader. Zur Frage nach dem Ursprung der altbabylonischen
Cultur: Abhh. d. k. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Berh'n 1883.

78* Corrigenda.
(Seorsum: Berlin 1884. 49 pp. 4. M. 3). Cf. J. Halevy
EC 1884, 4148. 6177.
248J". Halevy. Apergu grammatical de 1'allographie assyro-babyloni-
enne: tire du Vol. II des Travaux de la 6e session du Congres
international des Orientalistes a Leide. Leide 1884. 34 pp. 8.
M. 2.
zwidem. Les monuments chaldeens et la question de Sumir et
d'Accad: CR. IV Ser., X, Avril-Juin.
La religion des anciens Babyloniens et son plus recent
historien M. Sayce: Revue de 1'histoire des religions, IX. annee,
XVII, 169218. (Seorsum: Paris 1888. 51 pp.).

Page 41 line 6 from below: the expression 'but rarely' will have
to be modified after what has been said on
p. 302.
P. 84, lines 7 10: the ordinals rebu, sebu, sessu fall more appro-
priately under 34, & (vid. 76).
P. 94, 1. 7 from below: delete teziz (= iteziz). The original has
iteziz; vid. Haupt in Schrader's Keil-
inschriften und das alte Testament (KAT2)
p. 60, note 1.
P. 113, 1. 12, read: sesu (= sedSu, sad(u)su)-, ace. to 75, 76.
P. 117, 1. 7 from below: should 'Iftaal (?) : itappusii? be amended
as laid down in 88 and 101?
P. 122, 1. 5: for 101 read 100 p. 278.
P. 132, 1. 12: for 'equally' read 'by no means'.
P. 171, 1. 8: delete in-di-ru 'threshing-floor'; K. 6 1. 22 has not
in-di-rim but, as my recent inspection of the
original has shown me, in-di pu.
A few other trifling corrections require no special notice.


P. 26, No. 72 : that rik is not so very rare as a syllabic value of
the sign su is shown by Peiser in the Zeitschrift fur
Assyriologie II, 447 f.
P. 29, No. Ill and p. 30, No. 121: with the syllabic values there
indicated compare the remarks made in 117, 1 under III 1
(pres.), IV 1 (inf.), and IV 2 (pret.)
P. 86, 34, j3 : observe also the infinitives pihii, tahu and tehu
mentioned in 110 (p. 305).
Pi 87, 34, : to the "other miscellaneous cases" besides the
infinitives pehu (pihu) etc., just referred to, and the ordinals
rebu etc. to be transferred to this section from p. 84 lines
7 10 we may add adjectives like sihru, limnu (= seJtru,
leninu, v. 65 Nos. 7 and 8, notes), permansives like nekisi
(nikisi), and sebdku (sibdku, v. 97 on p. 268 and 110 on
p. 304); also presents like inerut (= indrut, v. 98 and 101
under II).
P. 88. The form asikin (= a$takan,assakan, assekan-, assikin)
mentioned incidentally on p. 225 might be added with equal
propriety to 34 S and to 35.
P. 91, the following is to be added as d); Syncope of accented
a and e: sitkunu infin. from and alongside of sitdkunu, itkulu
from and alongside of itdkulu ; pitlaU imp. from and along-
side of pitdlah, itrubi (fern.) from iterubi, and others;
V. 88, b. 94.
P. 115, note: with reference to the interchange of m and g ob-
serve the interesting form iSakkanffd (K. 81, 27) = iSak-
kamma ; details will be given in the "Beitrage zur Assyrio-
logie und vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft" Heft I.
P. 256. As contrasted with kussupdkwiu and as supporting band-
tunu the permansive limnetunu, adduced p. 165 on Pinches'
authority, is worthy of notice.

80* Addenda.
P. 275, 1. 8: the u here inferred as the vowel of the present of
Tib has since been confirmed hy isahuruni K. 113, 11
(PSBA X, part 3, plate I).
Attention should here be drawn to the fact that, in accord-
ance with 16, every u in the beginning of a word has been
transcribed simply as u; had the sign for u given as No. 5 in 9
been ever used in the beginning of a word, I would have ex-
pressly said so.
That many more 'addenda' might still be given I am fully
aware: cf., for example, to 43 the interchange of ta (to) with
tab (tcif) in the contract tablets; to 55 b, the forms kasu and
katunu of the second person; to 55, a sutu = su 'he'; to 96
certain pres. and pret. forms occurring in Assyro-Baby Ionian
letters such as i-pa-lu-hu (E M 77, 28) i-sak-ku-nu (K. 183, 19)
lisparuni 'let them send' (R M 77, 19) or UrpiS 'let... extend',
pres. irdpis (K. 479, 33. 35). Finally to 7882 which treat
of the particles might be added a series of adverbs etc., which
have as yet been found only in letters and contracts, such as
me-me-ni 'somehow', the prep, and conj. bi-id and many others,
some of which will be discussed in the first Heft of the "JBeitriige
zur Assyriologie" etc. We must first enquire, however, how much
of all this is suitable for adoption into this grammar, which,
notwithstanding its comparatively large size, ought to be and
is meant to be a Port a linguae Assyriacae.